The economy of Liechtenstein is based equally on services and industry, with a small but significant agricultural sector. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency, it imports more than 85% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Free Trade Association since 1991, it has been a member of the European Economic Area since May 1995 and participates in the Schengen Agreement for passport-free intra-European travel. Liechtenstein's historical customs union with Austria was dissolved in 1919. A customs treaty was signed in 1923 and since its entering into force in 1924, Liechtenstein and Switzerland have been in a customs union with each other and as such the borders between the two countries are open; the German village Büsingen am Hochrhein and the Italian village Campione d'Italia form part of this customs union, referred to as the Swiss customs area. Liechtenstein utilizes the Swiss franc as its national currency.
Swiss border police and customs officers secure its frontier with Austria. There are 21 Swiss border guards stationed in Liechtenstein and 20 Austrian border guards securing its border. Liechtenstein is a member of EFTA, joined the European Economic Area in 1995 in order to benefit from the EU internal market; the capitalist economy and tax system make Liechtenstein a safe and success-oriented place for private and business purposes with its modern, internationally laid-out infrastructure and close connections to Switzerland. The Principality of Liechtenstein has gone through economic and cultural development in the last 50 years like no other Western country. In the last half century, Liechtenstein has developed from a agricultural state to one of the most industrialized countries in the world. Besides its efficient industry, there is a strong services sector. Four out of ten employees work in the services sector, a high proportion of whom are foreigners, including those who commute across the border from neighboring Switzerland and Germany.
Industrial exports more than doubled in 20 years from $1.21 billion in 1988 to $2.9 billion in 2008. Some 15.7% of Liechtenstein goods are exported to Switzerland, 62.6% to the EU and 21.1% to the rest of the world. The United States has been the most important export market for Liechtenstein in recent times, totaling $561 million. About 32% of the country's revenues are invested in research and development, one of the driving forces of the success of Liechtenstein's economy. Total R&D spending in 2000 rose by 20.7% to $140 million. The Principality of Liechtenstein is known as an important financial centre because it specializes in financial services for foreign entities; the country's low tax rate, loose incorporation and corporate governance rules, traditions of strict bank secrecy have contributed to the ability of financial intermediaries in Liechtenstein to attract funds from outside the country's borders. The same factors made the country attractive and vulnerable to money launderers, although late 2009 legislation has strengthened regulatory oversight of illicit funds transfers.
Liechtenstein has chartered 17 banks, three non-bank financial companies, 71 public investment companies, as well as insurance and reinsurance companies. Its 270 licensed fiduciary companies and 81 lawyers serve as nominees for, or manage, more than 73,000 entities for non-Liechtenstein residents. About one-third of these entities hold the controlling interest in other entities, chartered in countries other than Liechtenstein; the Principality's laws permit the corporations. Until the Principality's banking laws permitted banks to issue numbered accounts, but new regulations require strict know-your-customer practices for all new accounts. Liechtenstein's standard rate of VAT is identical to Switzerland's for it must mirror the latter's continually and is 7.7%. The reduced rate is 2.5%. A special rate of 3.7% is in use in the hotel industry. In July 2015, Liechtenstein and Switzerland signed a new agreement on double taxation, which took effect in December 2016, superseding the previous one from 1995.
Some differences on the withholding tax arose, but Switzerland did not agree to introduce this practice to residents of Liechtenstein working in Switzerland. In November 2016, the parliament of the principality decided with a large majority to introduce an agreement of automatic information exchange with 27 new treaty partners, including Switzerland. Data collection will start in 2018, effectual exchange of account information is planned for 2019. GDP: $4.826 billion GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $141,100 Inflation rate: 0.7% Labor force: 35,440 of whom about 10,440 are natives 7,550 are foreigners.
Valentine David Cunningham, MA, DPhil, OBE is a retired professor of English language and literature at the University of Oxford, Emeritus Fellow in English Literature at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He graduated in English at Keble College, where he was a graduate student, he was St John's College, Oxford. He taught English Literature from the Elizabethans to the present day as Fellow and Tutor of Corpus, serving the College variously as Dean, Senior Tutor, Tutor for Admissions, Vice-President, Senior Research Fellow in English Literature, he gave University lectures on Literary History and Literary Theory. He held a Personal Professorship in English Literature, he was variously a Visiting Professor at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA. He was Scholar in University of Perth, Western Australia, he is a Fellow of the Grossbritannien Zentrum, Humboldt University and Honorary Professor of the University of Bucharest. He has lectured at many universities in the UK and around the world - Ireland, France, Portugal, Switzerland, Cyprus, Croatia, Brazil, Australia, the USA, Canada.
