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Economy of Jamaica

The economy of Jamaica is reliant on services, accounting for 70% of the country's GDP. Jamaica has natural resources bauxite, an ideal climate conducive to agriculture and tourism; the discovery of bauxite in the 1940s and the subsequent establishment of the bauxite-alumina industry shifted Jamaica's economy from sugar and bananas. By the 1970s, Jamaica had emerged as a world leader in export of these minerals as foreign investment increased. Weakness in the financial sector and lower levels of investment erode confidence in the productive sector; the government continues its efforts to raise new sovereign debt in local and international financial markets in order to meet its U. S. dollar debt obligations, to mop up liquidity to maintain the exchange rate and to help fund the current budget deficit. Jamaican Government economic policies encourage foreign investment in areas that earn or save foreign exchange, generate employment, use local raw materials; the government provides a wide range of incentives to investors.

Free trade zones have stimulated investment in garment assembly, light manufacturing, data entry by foreign firms. However, over the last 5 years, the garment industry has suffered from reduced export earnings, continued factory closures, rising unemployment; the Government of Jamaica hopes to encourage economic activity through a combination of privatization, financial sector restructuring, reduced interest rates, by boosting tourism and related productive activities. In April 2014, the Governments of Jamaica and China signed the preliminary agreements for the first phase of the Jamaican Logistics Hub - the initiative that aims to position Kingston as the fourth node in the global logistics chain, joining Rotterdam and Singapore, serving the Americas; the Project, when completed, is expected to provide many jobs for Jamaicans, Economic Zones for multinational companies and much needed economic growth to alleviate the country's heavy debt-to-GDP ratio. Strict adherence to the IMF's refinancing programme and preparations for the JLH has favourably affected Jamaica's credit rating and outlook from the three biggest rating agencies.

Before independence, Jamaica's economy was focused on agriculture with the vast majority of the labour force engaged in the production of sugar and tobacco. According to one study, 18th century Jamaica had the highest wealth inequality in the world, as a small, slave-owning elite was wealthy while the rest of the population lived on the edge of subsistence; these products were exported to the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Jamaica's trade relationships expanded from 1938 to 1946, with total imports doubling from £6,485,000 to £12,452,000. After 1962, the Jamaican government pushed for ibauxite/alumina and tourism shrank in 1998 and 1999. In 2000, Jamaica experienced its first year of positive growth since 1995. Inflation fell from 25% in 1995 to single digits in 2000, reaching a multidecade low of 4.3% in 2004. Through periodic intervention in the market, the central bank has prevented any abrupt drop in the exchange rate; the Jamaican dollar has been slipping, despite intervention, resulting in an average exchange rate of J$73.40 per US$1.00 and J136.2 per €1.00.

In addition, inflation has been trending upward since 2004 and is projected to once again reach a double digit rate of 12-13% through the year 2008 due to a combination of unfavorable weather damaging crops and increasing agricultural imports and high energy prices. Over the last 30 years, real per capita GDP increased at an average of just one percent per year, making Jamaica one of the slowest growing developing countries in the world. To reverse this trajectory, the Government of Jamaica embarked on a comprehensive and ambitious program of reforms for which it has garnered national and international support: a four-year Extended Fund Facility by the International Monetary Fund providing a support package of US$932 million. In addition, the International Finance Corporation and Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency will continue to support private sector development; the reform program is beginning to bear fruit: Institutional reforms and measures to improve the environment for the private sector have started to restore confidence in the Jamaican economy.

Jamaica jumped 27 places to 58 among 189 economies worldwide in the 2015 Doing Business ranking, the country's credit rating has improved and the Government has raised more than US$2 billion in the international capital in the markets in 2014 and 2015.. Despite some revival, economic growth is still low: the Jamaican Government is forecasting real gross domestic product growth of 1.9 per cent for the fiscal year 2015/2016 and the country continues to be confronted by serious social issues that predominantly affect youth, such as high levels of crime and violence and high unemployment. Jamaica, which had seen its poverty rate drop 20 percent over two decades, saw it increase by eight percent in a few years; the unemployment rate in Jamaica is about 13.2%, with youth unemployment more than twice the national rate. However, among Jamaica's assets are its skilled labor force and strong social and governance indicators. Agricultural production is an important contributor to Jamaica's economy. However, it is vulnerable to extreme weather, such as hurricanes and to competition from neighbouring countri

