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Economy of Guinea-Bissau

The economy of Guinea-Bissau comprises a mixture of state-owned and private companies. Guinea-Bissau is among the world's least developed nations and one of the 10 poorest countries in the world, depends on agriculture and fishing. Cashew crops have increased remarkably in recent years, the country now ranks sixth in cashew production. Guinea-Bissau exports to Asia non-fillet frozen fish and seafood, palm kernels, timber. License fees for fishing in their sea-zone provide the government with some small revenue. Rice is the major staple food. Due to European regulations fish and cashew-nuts exports to Europe are prohibited as well as agriculture products in general. From a European viewpoint, the economic history of the Guinea Coast is associated with slavery. Indeed, one of the alternative names for the region was the Slave Coast; when the Portuguese first sailed down the Atlantic coast of Africa in the 1430s, they were interested in gold. Since Mansa Musa, king of the Mali Empire, made his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1325, with 500 slaves and 100 camels the region had become synonymous with such wealth.

The trade from sub-Saharan Africa was controlled by the Islamic Empire which stretched along Africa's northern coast. Muslim trade routes across the Sahara, which had existed for centuries, involved salt, textiles, fish and slaves; as the Portuguese extended their influence around the coast, Mauritania and Guinea, they created trading posts. Rather than becoming direct competitors to the Muslim merchants, the expanding market opportunities in Europe and the Mediterranean resulted in increased trade across the Sahara. In addition, the Portuguese merchants gained access to the interior via the Sénégal and Gambia rivers which bisected long-standing trans-Saharan routes; the Portuguese brought in copper ware, tools and horses. Trade goods soon included arms and ammunition. In exchange, the Portuguese received gold and ivory. There was a small market for African slaves as domestic workers in Europe, as workers on the sugar plantations of the Mediterranean; the Portuguese found they could make considerable amounts of gold transporting slaves from one trading post to another, along the Atlantic coast of Africa.

Muslim merchants had a high demand for slaves, which were used as porters on the trans-Saharan routes, for sale in the Islamic Empire. The Portuguese found Muslim merchants entrenched along the African coast as far as the Bight of Benin. Before the arrival of the Europeans, the African slave trade, centuries old in Africa, was not yet the major feature of the coastal economy of Guinea; the expansion of trade occurs after the Portuguese reach this region in 1446, bringing great wealth to several local slave trading tribes. The Portuguese used slave labour to colonize and develop the uninhabited Cape Verde islands where they founded settlements and grew cotton and indigo, they traded these goods, in the estuary of the Geba River, for black slaves captured by other black peoples in local African wars and raids. The slaves were sold in Europe and, from the 16th century, in the Americas; the Company of Guinea was a Portuguese governative institution whose task was to deal with the spices and to fix the prices of the goods.

It was called Casa da Guiné, Casa da Guiné e Mina from 1482 to 1483 and Casa da Índia e da Guiné in 1499. The local African rulers in Guinea, who prosper from the slave trade, have no interest in allowing the Europeans any further inland than the fortified coastal settlements where the trading takes place; the Portuguese presence in Guinea was therefore limited to the port of Bissau. As with the other Portuguese territories in mainland Africa, Portugal exercised control over the coastal areas of Portuguese Guinea when first laying claim to the whole region as a colony. For three decades there are continuous campaigns to suppress the local African rulers. By 1915 this process was complete, enabling Portuguese colonial rule to progress in a unruffled state - until the emergence of nationalist movements all over Africa in the 1950s. For a brief period in the 1790s the British attempted to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama, but by the 19th century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in Bissau to regard the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory.

It was therefore natural for Portugal to lay claim to this region, soon to be known as Portuguese Guinea, when the European scramble for Africa began in the 1880s. Britain's interest in the region declined since the end of the British slave trade in 1807. After the abolition of slavery in the Portuguese overseas territories in the 1830s, the slave trade went into serious decline. Portugal's main rival were the French, their colonial neighbours along the coast on both sides - in Senegal and in the region which became French Guinea; the Portuguese presence in Guinea was not disputed by the French. The only point at issue was the precise line of the borders; this was established by agreement between the two colonial powers in two series of negotiations, in 1886 and 1902-5. Until the end of the 19th century, rubber was the main export. In 1951, when the Portuguese government overhauled the entire colonial system, all Portugal's colonies, including Portuguese Guinea, were renamed Overseas Provinces.