He was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2017 New Year Honours for services to scholarship and the understanding of the humanities. He has broadcast for BBC radio, contributing to arts programmes and presenting features, on literary and cultural-historical topics, he has reviewed in newspapers and magazines. He has been a judge for many literary prizes: The Booker, 1992 and 1998. Monographs: Everywhere Spoken Against: Dissent in the Victorian Novel. British Writers of the Thirties. In the Reading Gaol: Postmodernity and History. Reading After Theory. Victorian Poetry Now: Poets, Poetics. King Lear, The Connell Guide. Editions: The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse. Spanish Front: Writers on the Civil War. Cinco Escritores Britanicos/Five British Writers. George Eliot, Adam Bede; the Victorians: An Anthology of Poetry and Poetics. Victorian Poets: A Critical Reader. Introductions: Ralph Bates, The Olive Field, i-viii. Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway, ed Jeanette Winterson & Margaret Reynolds, xv-xxiii.
Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man, vii-xiv. Postface, Charles Morgan, Le Passage, 273-282; the Book of Psalms, ix-xvii. Scores of articles on fiction, emotionality, the thirties, music, the Bible and literature. A small, typical, handful will stand for the rest:'Readers Beside themselves: Particular Pleasures and Generic Controls', Representations of Emotions, ed J Schlaeger & G Stedman, 43-56.'Anthony Trollope and Law, Laws and Assorted Legislations', REAL, 18, Law and Literature, ed Brook Thomas, 89-107.'Having a Clue... about Ovid', Symbolism: An International Annual of Critical Aesthetics, Vol 5, ed Ruediger Ahrens. 102-124.'Why Ekphrasis?'. Classical Philology, special issue, ed Shadi Bartsch & Jas Elsner, 102, 1, 57-71.'Poubellication: in the lexical dunny with the furphy king from down under', Rude Britannia, ed Mina Gorji, 35-55.'Bible Reading and/after theory', The Oxford Handbook of the Reception History of the Bible, ed Michael Lieb, Emma Mason & Jonathan Roberts, 649-673.'Marxist Cricket?
Some Versions of Pastoral in the Poetry of the Thirties', Ecology and the Literature of the British Left, The Red and the Green, ed John Rignall & Gustav Klaus, with Valentine Cunningham, 177-191.'The Terrors of Madness and Victorian Literary Nosology', Hermeneutics of Textual Madness: Re-Readings of Textual Madness/ Hermeneutiques de la Folie Textuelle: Re-Lectures, ed MJ Muratore, I, 389-419.'Bunyan's Way of Reading', Essays in Criticism, 64, 2017, 323-354. Prof Valentine Cunningham at Debrett's People of Today Professor Valentine Cunningham. Corpus Christi College website. Accessed 18 October 2008. Valentine Cunningham. Contemporary Writers website, British Council. Accessed 18 October 2008
Kim Go-eun, better known by the stage name Byul, is a South Korean singer. She debuted in 2002 with the album December 32, her debut album was released on October 10, 2002. It was announced at the end of January 2009 that Primary, her fifth album, would be released the following month. Teaser posters were distributed in 7-11 stores. On August 15, 2012, it was announced that Byul was to marry Haha, South Korean singer and cast member of the variety show Running Man, on November 30, 2012; the couple welcomed their first child, a son named Dream, on July 9, 2013. Their second son, was born on March 22, 2017, their third child, a daughter, named Song, was born on July 15, 2019. The Best Identity Nostalgia Leaves Mulpungseon 2nd Digital Single: 2008 Like A Star Showcase Like A Star Bikini 2009 No. 1 Diva's Love Taste of Love Wasabii Sound 2nd'Useodo Useodo' So Cute "Melody” Project Part 3 You Are The Best No More Us Distance Special Single Album Take Care of My Cat OST Rain - N001 Star OST Full House OST Sammy - Heurinnal (#2 Nae Modeun Sarmui Haengdong Our Attitude to Prepare Parting OST Kim Hyung Seok - Kim Hyung Seok With Friends Over the Rainbow OST Square - Rookie of the Year Invincible Parachute Agent OST Hearty Paws OST Lee Ki Chan - Para Ti Kim Dong Wan - Kimdongwan is 9 End 2 Outs OST I'm Sam OST Andy - ANDY the first NEW DREAM Natural - Natural Special BLESS - Eolmana Jokillae The Man Who