click links in text for more info

Economy of Guatemala

The economy of Guatemala is a less-developed economy, dependent on traditional crops such as coffee and bananas. Guatemala's GDP per capita is one-third of Brazil's; the 1996 peace accords ended 36 years of civil war and removed a major obstacle to foreign investment. Since Guatemala has pursued important reforms and macroeconomic stabilization. On 1 July 2006, the Central American Free Trade Agreement entered into force between the US and Guatemala and has since spurred increased investment in the export sector; the distribution of income remains unequal, with 12% of the population living below the international poverty line. Guatemala's large expatriate community in the United States, has made it the top remittance recipient in Central America; these inflows are a primary source of foreign income, equivalent to nearly two-thirds of exports. Guatemala's gross domestic product for 1990 was estimated at $19.1 billion, with real growth slowing to 3.3%. Ten years in 2000, it rose from 1 to 4% and by 2010 it had fallen back to 3%, according to the World Bank.

The final peace accord in December 1996 left Guatemala well-positioned for rapid economic growth. Guatemala's economy is dominated by the private sector, which generates about 85% of GDP. Most of its manufacturing is light assembly and food processing, geared to the domestic, U. S. and Central American markets. In 1990 the labor force participation rate for women was 42% increasing by 1% in 2000 to 43% and 51% in 2010. For men, the labor force participation rate in 1990 was about 89%, decreased to 88% in 2000, increased up to 90% in 2010. Self-employment for men is about 50%, while the rate for women is about 32%. Over the past several years and exports of textiles and nontraditional agricultural products such as winter vegetables and cut flowers have boomed, while more traditional exports such as sugar and coffee continue to represent a large share of the export market. Over the past twenty years the percentage of exports of goods and services has fluctuated. In 1990 it was 21% and in 2000, 20%.

It increased again in 2010 to 26%. On the other hand, its level of imports of goods and services has continually increased. In 1990 its imports of goods and services was about 25%. In 2000 it increased by 4% up to 29%, in 2010 it increased up to 36%. Migration is another important avenue in Guatemala. According to Cecilia Menjivar, remittances are "central to the economy." In 2004 remittances to Guatemala from men’s migration to the U. S. accounted for 97%. The United States is the country's largest trading partner, providing 36% of Guatemala's imports and receiving 40% of its exports; the government sector is small and shrinking, with its business activities limited to public utilities—some of which have been privatized—ports and airports and several development-oriented financial institutions. Guatemala was certified to receive export trade benefits under the United States' Caribbean Basin Trade and Partnership Act in October 2000, enjoys access to U. S. Generalized System of Preferences benefits.

Due to concerns over serious worker rights protection issues, Guatemala's benefits under both the CBTPA and GSP are under review. Guatemala is the fourth most unequal country in the ninth in the world. From 1990 until 2018, Guatemala was growing with an annual GDP growth oscillating around 3.5%. Manufacturing, private services, agriculture are the biggest estimated economic sectors in Guatemala; the country's economic structure shows a declining trend in the agricultural sector. Guatemala is the third biggest country in Central America, it has one of the highest disparities between rich and poor as well as one of the highest poverty levels worldwide, with 54% of the population living below the poverty line in 2006 and 54% in 2011. According to the United Nations Development Programme, the Multidimensional Poverty Index, which looks at multiple deprivations in the same household in regard to education and standard of living, found that in 2011, 25.9% of the population experienced multiple deprivations and another 9.8% were vulnerable to such deprivations.

A human development report states that the average percentage of multidimensional poverty in 2011 was 49.1%. In Guatemala in 2010, 31% of the female population was illiterate. In rural Guatemala, 70.5% are poor. Gammage argues that women in poor households engage more in domestic tasks and undertake more household maintenance, social reproduction and care work than men. Benería states that the women perform tough work but do not get paid and argues that there is an opportunity cost related, since the women could be paid for other work instead. Unpaid household work is associated with the number of people in the household, the location, the availability of paid employment; this means that women in rural Guatemala are greater victims of poverty than urban women, most poverty is found in the rural parts of Guatemala, so Gammage found that many rural women perform unpaid work. The labor force participation rate for women in Guatemala was at 41% in 2018. Women have a small pay disadvantage. Gender inequality declines if women have a second and/or third educational degree, they are treated more with their male counterparts.

