The economy of Guinea is dependent on agriculture and other rural activities. Guinea is richly endowed with minerals, possessing an estimated quarter of the world's proven reserves of bauxite, more than 1.8 billion metric tons of high-grade iron ore, significant diamond and gold deposits, undetermined quantities of uranium. Guinea has considerable potential for growth in the agricultural and fishing sectors. Land and climatic conditions provide opportunities for large-scale irrigated farming and agroindustry. Remittances from Guineans living and working abroad and coffee exports account for the rest of Guinea's foreign exchange. Guinea was part of the franc zone countries. After Independence, these countries did not become economical free. France decided against monetary autonomy hence they could not use a convertible currency; the state intervention of the new governments was characterized by stops of quotas on imports and internal price controls. In the time up to c. 1980, the franc-zone countries had on average a lower inflation and a higher economic growth compared to the Anglophone counterparts, who could use their own currencies.
But regarding the time after c. 1980 and the economic liberalism, characterized by Structural Adjustments, the franc zone countries could not outperform the rest. Since 1985, the Guinean Government has adopted policies to return commercial activity to the private sector, promote investment, reduce the role of the state in the economy, improve the administrative and judicial framework; the government has eliminated restrictions on agricultural enterprise and foreign trade, liquidated many parastatals, increased spending on education, vastly downsized the civil service. The government has made major strides in restructuring the public finances; the IMF and the World Bank are involved in the development of Guinea's economy, as are many bilateral donor nations, including the United States. Guinea's economic reforms have had recent notable success, improving the rate of economic to 5% and reducing the rate of inflation to about 99%, as well as increasing government revenues while restraining official expenditures.
Although Guinea's external debt burden remains high, the country is now current on external debt payments. Current GDP per capita of Guinea shrank by 16% in the 1990s; the government revised the private investment code in 1998 to stimulate economic activity in the spirit of a free enterprise. The code does not discriminate between foreigners and nationals and provides for repatriation of profits. Foreign investments outside Conakry are entitled to favorable conditions. A national investment commission has been formed to review all investment proposals; the United States and Guinea have signed an investment guarantee agreement that offers political risk insurance to American investors through OPIC. Guinea plans to inaugurate an arbitration court system to allow for the quick resolution of commercial disputes. Mean wages were $0.45 per man-hour in 2009. Bauxite mining and alumina production provide about 80% of Guinea's foreign exchange. Several U. S. companies are active in this sector. Diamonds and gold are mined and exported on a large scale, providing additional foreign exchange.
Concession agreements have been signed for future exploitation of Guinea's extensive iron ore deposits. Guinea is richly endowed with minerals, possessing an estimated one-third of the world's proven reserves of bauxite, more than 1.8 billion metric tons of high-grade iron ore, significant diamond and gold deposits, undetermined quantities of uranium. With the increase of alumina demand from the booming economy of China, there is a renew interest in Guinea riches; the consortium Alcan and Alcoa, partner with the Guinean government in the CBG mining in north western Guinea, have announced the feasibility study for the construction of a 1 million TPa alumina smelter. This comes with a similar project from Canadian start-up Global Alumina trying to come with a 2 billion dollar alumina plant in the same region; as of April 2005, the National Assembly of Guinea has not ratified Global's project. Revenue from bauxite mining is expected to fall in 2010 due to the world economic situation. Guinea has considerable potential for growth in the agricultural and fishing sectors.
Land and climatic conditions provide opportunities for large-scale irrigated farming and agroindustry. Possibilities for investment and commercial activities exist in all these areas, but Guinea's poorly developed infrastructure continues to present obstacles to investment projects. Three primary energy sources make up the energy mix in Guinea - biomass and hydropower. With 78%, biomass makes the largest contribution in primary energy consumption in Guinea, it is locally produced. The people of Guinea are among the poorest in West Africa and this reality is reflected in the development of the country's telecommunications environment. Radio is the most important source of information for the public in Guinea, the only one to reach the entire country. There is a single government-owned radio network, a growing number of private radio stations, one government TV station; the fixed telephone system is inadequate, with just 18,000 lines to serve the country's 10.5 million inhabitants in 2012. The mobile cellular system is growing and had an estimated 4.8 million lines in 2012.
Internet usage is low, reaching just 1.5% of the population in 2012. The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1990–2017. GDP: purchasing power parity - $26.5 billion GDP - real growth rate: 6.7% (2017 e
John Baptist Todd, O. F. M. was a Franciscan priest working in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Karachi in Pakistan. He was educated at the University of Bombay, he received his religious training under the Order of Friars Minor and was ordained a priest in 1948. One of his first assignments was as Prefect of Discipline at St Patrick's High School, Karachi in the 1950s. Former President Pervez Musharraf attended St. Patrick's School in 1958–59; when he visited the school after becoming president, he recalled Todd giving him a sound caning for misbehaving. Musharraf subsequently presented a cane to Todd on the visit, he was first vice principal and principal of St Bonaventure's High School, Hyderabad from 1958–77. He was instrumental in starting the school band in 1958. In the early 1960s Todd took a break from St. Bonaventure's to act as the principal of St. Mary’s High School and served as principal of St Francis Grammar School, Quetta. From 2000-06 he was vice principal of St. Patrick's School.
