The economy of Kazakhstan is the largest in Central Asia in both absolute and per capita terms, but the currency saw a sharp depreciation between 2013 and 2016. It possesses oil reserves as well as metals, it has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production. The mountains in the south are important for walnuts. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the processing of these natural resources; the breakup of the USSR and the collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products have resulted in a sharp decline of the economy since 1991, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97 the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector; the December 1996 signing of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium agreement to build a new pipeline from western Kazakhstan's Tengiz Field to the Black Sea increases prospects for larger oil exports in several years.
Kazakhstan's economy turned downward in 1998 with a 2.5% decline in GDP growth due to slumping oil prices and the August financial crisis in Russia. A bright spot in 1999 was the recovery of international petroleum prices, combined with a well-timed tenge devaluation and a bumper grain harvest, pulled the economy out of recession. Current GDP per capita shrank by 26% in the Nineties. In the 2000s, Kazakhstan's economy grew aided by increased prices on world markets for Kazakhstan's leading exports—oil and grain. GDP grew 9.6% in 2000, up from 1.7% in 1999. In 2006 high GDP growth had been sustained, grew by 10.6%. Business with booming Russia and China, as well as neighboring Commonwealth of Independent States nations have helped to propel this growth; the increased economic growth led to a turn-around in government finances, with the budget moving from a cash deficit of 3.7% of GDP in 1999 to 0.1% surplus in 2000. The country experienced a slowdown in economic growth from 2014 sparked by falling oil prices and the effects of the Ukrainian crisis The country's currency was devalued by 19% in 2014 and by 22% in 2015.
In 2017, the World Economic Forum compiled its Global Competitiveness Ranking ranking Kazakhstan 57th out of 144 countries. The ranking considers multiple macroeconomic and financial factors, such as market size, GDP, tax rates, infrastructure development, etc. In 2012, the World Economic Forum listed corruption as the biggest problem in doing business in the country, while the World Bank listed Kazakhstan as a corruption hotspot, on a par with Angola, Kenya and Pakistan. Kazakhstan scored 31 points out of 100 in Transparency International's 2018 edition of the Corruption Perceptions Index, indicating high levels of corruption; the World Bank Vice President for Europe and Central Asia, Cyril Muller, visited Astana in January 2017, where he praised the country's progress made during the 25-year partnership with the World Bank. Muller talked about Kazakhstan's improved positioning in the World Bank's Doing Business Report 2017, where Kazakhstan ranked 35th out of 190 countries worldwide. Kazakhstan secured 3rd position in the Central and South Asia regional ranking of the 2018 Global Innovation Index released by World Intellectual Property Organization.
In the 2014 Economic Freedom Index published by The Heritage Foundation in Washington, DC, Kazakhstan has gained 22 points over the past 17 years, noted by the authors as among the 20 best improvements recorded by any country. Kazakhstan's economic freedom score is 69.1, equalling "moderately free". Its overall score has increased by 0.1 point, with significant improvements in investment freedom and government integrity offsetting steep declines in fiscal health and monetary freedom. Kazakhstan is ranked 11th among 43 countries in the Asia–Pacific region, its overall score is above the regional and world averages; this chart shows trends in the gross domestic product of Kazakhstan at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund, with figures in millions of Kazakhstani tenge. The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2017. Inflation under 5% is in green. Kazakhstan's GDP grew 4.1% in real terms during the period from January to September 2014. Kazakhstan's real GDP growth was projected to reach 4.3% in 2014, the main driving force of the economy in Kazakhstan in 2014 is the consumer sector.