New infrastructures were built for education, agriculture, commerce and administration. Cashew, rice, timber and fish were the main economic productions. T

The One Eyed Soldiers

The One Eyed Soldiers is a 1966 UK/Yugoslavian/Italian/US international co-production crime film shot in Yugoslavia, directed and co-written by John Ainsworth under the name of Jean Christophe. The film, shot in Ultrascope starred and was co-produced by Dale Robertson for his United Screen Arts company that released the film in the USA as a double feature with Secret Agent Super Dragon. A United Nations diplomat is murdered by being thrown off a building in a European nation, his dying words are "the one eyed soldiers." The murder and cryptic message lead to the diplomat's daughter and American reporter. A criminal syndicate led by a sadistic dwarf and a Sydney Greenstreet type smuggler and his mute assistant battle each other. In 1965 actor Dale Robertson formed his own production company United Screen Arts. On 27 August of that year it was announced that USA announced a three way production deal between their company Yugoslavia's Avala Film and Switzerland to film The One Eyed Soldiers with Robertson and Rosanna Schiaffino.

The film was budgeted at US$1,700,000 Dale Robertson... Richard Owen Luciana Paluzzi... Gava Berens Guy Deghy... Harold Schmidt / Zavo Andrew Faulds... Colonel Ferrer Mile Avramovic... Antonio Caporelli Mirko Boman... The Mute Bozidar Drnic... Dr. Charles Berens Dragan Nikolić... Officer Dusan Tadic... Bandit Milan Bosiljcic... Waiter The film featured music from several different European films including Before It's Too Late from Agent 077: From the Orient with Fury; the One Eyed Soldiers on IMDb

Ken Heintzelman

Kenneth Alphonse Heintzelman was a professional baseball pitcher. He played all or part of 13 seasons in Major League Baseball for the Pittsburgh Pirates and Philadelphia Phillies. Heintzelman, born in Peruque, was signed by the Boston Braves in 1935, was acquired by the Pirates the following year. Heintzelman lost three full seasons in the prime of his career, serving in the army in WWII. Heintzelman's best season statistically was in 1949 when he finished 9th in voting for the National League MVP for leading the league in shutouts and having a 17–10 win-loss record, 33 games, 15 complete games, 250 innings pitched, 239 hits allowed, 96 runs allowed, 84 earned runs allowed, 19 home runs allowed, 93 walks allowed, 65 strikeouts, 1 hit batsmen, 2 wild pitches, 1,041 batters faced, a 3.02 ERA and a 1.328 WHIP. The following season, he was a member of the Phillies National League pennant winners, started game 3 of the World Series. In 13 seasons Heintzelman had a 77–98 win-loss record, 319 games, 66 complete games, 18 shutouts, 72 games finished, 10 saves, 1,501​2⁄3 innings pitched, 1,540 hits allowed, 746 runs allowed, 656 earned runs allowed, 100 home runs allowed, 630 walks allowed, 564 strikeouts, 14 hit batsmen, 33 wild pitches, 6,497 batters faced, 4 balks, a 3.93 ERA and a 1.445 WHIP.

Heintzelman is the father of former MLB utility infielder Tom Heintzelman. In 2000 Ken died in St. Peters, Missouri, at the age of 84. Template:Faseballstats Ken Heintzelman at Find a Grave

Diaugasma olyra

Diaugasma olyra is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Raphitomidae. The length of the shell attains 11 mm, it can be distinguishged from It can be distinguished from Diaugasma epicharta by its much larger size, say 11 mm. long, a wider aperture, a shorter spire, a pink-tipped apex. It is semi-transparent, the delicate spiral striation across the whorls is represented by the Reeve as sometimes evanescent altogether; this marine species occurs off the Philippines and Taiwan. Reeve, L. A. 1845. Monograph of the genus Pleurotoma. Pls 20-33 in Reeve, L. A.. Conchologia Iconica. London: L. Reeve & Co. Vol. 1. Tucker, J. K.. "Catalog of recent and fossil turrids". Zootaxa. 682: 1–1295