Marwan Charbel

Marwan Charbel is a retired Lebanese brigadier general and the former minister of interior and municipalities between 2011 and 2013. Charbel was born in 1947, he entered the military academy in 1968 and graduated as a lieutenant in 1971. He obtained a bachelor's degree in law from Lebanese University in 1981. Charbel served in various units of the Internal Security Forces, he became a major general in the Internal Security Forces. He was the advisor of caretaker interior minister Ziyad Baroud. In June 2011, he was appointed minister of interior and municipalities to the cabinet led by prime minister Najib Mikati, replacing Ziyad Baroud. Charbel is part of the group appointed by President Michel Suleiman in the cabinet, his appointment was one of the major points discussed during the negotiation process for the establishment of the cabinet. He is considered to be a friends with both the Lebanese president Michel Sulaiman and the Free Patriotic Movement leader Michel Aoun. In fact, he is seen as a member of FPM.

In 2011, Charbel proposed the hybrid-system reform in regard to legislative elections to be held in 2013. In February 2014, Charbel's term ended. Charbel has three daughters. In early May 2013 Charbel stated on Al Jadeed TV that Lebanon was opposed to homosexuals and that homosexuality was a felony in Lebanon; these remarks followed shortly after the controversial raid and closing of a gay-friendly nightclub in Dekwaneh during which it is reported that several gay men and a transgender woman were falsely arrested and abused by security forces acting on the direct instructions of the mayor of Dekwaneh, Antoine Chakhtoura. Charbel's office subsequently posted a clarification on Facebook that Charbel was not passing a judgment, but was stating that while gay marriage was legalized in France it was still prohibited in Lebanon

Lynne Bowen

Lynne Bowen is an award-winning Canadian non-fiction writer, historian and journalist, best known for her popular historical books about Vancouver Island and British Columbia. Over the years, Bowen has won awards such as the Eaton's British Columbia Book Award, the Lieutenant Governor's Medal for Writing British Columbia History and the Hubert Evans Non-Fiction Prize. Lynne Bowen is a graduate of the University of Alberta where she earned an R. N. in 1962, a B. Sc. in Public Health Nursing in 1963, before moving to British Columbia in 1972 and raising three children. She continued her studies in history and literature at Vancouver Island University and at the University of Victoria where she completed a Master of Arts in Western Canadian History. In 1980, 3 weeks after graduation, Bowen was approached by Nanaimo's Coal Tyee Society to write a book based on 105 interviews of Vancouver Island coal miners and their families. Nanaimo coal mines had closed 30 years before and the city had been home to some of the most important coal mines in the world, along with the one of largest explosions in history -- 1887 Nanaimo mine explosion.

The miners wanted. Bowen compiled those oral histories in her first book, Boss Whistle, book, Three Dollar Dreams; the success of these early works garnered cultural grants. Bowen continues to write in the popular history niche, to date has written seven books, several magazine articles, penned a monthly newspaper column entitled "Those Island People" in Victoria's Times-Colonist, inspired by her years of collecting and chronicling stories and interviews with people on Vancouver Island. From 1993-2006, she became Co-Chair of the Maclean Hunter Chair of Creative Nonfiction Writing at the University of British Columbia, a position she held until 2006. In 2011, she was in a serious car accident that broke her legs, pelvis and sternum; the City of Nanaimo lists Bowen on their cultural map and awarded her with the City of Nanaimo Excellence in Culture Award in 1999. In 2018, Lynne Bowen donated her complete archives to Vancouver Island University Library's Special Collections & Archives. Boss Whistle: The Coal Miners of Vancouver Island Remember, 1982 Three Dollar Dreams, 1987 Muddling Through: The Remarkable Story of the Barr Colonists, 1992 Those Lake People: Stories of Cowichan Lake, 1995 Robert Dunsmuir: Laird of the Mines, 1999 Whoever Gives Us Bread: The Story of Italians in British Columbia, 2011 Those Island People, 2014 F.