According to the Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan the Kazakhstan's GDP growth in the first quarter of 2014 was 3.8%. The Government of Kazakhstan signed a Framework Partnership Agreement with IBRD, IFC, MIGA on 1 May 2014; as of 2015, the World Bank classified Kazakhstan as an upper-middle-income country with GDP per capita of nearly US$10.5 thousand. Foreign direct investment increased 30 percent in 2015 in Kazakhstan's agricultural industry and 80 percent in the country's petroleum products sector. In 2016 Kazakhstan's economy started to recover from the crisis caused by low oil prices and the tenge devaluation. According to the Minister of National Economy of Kazakhstan, in nine months of 2016 the GDP growth reached 0.4%. Sectors of economy that experienced the highest growth included construction and transport sector. Kazakhstan was ranked 25th out of 190 countries in the World Bank's Doing Business 2020 report; the country improved its position by 3 points, from 28 to 25, in the 2020 rankin
Hamilton is an abandoned mining town located in the White Pine Range, in western White Pine County, United States. Hamilton appeared after the discovery of rich silver ore in the area; the first settlers found shelter in local caves. By May 1868, the settlement known as "Cave City" was formed; the 1967 episode "Solid Foundation" of the syndicated television anthology series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Robert Taylor, is set in Hamilton. In the story line prospector Jim Otis fails to find gold but stumbles on, outlaws' loot and silver, some of, used to construct his house. Susan Seaforth Hayes was cast as Jim's wife, who wanted her husband to head back East after three months in the West; the town boomed following the discovery of rich silver deposits nearby. With a population of six hundred, it was renamed for mine promoter W. H. Hamilton; the post office first opened for business on August 10, 1868 while the community was still part of Lander County, Nevada. White Pine County was formed in March 1869, Hamilton was selected as the first county seat.
By its peak during the summer of 1869, Hamilton's population was estimated at 12,000. There were close to 100 saloons, several breweries, 60 general stores, numerous other businesses. There were theaters, dance halls, skating rinks, a Miners’ Union Hall, a fraternal order located in the thriving community. Close to 200 mining companies were operating in the area. However, Hamilton's prosperity was not to last, it was soon discovered. Subsequently, by 1870, less than two years after its founding, the community was in decline. Once the shallow nature of the local ore deposits became known, many of the mining companies left the area. Hamilton's population and economy began a rapid decline. At the census of 1870, the population was 3,915, less than a third of what it had been estimated at the previous summer. On June 27, 1873, a large fire spread throughout the business district and caused an estimated $600,000 in damage, a huge sum at the time. Most businesses that burnt down were abandoned, not rebuilt.
By this time, the town's population was estimated to have shrunk to only 500. Another fire destroyed the courthouse at Hamilton along with all of the records in January 1885. County records began to be kept at the Ely courthouse begin January 5, 1885. Although Hamilton was the first county seat of White Pine County, the shrinking community lost that designation to the town of Ely in 1887; the Hamilton post office closed in 1931. Hamilton is now a ghost town, with only scattered ruins remaining at the site. Jackson, W. Turrentine. Treasure Hill: Portrait of a Silver Mining Camp. Reno: University of Nevada Press. ISBN 978-0-87417-361-1. Hamilton Nevada Ruins "joeqc' Retrieved 21 July 2013
Christodoulos I. Stefanadis is Professor of Cardiology in the Medical School of the University of Athens. Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta U. S. A. Professor of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA, he has been recognised as the top researcher in the field of Cardiovascular medicine in the last 20 years with the most original research publications in peer review journals. Some of his main research interests include coronary heart disease and treatment of vulnerable atheromatic plaque, aortic elastic properties, mitral valve disease, interventional treatment of resistant hypertension and designing many catheter types used for various diagnostic and therapeutic interventional procedures. Christodoulos Stefanadis was born in Ikaria and attended the University of Athens Medical School from which he graduated in 1971, he completed his residency in Cardiology at the Cardiology Department of the University of Athens, followed by a PhD in Athens Medical School.
He has been Professor of Cardiology since 2002 and Director of the 1st Department of Cardiology since 2003. He has held the positions of Dean of Athens Medical School, President of the Hellenic Society of Cardiology, Board Member of the Hellenic Heart Foundation, Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta U. S. A. Professor of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA One of his several research activities include designing of at least 10 prototype cardiac catheters which were applied in various diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Early in his career he developed the technique of retrograde non-transeptal mitral balloon valvuloplasty, used internationally for the interventional treatment of mitral stenosis, introduced the idea of covering metallic stents by non-thrombotic material and he developed covered stents by autologous vascular grafts, he subsequently made studies on the function of left atrium. A large part of his research efforts was devoted to experimental and clinical studies on coronary heart disease, such as estimation of thermal heterogeneity of human atherosclerotic plaques using a special catheter with a thermistor tip, external non-invasive heating of stented arterial segments, evolution and application of bevacizumab-eluting stent for the inhibition of microvessel growth in unstable atherosclerotic plaques.