Computational human phantom

Computational human phantoms are models of the human body used in computerized analysis. Since the 1960s, the radiological science community has developed and applied these models for ionizing radiation dosimetry studies; these models have become accurate with respect to the internal structure of the human body. As computing evolved, so did the phantoms. Graduating from phantoms based on simple quadratic equations to voxelized phantoms, which were based on actual medical images of the human body, was a major step; the newest models are based on more advanced mathematics, such as Non-uniform rational B-spline and polygon meshes, which allow for 4-D phantoms where simulations can take place not only 3-dimensional space but in time as well. Phantoms have been developed for a wide variety of humans, from children to adolescents to adults and female, as well as pregnant women. With such a variety of phantoms, many kinds of simulations can be run, from dose received from medical imaging procedures to nuclear medicine.

Over the years, the results of these simulations have created an assortment of standards that have been adopted in the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations. The first generation computational phantoms were developed to address the need to better assess organ doses from internally deposited radioactive materials in workers and patients; until the late 1950s, the ICRP still used simple models. In these calculations, each organ of the body was assumed to be represented as a sphere with an "effective radius"; the radionuclide of interest was assumed to be located at the center of the sphere and the "effective absorbed energy" was calculated for each organ. Phantoms such as the Shepp-Logan Phantom were used as models of a human head in the development and testing of image reconstruction algorithms. However, scientists attempted to model individual organs of the body and the entire human body in a realistic manner, the efforts of which led to stylized anthropomorphic phantoms that resemble the human anatomy.

In general, stylized computational phantom is a mathematical representation of the human body which, when coupled with a Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code, can be used to track the radiation interactions and energy deposition in the body. The feature of stylized computational phantom is finely tuned by adjusting individual parameters of the mathematical equations, which describes the volume and shape of individual organs. Stylized computational phantom has a long history of development through the 1960s to 1980s; the MIRD phantom was developed by Fisher and Snyder at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 1960s with 22 internal organs and more than 100 sub-regions. It is the first anthropomorphic phantom representing a hermaphrodite adult for internal dosimetry. Based on MIRD phantom, many derivations of phantoms were developed for the following decades; the major types of phantom include: stylized "Family" phantom series developed in the 1980s by Cristy and Eckerman. Although many efforts were undertaken to diversify and extend its applications in radiation protection, radiation therapy, medical imaging, one cannot overcome its inborn limitation.

The representation of internal organs in this mathematical phantom was crude, by capturing only the most general description of the position and geometry of each organ. With the powerful computer and tomographic imaging technologies became available in the late 1980s, the history launched a new era of voxel phantoms; the stylized phantoms provided only basic information with a large degree of error. More accurate methods of simulating a human body were necessary to advance. To allow further research, the computer technology had to become more powerful and more available; this did not occur until the 1980s. The real breakthrough occurred when computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging devices could generate accurate images of internal organs in three dimensions and in digital format. Researchers discovered that they could take that diagnostic data and transform it into a voxel format re-creating the human body in digital form in 3D. Today there are for many different uses. Two major issues with development of the reference phantoms are difficulty in obtaining useful images and handling the large amount of data created from these images.

CT scans give the human body a large dose of ionizing radiation – something the computational phantom was designed to circumvent in the first place. MRI images take a long time to process. Furthermore, most scans of a single subject cover only a small portion of the body, whereas a full scan series is needed for useful data. Handling this data is difficult. While the newer computers had hard drives large enough to store the data, the memory requirements for processing the images to the desired voxel size were too steep. While there have been many voxel phantoms developed, they have all followed a similar path to completion. First, they must obtain the raw data, from CT scans, MRI imaging, or direct imaging through photography. Second, the components of the body must be identified and separated from the rest. Third, the density of each component must be identified, along with the composition of each. Lastly, the data must be unified into a single 3D structure; the earliest work on voxelized phantoms occurred independently at about the same time by Dr. Gibbs, of Vanderbilt University, Dr. Zankl at the National Research Center for Environment and