Can't Get Married OST The Woman Who Still Wants to Marry OST Blue Brand Trauma Part 1 Gloria OST Part.1 Cinderella's Sister OST Part 2 Wild Romance OST Part 3: Because It's Still You My Husband Got a Family OST Part 4:Engraved in my Heart Golden Time OST Part 6: Before it Touches Both of My Cheeks Immortal Song 2: Singing the Legend Song Hae, Korea Sings Immortal Song 2: Singing the Legend "Lee Yong" Pyeon Missing You OST Part 3: "Reminds of You" Love in Memory OST Part 1 Because We Haven't Broken Up Yet OST Part 2 Who Are You: School 2015 OST Part 4: Remember Second 20s OST Part 4 King of Mask Singer Ep 25 Hip Hop Teacher OST Immortal Song 2: Singing the Legend Songs of Hope Special Immortal Song 2: Singing the Legend Lunar New Year Special SBS Gayo Daesang New Artist Award Official Website
Guy Hocquenghem was a French writer and queer theorist. Guy Hocquenghem was born in the suburbs of Paris and was educated at the Lycée Lakanal in Sceaux and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. At the age of fifteen he began an affair with René Scherer, they remained lifelong friends. His participation in the May 1968 student rebellion in France formed his allegiance to the Communist Party, which expelled him because of his homosexuality. Hocquenghem taught philosophy at the University of Vincennes-Saint Denis and wrote numerous novels and works of theory, he was the staff writer for the French publication Libération. Hocquenghem was a prominent member of the Front Homosexuel d'Action Révolutionnaire formed by lesbian and feminist activists who split from the Mouvement Homophile de France in 1971. With filmmaker Lionel Soukaz, Hocquenghem wrote and produced a documentary film about gay history, Race d'Ep! the last word of the title being a play on the word pédé, a French slur for gay men. Though Hocquenghem had a significant impact on leftist thinking in France, his reputation has failed to grow to international prominence.
Only the first of his theoretical tracts, Homosexual Desire and his first novel, L'Amour en relief have been translated into English. Although Race d'Ep! was shown at Roxie Cinema in San Francisco in April 1980 and released in America as The Homosexual Century, like Hocquenghem, the film is unknown. Hocquenghem's Homosexual Desire may be the first work of Queer Theory. Drawing on the theories of desiring-production developed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in their Capitalism and Schizophrenia project, Hocquenghem critiqued the influential models of the psyche and sexual desire derived from the psychoanalysts Jacques Lacan and Sigmund Freud; the author addressed the relation of capitalism to sexualities, the dynamics of desire, the political effects of gay group-identities. Moreover, he repudiated the prospect of a new gay'social organisation' of politics, along with the injunction to sacrifice oneself in the name of future generations; the sociologist Jeffrey Weeks's 1978 preface to the first English translation of Homosexual Desire situates the essay in relation to the various French, theories of subjectivity and desire surrounding and influencing Hocquenghem's thought.
It was republished in French in 2000. Additionally, Hocquenghem wrote the following works: L'Après-Mai des faunes is the second and untranslated queer-theoretical text. Co-ire, album systématique de l'enfance examines childhood sexuality from a Marxist perspective, co-written with professor René Schérer, it is rumored that Schérer and Hocquenghem had an affair in 1959, when the latter was 15. Fin de section is a short story collection. La Dérive homosexuelle is the untranslated queer-theoretical text. La Beauté du métis analyzed French anti-Arab homophobia. L'Amour en relief is Hocquenghem's most famous novel. A blind Tunisian boy explores French society and discovers the ways in which pleasure can form a resistance to totalitarianism; the novel contextualizes homosexual desire as a resistance to white racism. La Colère de l'agneau is an experiment in millenarian and apocalyptic narrative, taking St. John the Evangelist as its subject. L'Âme atomique was written in response to Hocquenghem's deteriorating health, again in collaboration with Schérer.