On 6 May 2011, The Old Patricians presented the Father J. B. Todd OFM Gold Medal to the top student from the eighth grade at the closing ceremony of the 150th anniversary of the school. On 18 March 2012, at the age of 91, he attended the Old Patricians' St Patrick's Day Reunion dinner. Among his former students is Bishop Samson Shukardin of Hyderabad. Along with many other former students they gathered at the Karachi Gymkhana to celebrate Todd’s 94th birthday. Todd died in Karachi on 4 December 2017 5 days after his 96th birthday, his funeral was held on December 2017 at St. Patrick's Cathedral in Karachi, it was celebrated by Bishop Samson Shukardin of Hyderabad. Portiuncula Friary
Jos Louis is a plastic-wrapped confection consisting of two chocolate cake rounds with a cream filling within a milk chocolate shell. It resembles a chocolate version of the May West dessert, it was created in 1932, named after two of the Vachon sons and Louis. The Jos. Louis is available in a 30-gram half-moon shape, called the 1/2 Jos. Louis; the Jos. Louis is made in a bar-shaped version called the Jos. Louis bar; the bar contains the normal cream filling found in the Jos. Louis and has a chocolate filling and weighs 53 grams; the ½ Moon cake produced by Vachon Inc. is a Jos. Louis without the chocolaty coating, but has a smaller portion size of 51 grams; the 1/2 Moon is available in either vanilla. A Super Jos. Louis exists in individual format only, with an increase in portion size from 68 to 100 grams, it has two layers of cream filling. In 2006, Entenmann's began distributing a duplicate of the ½ Moon in the US, with "Enten-Mini's Chocolate Half Rounds". Vachon
Turnover number has two different meanings: In enzymology, turnover number is defined as the maximum number of chemical conversions of substrate molecules per second that a single catalytic site will execute for a given enzyme concentration for enzymes with two or more active sites. For enzymes with a single active site, kcat is referred to as the catalytic constant, it can be calculated from the maximum reaction rate V max and catalyst site concentration as follows: k c a t = V max. In other chemical fields, such as organometallic catalysis, turnover number has a different meaning: the number of moles of substrate that a mole of catalyst can convert before becoming inactivated. An ideal catalyst would have an infinite turnover number in this sense, because it wouldn't be consumed, but in actual practice one sees turnover numbers which go from 100 up to 40 million for catalase; the term turnover frequency is used to refer to the turnover per unit time, as in enzymology. For most relevant industrial applications, the turnover frequency is in the range of 10−2 - 102 s−1.
Turnover frequency of catalase is maximum i.e. 4 X 107 s−1. AChE is a serine hydrolase with a reported catalytic constant > 10,000/s. This implies. Carbonic anhydrase is one of the fastest enzymes, its rate is limited by the diffusion rate of its substrates. Typical catalytic constants for the different forms of this enzyme range between 104 and 106 reactions per second. Catalysis
Washington Goode was an African-American sailor, hanged for murder in Boston in May 1849. His case was the subject of considerable attention by those opposed to the death penalty, resulting in over 24,000 signatures on petitions for clemency to Massachusetts governor George N. Briggs, his trial was presided over by Justice Lemuel Shaw who the following year would sentence Professor John White Webster to death for the murder of Harvard Medical School benefactor, George Parkman, another trial that would capture Boston's imagination and blur the lines of distinction between opponents and advocates of capital punishment. Goode's trial was reported in the newspapers, including The Tioga Eagle of June 13, 1849, published in Wellsboro, which carried a brief notice of his hanging: Washington Goode,a colored man, was hung at Boston on Friday, for the murder of Thomas Harding, he made a desperate attempt the night previous to commit suicide by cutting the veins of his arm with glass, swallowing tobacco and tarred rope.
Goode was only 20 years of age, was with General Taylor through all the Florida War. He protested his innocence to the last. Washington Goode was born in 1820 in Pennsylvania, he lived for a time in Pennsylvania. Goode fought for General Zachary Taylor who would become the twelfth president of the United States in the Florida war. There is some discrepancy to the place of Goode's birth. While Goode claimed to have been born in Pennsylvania, his uncle George Myres claimed that Goode was born in Baltimore and was 28 years of age in 1849 which would have made his birth year 1821, his uncle claimed that 15-year-old Washington accompanied him to Boston in 1836 and after settling among the city's small black population, began working as a servant on board ships that sailed from Boston. Myers saw his nephew while he was in port in Boston as Goode preferred to hang out in the North End section of Boston known as the "Black Sea". By 1848, Goode was a seaman who had served as second cook on board the steamer William J. Pease and as a cook aboard the barque Nancoockee.