As in many countries, both men and women earn the most. The percent of women with a steady income increases for women who have completed the secondary level of schooling, but decreases again after university; this means that women


Kutoringates are early rhynchonelliform brachiopods. Their annulated pedicles emerge from the apex of their pedicle valve, but they have a large opening between the valves; the pedicles are much larger than the apical opening. Kutorgina has a concavo-convex shell with the smaller brachial valve dished in and the larger pedicle valve broadly arched; the brachial valve has a rather prominent interarea at the back, curved over by the prominent beak at the back of the pedicle valve. It includes 2013 and K. chengjiangensis Zhang et al.. 2007. K. chengjiangensis preserves soft anatomy - lophophore & gut. Nisusia Walcott, 1905 is known from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. 133 specimens of Kutorginata are known from the Greater Phyllopod bed, where they comprise 0.25% of the community. It's a senior synonym to Orthisina alberta Walcott, 1889. ITS pedicle emerges from between its valves, as displayed by silicified material of N. sulcate, though it still has an opening at the apex of the pedicle valve. Kutorginata Moore and Fischer.

Invertebrate Fossils, ch 6 Brachiopoda. McGraw-Hill 1952. "Nisusia burgessensis". Burgess Shale Fossil Gallery. Virtual Museum of Canada. 2011

1994 in the sport of athletics

This page contains an overview of the year 1994 in athletics. Asian Games Balkan Games Commonwealth Games European Championships European Indoor Championships Jeux de la Francophonie Goodwill Games World Cross Country Championships World Junior Championships Uta Pippig equals the world record in the women's Half Marathon held by South Africa's Elana Meyer since 1991-05-18, clocking 1:07:59 on 1994-03-20 in Kyoto, Japan. September 23 – Antanas Mikėnas, Soviet-Lithuanian racewalker Year Lists 1994 Year Rankings Association of Road Racing Statisticians

Kangaroo Island wine region

Kangaroo Island wine region is a wine region which covers the full extent of Kangaroo Island in South Australia. The wine region is one of five wine regions comprising the Fleurieu zone; the term ‘Kangaroo Island’ was registered as an Australian Geographical Indication under the Wine Australia Corporation Act 1980 on 8 December 2000. As of 2014, the region is reported as containing 12 wineries; as of 2014, the most common plantings within the region within a total planted area of 140 ha was reported as being Shiraz followed by Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. South Australian wine Phylloxera and Grape Industry Board of SA, Australian regional winegrape crush survey online and Grape Industry Board of SA, ISSN 1442-6048, archived from the original on 6 November 2014, retrieved 6 November 2014 Kangaroo Island Wine Region tourism webpage

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance is the application of nuclear magnetic resonance in NMR spectroscopy with respect to hydrogen-1 nuclei within the molecules of a substance, in order to determine the structure of its molecules. In samples where natural hydrogen is used all the hydrogen consists of the isotope 1H. Simple NMR spectra are recorded in solution, solvent protons must not be allowed to interfere. Deuterated solvents for use in NMR are preferred, e.g. deuterated water, D2O, deuterated acetone, 2CO, deuterated methanol, CD3OD, deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide, 2SO, deuterated chloroform, CDCl3. However, a solvent without hydrogen, such as carbon tetrachloride, CCl4 or carbon disulfide, CS2, may be used. Deuterated solvents were supplied with a small amount of tetramethylsilane as an internal standard for calibrating the chemical shifts of each analyte proton. TMS is a tetrahedral molecule, with all protons being chemically equivalent, giving one single signal, used to define a chemical shift = 0 ppm.

It is volatile, making sample recovery easy as well. Modern spectrometers are able to reference spectra based on the residual proton in the solvent. Deuterated solvents are now supplied without TMS. Deuterated solvents permit the use of deuterium frequency-field lock to offset the effect of the natural drift of the NMR's magnetic field B 0. In order to provide deuterium lock, the NMR monitors the deuterium signal resonance frequency from the solvent and makes changes to the B 0 to keep the resonance frequency constant. Additionally, the deuterium signal may be used to define 0 ppm as the resonant frequency of the lock solvent and the difference between the lock solvent and 0 ppm are well known. Proton NMR spectra of most organic compounds are characterized by chemical shifts in the range +14 to -4 ppm and by spin-spin coupling between protons; the integration curve for each proton reflects the abundance of the individual protons. Simple molecules have simple spectra; the spectrum of ethyl chloride consists of a triplet at 1.5 ppm and a quartet at 3.5 ppm in a 3:2 ratio.