He has been worked on invasive treatment methods of resistant hypertension by novel sympathetic denervation techniques of the renal arteries. He has presented his research results by more than 3,500 abstracts in international scientific conferences and has given over 260 lectures as invited speaker internationally. Stefanadis has published 1510 research articles in international peer reviewed medical journals; the h-index factor for these publications is 81. He is the editor of 6 medical books of international publications and has written chapters in 13 international books, he is Chief Editor of the Hellenic Journal of Cardiology, member of the editorial board and reviewer in Greek and International Scientific Journals. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research has published an "Analysis of Global Research Trends in Cardiology Over the Last two Decades" listing Christodoulos Stefanadis at the first rank among top authors for clinical cardiology research. Stefanadis was awarded the title of "Elite Reviewer" by the scientific journal Journal of the American College of Cardiology in recognition of his whole contribution to the journal’s publications and the international journal Clinical Cardiology dedicated a special honorary article to him entitled "Profiles in Cardiology" in a 2007 issue.
The American College of Cardiology awarded him the Simon Dack’s Award, given annually to the scientist with the most important contribution to the scientific journals of the American College of Cardiology. Stefanadis, C. Diamantopoulos, L. Vlachopoulos, C. Tsiamis, E. Dernellis, J. Toutouzas, K. Stefanadi, E. Toutouzas, P. Thermal heterogeneity within human atherosclerotic coronary arteries detected in vivo. A new method of detection by application of a special thermography catheter. Circulation. 1999 Apr 20. Stefanadis, C. Tsiamis, E. Vlachopoulos, C. Stratos, C. Toutouzas, K. Pitsavos, C. Toutouzas, P. Unfavorable effect of smoking on the elastic properties of the human aorta. Circulation. 1997 Jan 7. Stefanadis, C. Stratos, C. Vlachopoulos, C. Marakas, S. Boudoulas, H. Kallikazaros, I. Tsiamis, E. Toutouzas, P. Pressure-diameter relation of the human aorta: A new method of determination by the application of a special ultrasonic dimension catheter. Circulation. 1995 Oct 15. Stefanadis, C. Vlachopoulos, C.
Karayannacos, P. Boudoulas, H. Stratos, C. Filippides, T. Agapitos, M. Toutouzas, P. Effect of vasa vasorum flow on function of the aorta in experimental animals. Circulation. 1995 May 15. Stefanadis, C. Toutouzas, K. Tsiamis, E. Stratos, C. Vavuranakis, M. Kallikazaros, I. Panagiotakos, D. Toutouzas, P. Rapid improvement of nitric oxide bioavailability after lipid-lowering therapy with cerivastatin within two weeks J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Apr. Stefanadis, C. Dernellis, J. Vlachopoulos, C. Tsioufis, C. Tsiamis, E. Toutouzas, K. Pitsavos, C. Toutouzas, P. Aortic function in arterial hypertension determined by pressure-diameter relation: Eff
The Best of Farmer's Daughter is the greatest hits album by Canadian country music group Farmer's Daughter, was released in 1999 by Universal Music Canada. "Walkin' in the Sunshine" - 3:45 "Cornfields or Cadillacs" - 3:33 "Blue Horizon" - 3:41 "Freeway" - 4:13 "You Said" - 3:28 "Borderline Angel" - 4:10 "Son of a Preacher Man" - 3:34 "I Wanna Hold You" - 3:54 "Family Love" - 3:20 "Lonely Gypsy Wind" - 3:08 "Callin' All You Cowboys" - 3:43 "Now That I'm On My Own" - 3:27 "You and Only You" - 3:34
The Iowa House of Representatives is the lower house of the Iowa General Assembly, the upper house being the Iowa Senate. There are 100 seats in the Iowa House of Representatives, representing 100 single-member districts across the state, formed by dividing the 50 Senate districts in half; each district has a population of 30,464 as of the 2010 United States Census. The House of Representatives meets at the Iowa State Capitol in Des Moines. Unlike the upper house, the Iowa Senate, state House representatives serve two-year terms with the whole chamber up for re-election in even-numbered years. There are no term limits for the House; the Speaker of the House presides over the House in the chief leadership position, controlling the flow of legislation and committee assignments. The Speaker is elected by the majority party caucus, followed by confirmation of the full House on passage of a floor vote. Other House leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses according to each party's strength in the chamber.