While in port in Boston, it was known that Goode was friends with Mary Ann Williams who he considered to be his girlfriend although she was married. At the same time, another black seaman, Thomas Harding was friends with Williams and considered her to be his girlfriend. On the night of Wednesday, June 28, 1848, an argument broke out between Thomas Harding and Washington Goode regarding a handkerchief that Harding had given to Williams. Sometime thereafter, Thomas Harding was dead of a blow to the head and a knife wound between the ribs. Goode was promptly arrested for the murder of his fellow seaman. Goode's trial began on January 1, 1849; as it was a capital case, it was tried before the Supreme Judicial Court presided over by Chief Justice Lemuel Shaw, one of the most influential jurists in nineteenth-century America. The evidence used by District Attorney Samuel D. Parker to build his case against Goode was circumstantial. Although no one saw Goode crack Harding's skull or stab him between the ribs, several witnesses at the trial testified that they saw a person fitting Goode's description in the area of the crime.
When he was arrested Goode had in his possession a knife whose blade measured ten or eleven inches. Harding's stab wound was measured at nine inches deep. Goode was defended by two young distinguished attorneys, William Aspinwall, while Edward Fuller Hodges assisted Aspinwall; the two attorneys argued that their client was innocent, denouncing the testimony of the prosecution's witnesses and casting doubt on the circumstantial evidence presented by Samuel Parker. In his closing argument, Hodges began to discuss the inappropriateness of capital punishment in Massachusetts when Parker objected and was told by Chief Justice Shaw that he was out of order to discuss the appropriateness of justice of the death penalty; the jury deliberated for only thirty-five minutes before finding Goode guilty of murder and on January 15, 1849 he was sentenced to death by Chief Justice Shaw. He was to be hanged on May 25, 1849. Goode's case came about in the midst of a national debate over capital punishment and served as a rallying point for Boston's opponents of the death penalty who hoped to save Goode from the gallows.
By most accounts, the community's opposition to the death penalty was widespread. Meetings were held in several Massachusetts cities and towns in support of Washington Goode with a committee being appointed by the Massachusetts Society for the Abolition of Capital Punishment to advocate on his behalf; those volunteering to serve on the committee included his attorneys Aspinwall and Hodges, as well as Wendell Phillips, Walter Channing, Samuel May, Robert Rantoul, Jr. James Freeman Clarke and Frederick Douglass, among other politicians and reformers. One such meeting was chaired by Amasa Walker and took place on Good Friday, April 6, 1849 at the Tremont Temple. Attendees of the meeting were addressed by several prominent figures of the time including Reverend William H. Channing, Wendell Phillips and Reverend James Freeman Clarke; each speaker implored attendees of the meeting to sign a petition to have Goode's death sentence commuted on the grounds that society, by its neglect and injustice, had in fact made Goode into a murderer and was now using him as an example.
While others, given the same sentence had been pardoned, Goode's sentence was still scheduled to be carried out though the evidence presented against him was not clear and conclusive. Committee meetings were held in al
Quatro de Fevereiro International Airport, is the main international airport of Angola. It is located in the southern part of the capital Luanda, situated in the Luanda Province. Quatro de Fevereiro means 4 February, an important national holiday in Angola, marking the start of the armed struggle against the Portuguese colonial regime on 4 February 1961. In 2009, about 1.8 million passengers were counted. The construction of the airport began in 1951, in order to serve the capital of the former-Portuguese Overseas Province of Angola, it was inaugurated in 1954, by the Portuguese President Craveiro Lopes, which in his honor, the airport was named Aeroporto Presidente Craveiro Lopes. In August and October 1975 the airport hosted tens of thousands of white Portuguese Angolans fleeing to Lisbon who camped-out while awaiting evacuation flights. Following Angola's independence from Portugal, the airport was renamed Aeroporto Quatro de Fevereiro Internacional to commemorate the events leading to the independence of the state.
The airport resides at an elevation of 243 feet above mean sea level. It has two asphalt paved runways: 05/23 is 3,716 by 45 metres and 07/25 is 2,600 by 60 metres. Starting no earlier than 2022, the airport will be replaced by the new Angola International Airport. Construction work has started, but its opening was postponed due to financial difficulties on the part of the Angolan government. Notes ^b Flights from Amsterdam to Luanda continue on to Windhoek. However, KLM does not carry local traffic rights between Windhoek. On 26 March 1979, a cargo-configured Interflug Ilyushin Il-18 DM-STL overshot the runway following an engine failure during the take-off run; the aircraft erupted into flames, killing the ten people on board. On 12 February 2000, a Transafrik International cargo Boeing 727 crashed upon landing on runway 23. Due to high winds gusting to between 50 and 80 knots, the aircraft had executed a missed approach, upon the landing flare of the second attempt, witnesses saw the right wing touch the ground.
On 25 May 2003, a Boeing 727–223 with the registration number N844AA, parked at the airport for over a year, was stolen in mysterious circumstances. On 27 June 2009, a British Airways Boeing 777-200ER G-RAES was damaged, while it was parked, by a collision with a Hainan Airlines Airbus A340-600 B-6510. On 31 January 2010, Guicango Yakovlev Yak-40 D2-FES suffered the collapse of all landing gears on landing after a flight from Cabinda. Media related to Quatro de Fevereiro Airport at Wikimedia Commons Current weather for FNLU at NOAA/NWS Accident history for LAD at Aviation Safety Network