WTTA, virtual channel 38, is a MyNetworkTV-affiliated television station licensed to St. Petersburg, United States and serving Tampa; the station is owned by Nexstar Media Group, as a part of a duopoly with Tampa-licensed NBC affiliate WFLA-TV. The two stations share studios on South Parker Street in downtown Tampa along the Hillsborough River, transmitter facilities in Riverview, Florida. There is no separate website for WTTA. On cable, WTTA is available on Charter Spectrum and Wide Open West channel 6, on Comcast Xfinity channel 11 in Sarasota County and channel 29 in Hardee County; the UHF channel 38 allotment in the Tampa–St. Petersburg market had been home to the area's first television station, WSUN-TV, which operated from 1953 to 1970; the station, along with WSUN-AM was licensed to the City of St. Petersburg; the transmitter was collocated in the WSUN-AM 620 kHz transmitter building on the north side of the Gandy causeway at the west end of the Gandy bridge. The transmitting antenna was mounted on top of the north tower of WSUN-AM, modified to hold it without exceeding the original 502-foot AGL height.

The north tower was and remains adjacent to the transmitter building used as a daytime 620 kHz non-directional radiator while the south tower, on the south side of the Gandy causeway was used only at night as a directional array. The transmitter building still contains a ladder which descends into a bomb shelter below the bay water as 620 was the original CONELRAD station for the area; the original towers, each located on pilings in Tampa Bay deteriorated with the salt water and sea bird roosting residues and were replaced with new shorter towers on the original pilings in the early 2000s, eliminating the final traces of channel 38 at the 620 kHz transmitting plant. The station had served as the area's original ABC affiliate until WLCY signed on in 1965 resulting in WSUN becoming an independent station until it went dark in 1970. WTTA will air NBC programming at times its sister station WFLA-TV is unable to; such was the case during Hurricane Irma in 2017, when WTTA carried the Sunday Night Football Week 1 contest between the New York Giants and Dallas Cowboys while WFLA-TV had hurricane coverage.

In 1979, four applicants filed with the FCC for channel 38. The winner, decided in 1985, was Bay Television, an entity affiliated with the Baltimore-based Sinclair Broadcast Group, it took years to get the station on the air. In 1987, Sinclair president Bob Simmons was quoted as saying the station would be on the air in late 1988. WTTA affiliated in September 1990 with the Star Television Network, which offered a mix of older programming and infomercials; that month, there was an ad for "TV Heaven 38" in the Tampa/Sarasota edition of TV Guide. Before going on air, Bay Television rebuffed an offer from Telemundo to buy the construction permit. On June 21, 1991, WTTA signed on the air as an independent station consisting of syndicated programs passed over by the market's other stations, barter programming, network shows not cleared by WFLA-TV, WTSP and WTVT and infomercials. Due to its low budget, weekend programming tended to consist of infomercials. WTTA presented a televised simulcast of the WRBQ-FM weekday morning radio show, the Q Morning Zoo, until that station changed formats to country music in the early 1990s.

On December 12, 1994, Fox programming moved from WFTS-TV to WTVT as part of a group deal with its then-owners, New World Communications. At the same time, the E. W. Scripps Company cut an affiliation deal with ABC, which resulted in WFTS selling most of its syndicated shows to WTTA. Meanwhile, CBS would move from WTVT to WTSP. Upon the changeover, WTVT chose not to carry the network's children's program block, Fox Kids, picked up by WTTA instead. Channel 38 picked up some syndicated programs that WFTS had no room for on its schedule due to ABC's network-heavy schedule, giving WTTA a stronger programming inventory. Fox Kids moved to rival WMOR-TV, which carried the successor 4KidsTV block on Sunday mornings until it was discontinued by Fox on December 28, 2008. At one time WTTA was a local broadcast partner of the Tampa Bay Lightning hockey club, they last aired a series of nine Lightning games during the 1999–2000 season. In September 1999, WTTA became Tampa Bay's affiliate of The WB, two years after the network entered into a group deal with Sinclair to affiliate the company's independent stations and UPN affiliates with The WB.

The station began using the on-air brand "WB 38", ran cartoons from Kids' WB during the week until January 2006, when the network discontinued its weekday kids block. As a result, Kids' WB programming on WTTA had been relegated to Saturday mornings as of 2006. In 1999, WTTA's operations were taken over by Sinclair after the company entered into a local marketing agreement with Bay Television, which over time had grown become one of the nation's largest television station owners. However, Bay Television was a subsidiary of Sinclair. Bay Television could be considered a shell corporation used for the