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Economy of Honduras

The economy of Honduras is based on agriculture, which accounts for 14% of its gross domestic product in 2013. Leading export coffee accounted for 22% of total Honduran export revenues. Bananas the country's second-largest export until being wiped out by 1998's Hurricane Mitch, recovered in 2000 to 57% of pre-Mitch levels. Cultivated shrimp is another important export sector. Since the late 1970s, towns in the north began industrial production through maquiladoras in San Pedro Sula and Puerto Cortés. Honduras has extensive forests and mineral resources, although widespread slash and burn agricultural methods continue to destroy Honduran forests; the Honduran economy grew 4.8% in 2000, recovering from the Mitch-induced recession of 1999. The Honduran maquiladora sector, the third-largest in the world, continued its strong performance in 2000, providing employment to over 120,000 and generating more than $528 million in foreign exchange for the country. Inflation, as measured by the consumer price index, was 10.1% in 2000, down from the 10.9% recorded in 1999.

The country's international reserve position continued to be strong in 2000, at over US$1 billion. Remittances from Hondurans living abroad rose 28% to $410 million in 2000; the Lempira was devaluing for many years but stabilized at L19 to the US dollar in 2005. The Honduran people are among the poorest in Latin America. Honduras is the fourth poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. Using alternative statistical measurements in addition to the gross domestic product can provide greater context for the nation's poverty; the country signed an Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility – converted to a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the International Monetary Fund in March 1999. Honduras continues to maintain stable macroeconomic policies, it not been swift to implementing structural changes such as privatization of the publicly owned telephone and energy distribution companies—changes which are desired by the IMF and other international lenders. Honduras received significant debt relief in the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch, including the suspension bilateral debt service payments and bilateral debt reduction by the Paris Club—including the US – worth over $400 million.

In July 2000, Honduras reached its decision point under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative, qualifying the country for interim multilateral debt relief. Land appears to be plentiful and exploitable, but the presence of extensive land is misleading because the nation's rugged, mountainous terrain restricts large-scale agricultural production to narrow strips on the coasts and to a few fertile valleys. Honduras's manufacturing sector has not yet developed beyond simple textile and agricultural processing industries and assembly operations; the small domestic market and competition from more industrially advanced countries in the region have inhibited more complex industrialization. After Honduras achieved independence from Spain in the early 19th century, its economic growth became related to its ability to develop attractive export products. During much of the 19th century, the Honduran economy languished. In the latter part of the century, economic activity quickened with the development of large-scale, precious metal mining.

The most important mines were in the mountains near the capital of Tegucigalpa and were owned by the New York and Honduras Rosario Mining Company. Silver was the principal metal extracted, accounting for about 55% of exports in the 1880s. Mining income stimulated commercial and ancillary enterprises, built infrastructure, reduced monetary restraints on trade. There were few other beneficial economic effects, because the mining industry was never well integrated into the rest of the Honduran economy; the foreign mining companies employed a small work force, provided little or no government revenue, relied on imported mining equipment. Honduras's international economic activity surged in the early 20th century. Between 1913 and 1929, its agricultural exports rose from $3 million to $25 million; these "golden" exports were supported by more than $40 million of specialized banana company investment in the Honduran infrastructure and were safeguarded by US pressure on the national government when the companies felt threatened.

The overall performance of the Honduran economy remained tied to banana prices and production from the 1920s until after the mid-century because other forms of commercial export agriculture were slow to emerge. In addition, until drastically reduced in the mid-1950s, the workforce associated with banana cultivation represented a significant proportion of the wage earners in the country. Just before the banana industry's largest strike in 1954 35,000 workers held jobs on the banana plantations of the United Fruit Company or the Standard Fruit Company. After 1950 Honduran governments encouraged agricultural modernization and export diversification by spending on transportation and communications infrastructure, agricultural credit, technical assistance. During the 1950s—as a result of these improvements and the strong international export prices—beef and coffee became significant export products for the first time. Honduran sugar, t

Monroe Township, Benton County, Iowa

Monroe Township is one of twenty townships in Benton County, Iowa, USA. As of the 2000 census, its population was 259. Monroe Township was founded in 1851. According to the United States Census Bureau, Monroe Township covers an area of 36.31 square miles. Bruce Township Cedar Township Jackson Township Big Grove Township Homer Township Oneida Township, Tama County Clark Township, Tama County Geneseo Township, Tama County The township contains these four cemeteries: Gnagy, Saint Joseph and Urmy. U. S. Route 218 Iowa Highway 8 Union Community School District Vinton-Shellsburg Community School District Iowa's 3rd congressional district State House District 39 State Senate District 20 United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas US-Counties.com City-Data.com

