Speke is an area of Liverpool, England, close to the boundaries of the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley. It is 7.7 miles south east to the west of the town of Widnes. Speke is bordered by a number of other areas; the name derives from the Old English Spec, meaning'brushwood'. It was known as Spec in the Domesday Book, which gave Speke Hall as one of the properties held by Uctred. In the mid 14th century, the manors of Speke, Whiston and Parr were held by William Dacre, 2nd Baron Dacre; until the 1930s, Speke was a small village with a population of 400. The local All Saints Church was built by the last resident owner of Miss Adelaide Watt. From 1795 until 1921, the Speke estate had belonged to the Watt family, it was bought by the Liverpool Corporation in 1928 for £200,000. The parish of Speke became part of the county borough of Liverpool in 1932, having belonged to the Whiston Rural District. Constructed between 1930 and 1933, by the start of World War II, Speke Airport was the second busiest in the UK.
Retention of control by the Ministry of Civil Aviation in London after the war meant that it had lost its leading position in the UK by the 1950s. The industrial rise of Speke continued until the mid-1970s, when an rapid decline ensued; the closure of the Bryant and May match factory was a noted example of these problems, as was the closure of the Triumph car plant. The area has however retained a cluster of pharmaceutical facilities, with companies operating there including Eli Lilly and Company, MedImmune and Novartis; when the 2000 Index of Multiple Deprivation was published Speke was revealed to be the second most deprived ward in England and Wales. Only Benchill in Manchester had a higher level of deprivation. Speke is known for Speke Hall, a Tudor wood-framed house now owned by the National Trust and open to the public, it is notable as the location of Liverpool John Lennon Airport, known until 2001 as Liverpool Speke Airport. From the mid-1990s the re-development of the original airport site, enabled by the construction of the new airport complex and runway, had left land available for the construction of a business park.
The completion of the A5001 road consolidated the rise of the airport and improved communications in the area. The Speke Liverpool local history website shows a lot of the developments that changed Speke the village into Speke the estate with photographs and documents from the 1870s onwards; the New Mersey Shopping Park was re-developed in 1999 from an older retail site. It houses many large textile outlets as well as mainstream restaurants; the New Mersey Retail Estate is situated between Speke and Garston, directly opposite to the Old Liverpool Airport main terminal building, now a hotel complex. The area features the Mersey Wave opened on 15 December 2003, a 200 ft-long and 100 ft high illuminated sculpture comprising two sets of six aluminium fins; the sculpture, designed by Peter Fink, was removed for repairs within weeks of opening, a problem causing its fins to move dangerously in high winds having been discovered. It was rebuilt in June 2005 and the structure, 30 ft taller than the Angel of the North at Gateshead, is visible from as far as Winter Hill, Greater Manchester.
In 2011, planning was submitted and subsequently granted for Estuary Banks, a £6 million business park scheme developed by Capital & Centric Plc and Barnfield Construction. Constructed started on 80,000 sq ft of speculative construction in November 2011; the latest phase has been completed with 80,000 sold to Business First in June 2012. Recent developments in Speke have seen a multimillion-pound Morrisons superstore, situated directly next to the A561 Speke Boulevard, located only metres away from the Mersey Wave. Planning was granted in May 2012 for Speke Business Park on Goodlass Road, it comprises 45,000 sq ft of business units and was developed by Manchester-based developer Capital & Centric Plc. Football Club: Speke South Liverpool, a local amateur football side, was founded at the Austin Rawlinson Sports Centre, Speke. However, late 2005 saw the club relocate a short distance away to Mossley Hill; the leading amateur football club in the area now is St Christophers FC, who are located at Little Heath.
George Harrison Paul McCartney Les Dennis St Ambrose's Church, Speke Liverpool Street Gallery - Liverpool 24 The Effect of Sir Ebenezer Howard and the Garden City Movement on Twentieth Century Town Planning
Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, the primary sector; the service sector consists of the production of services instead of end products. Services include attention, access and affective labor; the production of information has long been regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute it to a fourth sector, the quaternary sector. The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to other businesses as well as final consumers. Services may involve the transport and sale of goods from producer to a consumer, as may happen in wholesaling and retailing, pest control or entertainment; the goods may be transformed in the process of providing the service, as happens in the restaurant industry. However, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods, it is sometimes hard to define whether a given company is part and parcel of the secondary or tertiary sector.
And it is not only companies. In order to classify a business as a service, one can use classification systems such as the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification standard, the United States' Standard Industrial Classification code system and its new replacement, the North American Industrial Classification System, the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community in the EU and similar systems elsewhere; these governmental classification systems have a first-level hierarchy that reflects whether the economic goods are tangible or intangible. For purposes of finance and market research, market-based classification systems such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark are used to classify businesses that participate in the service sector. Unlike governmental classification systems, the first level of market-based classification systems divides the economy into functionally related markets or industries.