This work espouses a philosophy composed of dandyism and epicureanism. Open letter to those who moved from Mao collars to Rotary wheels, Agone was republished in 2003 with a foreword by Serge Halimi. ISBN 2-7489-0005-7Eve is a narrative which combines the story of Genesis with a description of the changes in the body from AIDS-related symptoms, written as Hocquenghem's own body deteriorated. Voyages et aventures extraordinaires du Frère Angelo explores the mind of an Italian monk accompanying the conquistadors to the New World; the Screwball Asses is an essay which appeared in the twelfth issue of Recherches, a French journal. Edited by Félix Guattari and the FHAR, the issue was devoted to homosexuality. Shortly after publication, copies of the issue were seized by French authorities; the Screwball Asses was published in English with authorship attributed to Hocquenghem. However according to Hocquenghem's biographer Antoine Idier, the author of the text is not Hocquenghem but the French writer Christian Maurel..
A German translation of the text is published in September 2019 by the publishing house August Verlag with the attribution to Christian Maurel, under the title Für den Arsch. The Screwball Asses is a critique of various issues in left-wing politics and gay culture, using Marxist and Freudian vocabulary: We would be beating a dead horse by saying that psychoanalysis trumpets the existence of homosexuality everywhere, it does not stop there: it establishes that this homosexual libido, in which everyone participates, must be sublimated by sentiments and socioeconomic activity. The Oedipal prohibition enables family; the anal prohibition allows for salary and wor
Alfred Piccaver was a British-American operatic tenor. He was noted for his performances as Rodolfo in Giacomo Puccini's La bohème and other popular mainstream operatic roles. Piccaver was born on 5 February 1884 in the Lincolnshire town of Long Sutton to chemist Frederick Herman Piccaver and his wife Sarah Ann Sissons; the Piccavers had been farm laborers, but there were claims of Spanish ancestry dating back to the Spanish Armada. At a young age, Alfred emigrated with his family to the United States of America; the family took American citizenship. Frederick Piccaver worked as head brewer of the Beverwyck Brewery. Alfred joined the choir of Albany's St. Peter's Episcopal Church as a boy soprano, he became a soloist at the North Reformed Church in Watervliet. The young Piccaver went on to study voice with S. Graham Nobbes, chief instructor of the Emma Willard Conservatory of Music and with Allan Lindsay, conductor of the Troy Conservatory of Music. Alfred trained to be electrical engineer but he had a talent for singing and in 1905 he enrolled at the Metropolitan School of Opera.
The school's director Heinrich Conried recognised his considerable vocal ability and in 1907 sent the young Alfred to Prague, where he studied with Ludmilla Prochazka-Neumann. His studies led to a three-year contract with the Deutsches Landes-Theater in Prague where he made his debut on 9 September 1907 in Otto Nicolai's The Merry Wives of Windsor. In the following three years, he sang in operas by Flotow, Wagner, Mozart and Gounod; this variety stood him in good stead, because in 1910, he was invited to appear as a guest in Mattia Battistini’s touring company, performing in Prague. He must have impressed Battistini because Piccaver was persuaded to travel with the company to their next venue in Vienna where the Vienna Hofoper showed an interest in him. However, he continued to sing with the Prague company for the remainder of his contract and it was not until 6 September 1912 that he gave his first performance with the Vienna State Opera as a permanent member. Piccaver had a warm, lyric tenor voice with a fine cantilena style and excellent legato and diction.
On it became what an English critic has described as'slack muscled' and acquired a baritonal quality, but in the early years of his prime he was known to the Viennese as'the Caruso from Prague'. His roles included Rodolfo, Canio, Florestan and Walther, he made a large number of recordings by both the acoustic and electrical processes and many of these are available on CD reissues. Piccaver loved Vienna and the Viennese way of life, so much so that when the director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York, Giulio Gatti-Casazza, made a lucrative offer for him to appear at the Met, he turned it down, he was never asked again. In return, the Viennese were devoted to'Picci'; when the First World War broke out Piccaver as an American citizen was unaffected, though when the United States joined the war in 1917 he was found trying to leave the country but was spared internment if he agreed to continue singing at the Opera. After the war his career at the Vienna State Opera was interrupted by appearances in Chicago in 1923, 1924 and 1925 and at London's Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, in 1924, the only year in which he appeared at this house.