Eleazar ben Simon

For the fifth generation Mishnah Tanna sage with a similar name, see Eleazar b. Simeon. For other people named Eleazar see: Eleazar Eleazar ben Simon was a Zealot leader during the First Jewish-Roman War who fought against the armies of Cestius Gallus and Titus Flavius. From the onset of the war in 66 CE until the destruction of the temple in 70 CE, he fought vehemently against the Roman garrisons in Judea and against his fellow Jewish political opponents in order to establish an independent Jewish state at Jerusalem. Although the Jewish defeat at Jerusalem cannot be attributed to Eleazar ben Simon, his inability to establish unity with John of Gischala and Simon bar Giora resulted in a bitter civil war that weakened the Jewish resistance against Rome. Eleazar ben Simon and his Zealots' radical anti-Roman policies and eradication of the moderate temple aristocracy from Jerusalem in 67 CE prevented any peaceful agreement with Rome to avoid the death and destruction which ensued in 70 CE. Despite the common misconception, Eleazar ben Simon the Zealot is not the same person as Eleazar ben Ya'ir, the Sicarii leader at Masada.

In Josephus' Bellum Judaicum, the primary source of the First Jewish-Roman War, important historical figures are introduced with their patrimonial name when they first appear, addressed by first name in all following appearances. Since an "Eleazar, son of Simon" and an "Eleasar, son of Ya'ir" are introduced separately with their patrimonial name, Josephus intends to distinguish the two leaders as separate persons. Historical evidence of Eleazar arises in 66 CE, when he participated in crushing Cestius Gallus' Legio XII Fulminata at Beit-Horon, yet prior to this encounter, little is known about his early rise to power. It can be inferred, from the geopolitical scene of ancient Israel in the first century CE. that he grew up in Galilee, the center of Zealotry. Zealots were shunned by the High Priesthood in Jerusalem prior to the revolt; this disunity with other sects of Judaism confined Zealotry to its birthplace in Galilee. Yet when the revolt broke out in 66 CE, the Galilean zealots fled the Roman massacres and sought refuge in the last major Jewish stronghold: Jerusalem.

Since Eleazar was placed in command of a large army of Jews in the battle against Cestius' Legio, he had risen to a position of power in the priesthood prior to his military success. Eleazar ben Simon's radical anti-Roman ideology derived from a lifetime of oppression in Israel under Roman rule. Since 63 BCE, Roman garrisons stationed throughout Israel had exploited Jews with punitive taxation, exceeding the quota set by the Roman Empire and keeping the surplus revenues for themselves; the Roman procurators subjugated the Jewish High Priesthood, appointing pro-Roman Jews to positions of authority, desecrated sacred Jewish practices with sacrilegious pagan rituals. In 39 CE, the Roman Emperor Caligula declared himself divine and ordered his troops in Jerusalem to place his name on the Temple; when the Jews refused, he threatened to destroy the temple but his sudden timely demise saved Jerusalem from a premature siege. Yet Caligula's threat caused many of the moderate Jews to shift towards radical anti-Roman political views.

As the Roman burden became more onerous, Jewish priests alienated by the pro-Roman high priesthood joined in the effort to attain political and religious liberty by any means possible, thus forming the Zealots. Founded by Judas of Galilee, the Zealots kindled anti-Roman sentiment throughout Judea. In 66 CE, the Zealots instigated the Great Jewish revolt. Ananius refused to give sacrifice to the Roman Emperor and slaughtered Florus' Roman garrison in Jerusalem. In response, Nero ordered the Roman legate of Syria, to crush the rebellion. With his Legio XII Fulminata of 5,000 men, Cestius Gallus was ambushed and defeated at Beit-Horon in 66 CE by 2,400 Zealots led by Eleazar ben Simon. Eleazar returned to Jerusalem with substantial loot, he used the wealth acquired in this decisive victory as political leverage during the battle for power in Jerusalem in 67-69 CE. Following his victory against Cestius' forces, Eleazar was deposed from power in Jerusalem by the High Priest Ananus ben Ananus. Although he had proven his devotion and leadership at Beit-Horon, Eleazar ben Simon was given no office "because of his tyrannical temperament".

Contrary to the radical anti-Roman agenda of the Zealots and the other moderate leaders of Jerusalem wished to stabilize the conflict and reach equilibrium with Rome. They feared that appointing a Zealot to power would provoke Rome to attack and would diminish their own power. Despite his rejection from power, Eleazar remained in Jerusalem promoting the Zealot cause from his headquarters at the Temple. During the summer of 67, Eleazar ben Simon and his Zealots attempted to dismantle the moderate government of Ananus by imprisoning officials who remained from the procurator period before the revolt and spreading the fear that the moderate Temple aristocracy would undermine the Jewish nationalist cause; as the Roman general Vespasian's armies terrorized the countryside of Judea and Galilee, thousands of Jewish refugees joined Eleazar's ranks in hopes of intensifying Roman resistance having witnessed their terror tactics. With growing support, Eleazar appointed a puppet High Priest in Jerusalem to usurp power from Ananus and seized control of the Temple.

The Zealot control of Jerusalem was confined to the inner court of the city and the Temple itself. Outnumbered and isolated by Ananus' troops surrounding the Temple, Eleazar control of the Temple was threatened from the winter of 67 to the spring of 68. However, in 68 CE, John of Gisc