G. Bressani Literary Prize in Creative Nonfiction, Winner, 2012 British Columbia Genealogical Society Family History Book Award, Honourable Mention, 2011 City of Vancouver Book Award, Shortlist, 2011 Certificate of Honour, British Columbia Historical Federation Writing Competition, 2000 Distinguished Alumni Award, Concordia University College of Alberta, 2000 City of Nanaimo, Excellence in Culture Award, 1999 Canadian Historical Association Regional Certificate of Merit, Prairies/Northwest Territories, 1992 Hubert Evans Non-Fiction Prize, BC Book Prizes, 1992 Canada Council Non-Fiction Writing Grant, 1989 Canada Council Non-Fiction Writing Grant, 1985 Roderick Haig-Brown Regional Prize, Shortlist, 1987 Lieutenant-Governor’s Medal for Writing British Columbia History, 1987 Canadian Historical Association Regional Certificate of Merit, British Columbia, 1983 Eaton’s British Columbia Book Award, 1983 Canada Council Explorations Grant, 1981 Official website Douglas & McIntyre bio VIU Library Special Collections & Archives

Peter Oundjian

Peter Oundjian is a Canadian violinist and conductor. Born in Toronto, Ontario, as the youngest of five children from an Armenian father and English mother, Oundjian claims Scottish ancestry through his maternal grandfather, a Sanderson, the MacDonell of Glengarry clan. Oundjian was educated in England, where he began studying the violin at age seven with Manoug Parikian, he attended Charterhouse School in Godalming and continued his studies with Bela Katona. He attended the Royal College of Music. Oundjian subsequently studied at the Juilliard School with Ivan Galamian, Itzhak Perlman, Dorothy DeLay. While at Juilliard, he minored in conducting, received encouragement in his endeavors when he attended a master class from the eminent Austrian conductor Herbert von Karajan. In 1980, Oundjian won First Prize at the International Violin Competition in Viña del Chile. Oundjian held the post for 14 years. A repetitive stress injury forced Oundjian to curtail his instrumental career, he shifted his full-time musical focus to conducting.

Oundjian was the Artistic Director of the Nieuw Sinfonietta Amsterdam from 1998 to 2003. He is the Artistic Advisor and Principal Guest Conductor of the Caramoor International Music Festival, he was the Principal Guest Conductor of the Colorado Symphony Orchestra for three years. For four summers, he led. Oundjian became principal guest conductor and artistic advisor of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra in September 2006. Oundjian was named music director of the Toronto Symphony Orchestra in January 2003, assumed the post in 2004; the orchestra had financial problems before the time of Oundjian's appointment, he contributed to an improvement in the orchestra's situation since the start of his tenure. The 2005 documentary film Five Days in September: The Rebirth of an Orchestra records the first days of Oundjian's first season as the TSO's music director. In February 2007, Oundjian extended his contract with the TSO to 2012. Following a subsequent contract extension through the 2013-2014 season, in April 2013, the TSO further extended his contract through the 2016-2017 season.

Following a further TSO contract extension through the 2017-2018 season, Oundjian concluded his music directorship of the TSO at the close of the 2017-2018 season and was named the TSO's conductor emeritus. He received the Key to the City from Toronto mayor John Tory. Since 1981, Oundjian has taught as an adjunct professor of violin at the Yale School of Music. In January 2011, the Royal Scottish National Orchestra announced the appointment of Oundjian as its next music director, as of the 2012-2013 season, with an initial contract of 4 years, he concluded his RSNO tenure at the close of the 2017-2018 season. In June 2007, Oundjian conducted the world premiere of an oratorio by Eric Idle and John DuPrez based on the Monty Python movie Life of Brian, titled Not the Messiah, at the first Luminato Festival in Toronto, Canada. In January 2019, the Colorado Music Festival announced the appointment of Oundjian as its next music director. Oundjian and his wife Nadine have two children, his nephew is hockey player Ben Smith.

He is cousins with British comedian Eric Idle. Oundjian holds Canadian and British passports. HarrisonParrott agency biography of Oundjian Frank Salomon agency biography of Oundjian Columbia Artists Management agency biography of Oundjian Peter Oundjian, "A note from the RSNO's new Music Director - Peter Oundjian". Royal Scottish National Orchestra website, 31 January 2011 Peter Oundjian, entry in Encyclopedia of Music in Canada

Indo-European studies

Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics and an interdisciplinary field of study dealing with Indo-European languages, both current and extinct. The goal of those engaged in these studies is to amass information about the hypothetical proto-language from which all of these languages are descended, a language dubbed Proto-Indo-European, its speakers, the Proto-Indo-Europeans, including their society and mythology; the studies cover how it spread. This article lists Indo-European scholars, centres and book series; the term Indo-European itself now current in English literature, was coined in 1813 by the British scholar Sir Thomas Young, although at that time, there was no consensus as to the naming of the discovered language family. However, he seems to have used it as a geographical term. Among the other names suggested were: indo-germanique Indoeuropean japetisk indisch-teutsch sanskritisch indokeltisch arioeuropeo Aryan aryaque. Rask's japetisk or "Japhetic languages", after the old notion of "Japhetites" and Japheth, son of the Biblical Noah, parallels the term Semitic, from Noah's son Shem, Hamitic, from Noah's son Ham.