William S. Beardsley, Governor of Iowa from 1949 to 1954 William W. Belknap, U. S. Army major general and U. S. Secretary of War from 1869 until he resigned under threat of impeachment in 1876. Terry E. Branstad, Governor of Iowa from 1983 to 1999, 2011 to 2017 Abby Finkenauer, current U. S. Representative, 2019 to present Robert D. Fulton, Governor of Iowa for 16 days in 1969 Chuck Grassley, current U. S. Senator, 1981 to present Frank Merriam, Governor of California from 1934 to 1939 William M. Stone, Civil War prisoner of war and Governor of Iowa from 1864 to 1868. James Wilson, U. S. Secretary of Agriculture from 1897 to 1913. Dale M. Cochran, Speaker of the Iowa House of Representatives from 1975 to 1978 and Iowa Secretary of Agriculture from 1987 to 1998. List of current members of the Iowa House of Representatives Iowa Senate Iowa Legislature official government website Iowa House of Representatives at Ballotpedia State House of Iowa at Project Vote Smart Iowa House Democrats Iowa House Republicans
Sylvia Louise Engdahl is an American writer, known best for science fiction. Her debut novel Enchantress from the Stars, published by Atheneum Books in 1970, was a runner-up for annual Newbery Medal and she won the Phoenix Award for that work twenty years later. Engdahl was born in California; the Internet Speculative Fiction Database lists 11 books by Engdahl that were published from 1970 to 1981, including two anthologies she edited and three nonfiction books. Six science fiction novels, which include her first five books, were all published by Atheneum Books. From 1985 to 1995 she taught graduate courses for Connected Education, a pioneer in online education, she lives in Oregon with her two cats. In August 2007, Engdahl published a new adult science fiction/visionary fiction novel, Stewards of the Flame, which she followed with two sequels: Promise of the Flame and Defender of the Flame. Among 73 Library of Congress Online Catalog records of books created by Engdahl through 2014, all but the first 16 are nonfiction works as "book editor" beginning 2006.
Engdahl wrote six science fiction novels published from 1970 to 1981 by Atheneum, all of which have been republished in the 21st century. Her new novels, two duologies published in 2007 and 2009 and in 2013 and 2014 are adult science fiction, not YA. Enchantress from the Stars, illustrated by Rodney Shackell Journey Between Worlds, illus. James and Ruth McCrea – updated 2006 The Far Side of Evil, illus. Richard Cuffari – updated 2003 This Star Shall Abide, illus. Cuffari Beyond the Tomorrow Mountains, illus. Cuffari The Doors of the Universe Children of the Star – omnibus edition of the Star trilogy: This Star Shall Abide, Beyond the Tomorrow Mountains, The Doors of the Universe, published as adult SF Stewards of the Flame – first in a new adult science fiction trilogy Promise of the Flame Defender of the Flame Herald of the Flame Planet-girded Suns: man's view of other solar systems, illus. Cuffari Universe ahead: stories of the future and introduced by Engdahl and Rick Roberson, illus. Cuffari Anywhere, Anywhen: stories of tomorrow, edited by Engdahl Subnuclear Zoo: new discoveries in high energy physics, by Engdahl and Roberson Tool for Tomorrow: new knowledge about genes, by Engdahl and Roberson Our World Is Earth - picture book Engdahl has won two annual book awards, the 1973 Christopher Award for This Star Shall Abide and the 1990 Phoenix Award for Enchantress from the Stars.
The latter, from the Children's Literature Association, designated the best English-language children's book that did not win a major award when it was published twenty years earlier. It is named for the mythical bird phoenix, reborn from its ashes, to suggest the book's rise from obscurity. Enchantress had been a runner up for the 1971 Newbery Medal, however. Stewards of the Flame won a bronze medal in the 2008 Independent Publisher Book Awards. Runners-up and book listsEnchantress from the Stars has been runner-up for a few awards and has been named to several book lists. 1970: Junior Literary Guild selection.