In 1923, for reasons that are not clear, he claimed British nationality as he was entitled to do as a result of his place of birth, though Alfred Piccaver always considered himself an American. On 31 December 1931 his contract with The Vienna State Opera was terminated as a result of a dispute over his salary, he continued to live in Vienna and to make guest appearances in opera in Austria and abroad but with the political situation in Austria worsening he decided to return to Britain in 1937, settling in Putney, London. He made some records and concert appearances in London and appeared on the BBC’s fledgling television service in 1939. Piccaver worked as teacher, giving lessons in music and singing, one of his pupils being the tenor Nigel Douglas. After the war, in 1955 he returned to Vienna for the re-opening of the Vienna State Opera House and decided to stay permanently, he died in his favourite city on 23 September 1958. The Austrian government gave him a state funeral, his coffin was carried in procession from the Protestant Church to the Opera House, where many attended to pay their respects.
The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra played the funeral march from Beethoven's Eroica Symphony. His ashes are buried at Feuerhalle Simmering Vienna. Piccaver's first marriage was to Baroness Mariette Styrcea, the daughter of an Austrian Lutheran minister. Mariette worked for the Volkstheater company in Vienna, she was still a teenager. The union ended in divorce. In 1926, Piccaver married an Austrian dancer. Piccaver for a time had a home in Pennsylvania. History of the Tenor - Sound Clips and Narration Alfred Piccaver at WN
The EMLL 21st Anniversary Show was a professional wrestling major show event produced by Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre that took place on September 26, 1954 in Arena Modelo, Mexico City, Mexico. The event commemorated the 21st anniversary of EMLL, which would become the oldest professional wrestling promotion in the world; the Anniversary show is EMLL's biggest show of their Super Bowl event. The 1954 Anniversary show commemorated the 21st anniversary of the Mexican professional wrestling company Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre holding their first show on September 22, 1933 by promoter and founder Salvador Lutteroth. EMLL was rebranded early in 1992 to become Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre signal their departure from the National Wrestling Alliance. With the sales of the Jim Crockett Promotions to Ted Turner in 1988 EMLL became the oldest, still-operating wrestling promotion in the world. Over the years EMLL/CMLL has on occasion held multiple shows to celebrate their anniversary but since 1977 the company has only held one annual show, considered the biggest show of the year, CMLL's equivalent of WWE's WrestleMania or their Super Bowl event.
CMLL has held their Anniversary show at Arena México in Mexico City, Mexico since 1956, the year the building was completed, over time Arena México earned the nickname "The Cathedral of Lucha Libre" due to it hosting most of EMLL/CMLL's major events since the building was completed. EMLL held their first anniversary show at Arena Modelo in 1933 and returned to that building in 1937 through 1943. From 1934 through 1936 EMLL rented Arena Nacional for their shows, but in 1944 they began holding their anniversary shows at Arena Coliseo, an arena they owned. From 1944 through 1955 EMLL held all their anniversary shows at Arena Coliseo. Traditionally EMLL/CMLL holds their major events on Friday Nights, replacing their scheduled Super Viernes show; the event featured an undetermined number of professional wrestling matches with different wrestlers involved in pre-existing scripted feuds and storylines. Wrestlers were portrayed as either heels or faces as they followed a series of tension-building events, which culminated in a wrestling match or series of matches.
Due to the nature of keeping paper records of wrestling at the time no documentation has been found for some of the matches of the show. The only documented match of the 21st Anniversary show was a Super Libre match, which meant that there were no rules at all, only way to win was by pinfall or submission; the match was another chapter in a long intense and bloody feud between the brawler Cavernario Galindo and the more clean, technical Gory Guerrero. The match between the two was so bloody and brutal that the ringside doctor had to step in and stop the match, awarding it to Gory Guerrero as Cavenario Galindo was unable to continue; the match was stopped due to Galindo suffering a throat injury due, an injury that caused him to speak with a hoarse, raspy voice for the rest of his life as a result. The intense violent feud continued throughout the 1950s, cementing both Guerrero and Galindo's legacy in Lucha Libre