Japhetic and Hamitic are both obsolete, apart from occasional dated use of term "Hamito-Semitic" for the Afro-Asiatic languages. In English, Indo-German was used by J. C. Prichard in 1826 although he preferred Indo-European. In French, use of indo-européen was established by A. Pictet. In German literature, Indoeuropäisch was used by Franz Bopp since 1835, while the term Indogermanisch had been introduced by Julius von Klapproth in 1823, intending to include the northernmost and the southernmost of the family's branches, as it were as an abbreviation of the full listing of involved languages, common in earlier literature. Indo-Germanisch became established by the works of August Friedrich Pott, who understood it to include the easternmost and the westernmost branches, opening the doors to ensuing fruitless discussions whether it should not be Indo-Celtic, or Tocharo-Celtic. Today, Indo-European, indo-européen is well established in English and French literature, while Indogermanisch remains current in German literature, but alongside a growing number of uses of Indoeuropäisch.

Indo-Europees has now replaced the still encountered Indogermaans in Dutch scientific literature. Indo-Hittite is sometimes used for the wider family including Anatolian by those who consider that IE and Anatolian are comparable separate branches; the comparative method was formally developed in the 19th century and applied first to Indo-European languages. The existence of the Proto-Indo-Europeans had been inferred by comparative linguistics as early as 1640, while attempts at an Indo-European proto-language reconstruction date back as far as 1713. However, by the 19th century, still no consensus had been reached about the internal groups of the IE family; the method of internal reconstruction is used to compare patterns within one dialect, without comparison with other dialects and languages, to try to arrive at an understanding of regularities operating at an earlier stage in that dialect. It has been used to infer information about earlier stages of PIE than can be reached by the comparative method.

Using the method of mass comparison, the IE languages are sometimes hypothesized to be part of super-families such as Nostratic or Eurasiatic. The ancient Greeks were aware. Aristotle identified four types of linguistic change: insertion, deletion and substitution. In the 1st century BC, the Romans were aware of the similarities between Greek and Latin. In the post-classical West, with the influence of Christianity, language studies were undermined by the naïve attempt to derive all languages from Hebrew since the time of Saint Augustine. Prior studies classified the European languages as Japhetic. One of the first scholars to challenge the idea of a Hebrew root to the languages of Europe was Joseph Scaliger, he identified Greek, Germanic and Slavic language groups by comparing the word for "God" in various European languages. In 1710, Leibniz applied ideas of uniformitarianism to linguistics in a short essay. Like Scaliger, he rejected a Hebrew root, but rejected the idea of unrelated language groups and considered them all to have a common source.

Around the 12th century, similarities between European languages became recognised. In Iceland, scholars noted the resemblances between English. Gerald of Wales claimed that Welsh and Breton were descendants of a common source. A study of the Insular Celtic languages was carried out by George Buchanan in the 16th century and the first field study was by Edward Llwyd around 1700, he published his work shortly after translating a study by Paul-Yves Pezron on Breton. Grammars of European languages other than Latin and Classical Greek began to be published at the end of the 15th century; this led to comparison between the various languages. In the 16th century, visitors to India became aware of similarities between Indian and European languages. For example, Filippo Sassetti reported striking resemblances between Italian. In his 1647 essay, Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn proposed the existence of a primitive common language he called "Scythian", he included in its descendants Dutch, Latin and Persian, his posthumously published Originum Gallicarum liber of 1654 added Slavic and Baltic.

The 1647 es

1997 UEFA European Under-16 Championship

The 1997 UEFA European Under-16 Championship was the 15th edition of UEFA's European Under-16 Football Championship. Germany hosted the championship, during April 28 – May 10, 1997. 16 teams entered the competition, Spain defeated Austria in the final to win the competition for the fourth time. The games were held in Barsinghausen, Braunschweig, Bremen, Bückeburg, Einbeck, Hamburg, Hanover, Hildesheim, Lehrte, Lübeck, Lübtheen, Neukloster, Neustadt-Glewe, Nienburg/Weser, Nordhausen, Rendsburg, Schönberg, Thale, Vöhrum and Wernigerode. Austria Belgium Germany Georgia Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Northern Ireland Poland Slovakia Slovenia Spain Switzerland Turkey Ukraine