The spectrum of benzene consists of a single peak at 7.2 ppm due to the diamagnetic ring current. Together with carbon-13 NMR, proton NMR is a powerful tool for molecular structure characterization. Chemical shift values, symbolized by δ, are not precise, but typical - they are to be therefore regarded as a reference. Deviations are in ± 0.2 ppm range. The exact value of chemical shift depends on molecular structure and the solvent, magnetic field in which the spectrum is being recorded and other neighboring functional groups. Hydrogen nuclei are sensitive to the hybridization of the atom to which the hydrogen atom is attached and to electronic effects. Nuclei tend to be deshielded by groups. Deshielded nuclei resonate at higher δ values. Examples of electron withdrawing substituents are - - OCOR, - OR, - NO2 and halogens; these cause a downfield shift of 2–4 ppm for H atoms on Cα and of less than 1–2 ppm for H atoms on Cβ. Cα is an aliphatic C atom directly bonded to the substituent in question, Cβ is an aliphatic C atom bonded to Cα.

Carbonyl groups, olefinic fragments and aromatic rings contribute sp2 hybridized carbon atoms to an aliphatic chain. This causes a downfield shift of 1–2 ppm at Cα. Note that labile protons have no characteristic chemical shift; however such resonances can be identified by the disappearance of a peak when reacted with D2O, as deuterium will replace a protium atom. This method is called a D2O shake. Acidic protons may be suppressed when a solvent containing acidic deuterium ions is used. An alternate method for identifying protons that are not attached to carbons is the heteronuclear single quantum coherence experiment, which correlates protons and carbons that are one bond away from each other. A hydrogen, not attached to a carbon can be identified because it does not have a crosspeak in the HSQC spectrum; the integrated intensities of NMR signals are, proportional to the ratio of the nuclei within the molecule. Together with chemical shift and coupling constants, the integrated intensities allow structural assignments.

For mixtures, the signal intensities can be used to determine molar ratios. These considerations are valid only when sufficient time is allowed for full relaxation of the affected signals, as determined by their T1 values. A further complication arises from the difficulty of integrating signals of different line shapes. In addition to chemical shift, NMR spectra allow structural assignments by virtue of spin-spin coupling; because nuclei themselves possess a small magnetic field, they influence each other, changing the energy and hence frequency of nearby nuclei as they resonate—this is known as spin-spin coupling. The most important type in basic NMR is scalar coupling; this interaction between two nuclei occurs through chemical bonds, can be seen up to three bonds away, although it can be visible over four to five bonds, though these tend to be weaker. The effect of scalar coupling can be understood by examination of a proton which has a signal at 1 ppm; this proton is in a hypothetical molecule where three bonds away exists another proton (

The Collectors (novel)

The Collectors is a thriller novel written by American author David Baldacci. The book was published by Warner Books on October 17, 2006; this is the second installment to feature the Camel Club, a small group of Washington, D. C. a former CIA trained assassin. On November 5, 2006, the novel debuted at No. 2 on The New York Times Best Seller list and remained on the list for seven weeks. The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives and the curator of the rare books collection of the Library of Congress both are found dead; the Speaker has been killed by a sniper at a party while the head of the rare books collection dies from "unknown circumstances." Oliver Stone and the Camel Club become suspicious, although they indulge what they believe is his overactive imagination. Stone and his cohorts discover that Seagraves had been selling American intelligence secrets to terrorists in the Middle East, compromising intelligence efforts in the region. However, when they are followed and ask the Secret Service for help, the followers disappear, the Camel Club becomes interested in their activities.

Seagraves subsequently tortures Stone for information. Annabelle Conroy is introduced as a con artist, who after pulling off a $40 million heist against an Atlantic City Casino owner is on the run for her life. Bagger wants to kill Annabelle and her con team. Alex Ford from the previous novel reappears, in the climax Seagraves is killed by a knife thrown at his carotid artery by Stone who turns out to be an ex-CIA killer. Alex Ford and his agents take Seagrave's remaining collaborators into custody. One of Annabelle Conroy's collaborators in the heist is tortured for information by the angry casino owner, who finds out the general area in which she is living; the novel ends with a set-up for the third novel of the Camel Club series. Doug Childers of the Richmond Times said that, while the book had a "splendid opening", the rest of the novel "doesn't take the direction readers might expect". Lee Ann Montanaro of The Times of Malta stated that the novel didn't "qualify as a masterly display of the thriller-writing genre" and that they were "expecting more".

A San Antonio Express-News writer, in their title, said that the novel was "predictable and superficial but well-written"