The second or third level of these hierarchies reflects whether goods or services are produced. For the last 100 years, there has been a substantial shift from the primary and secondary sectors to the tertiary sector in industrialized countries; this shift is called tertiarisation. The tertiary sector is now the largest sector of the economy in the Western world, is the fastest-growing sector. In examining the growth of the service sector in the early Nineties, the globalist Kenichi Ohmae noted that: "In the United States 70 percent of the workforce works in the service sector; these are not busboys and live-in maids. Many of them are in the professional category, they are earning as much as manufacturing workers, more.”Economies tend to follow a developmental progression that takes them from a heavy reliance on agriculture and mining, toward the development of manufacturing and toward a more service-based structure. The first economy to follow this path in the modern world was the United Kingdom.
The speed at which other economies have made the transition to service-based economies has increased over time. Manufacturing tended to be more open to international trade and competition than services. However, with dramatic cost reduction and speed and reliability improvements in the transportation of people and the communication of information, the service sector now includes some of the most intensive international competition, despite residual protectionism. Service providers face obstacles selling services that goods-sellers face. Services are intangible, making it difficult for potential customers to understand what they will receive and what value it will hold for them. Indeed, such as consultants and providers of investment services, offer no guarantees of the value for price paid. Since the quality of most services depends on the quality of the individuals providing the services, "people costs" are a high fraction of service costs. Whereas a manufacturer may use technology and other techniques to lower the cost of goods sold, the service provider faces an unrelenting pattern of increasing costs.
Product differentiation is difficult. For example, how does one choose one investment adviser over another, since they are seen to provide identical services? Charging a premium for services is an option only for the most established firms, who charge extra based upon brand recognition. Examples of tertiary industries may include: Telecommunication Hospitality industry/tourism Mass media Healthcare/hospitals Public health Pharmacy Information technology Waste disposal Consulting Gambling Retail sales Fast-moving consumer goods Franchising Real estate Education Financial services Banking Insurance Investment management Professional services Accounting Legal services Management consultingTransportation Below is a list of countries by service output at market exchange rates in 2016. Quaternary sector of the economy Indigo Era National Occupational Research Agenda Service Sector Council, USA Media related to Service industries at Wikimedia Commons
Merseyrail is a underground commuter rail network and train operating company serving Liverpool and the surrounding Liverpool City Region, England. It is a part of Serco-Abellio, is formed of two electrified lines of the National Rail network known as the Northern Line and the Wirral Line which run underground in central Liverpool and Birkenhead, providing a metro-style service. A third line, separate from the metro-style network, is named the City Line, a term used by the governing body Merseytravel referring to local services it sponsors on the Liverpool to Manchester Lines and Liverpool to Wigan Line operated by Northern; the Merseyrail network has 75 miles of route, of which 6.5 miles are underground. Carrying 110,000 passengers each weekday, or 34 million passengers per year, it forms the most used urban railway network in the UK outside London; the network is operated by a joint venture between franchise holder Serco and Abellio, who superseded Arriva Trains Merseyside in 2003. The contract is for 25 years expiring in 2028.
Serco-Abellio operate a fleet of 59 trains and as of 2015. The large comprehensive urban network was formed in 1977 by merging separate rail lines by the construction of new tunnels under Liverpool city centre and Birkenhead. Although financial constraints have prevented some of the 1970s plans for the network being realised, the network has been extended, with additional extensions proposed. Point-to-point or return tickets are purchased from staffed offices or ticket machines, but the system is integrated with Merseytravel's City Region-wide pass system, which encompasses the Mersey Ferries and city and regional bus networks; as of March 2019 Merseytravel ticketing is transitioning to the local Walrus smartcard system, including Merseyrail travel. The Merseyrail name became the official brand for the network in the days of British Rail, surviving several franchise holders, although the name was not used by Arriva when holding the franchise. Despite this, Merseytravel continued the Merseyrail branding at stations, allowing the name to be adopted colloquially.
Merseyrail is referred to as "Merseyrail Electrics" by National Rail Enquiries, as "Serco/Abellio Merseyrail" by Merseytravel. The network is composed of two lines known as the Northern Line and the Wirral Line which are operated by the Merseyrail train operating company and are electrified throughout using the third-rail 750 V DC system; the Power Supply to the Third Rail is monitored and controlled by the Electric Control Room at Sandhills. The City Line is operated by Northern with funding from Merseytravel; the line is electrified with one branch, the Liverpool to Manchester line via Warrington, operated by diesel trains. Trains on the Northern Line and Wirral Line cover the Liverpool City Region, their total track length is 75 miles, with 68 stations. The lines connect Liverpool city centre with cities and towns on the outer reaches of the city region, such as Southport and Chester. Frequent intermediate stops serve other sections of the urban area. Trains run at an off-peak interval of fifteen minutes on most branches, with lines converging to provide a frequency of up to every five minutes within central Liverpool, under the Mersey to Birkenhead.
Although these two lines of the system by the strictest definition only fulfil the requirements of a pure rapid transit network, its legislative isolation from the national franchise system, high frequency in the central, underground sections, operation as a self-contained network make it comparable to one or, more comparable to European S-train systems. The three lines interchange as follows: Northern and City Line services interchange at Liverpool South Parkway and Hunts Cross in the south of the city. Wirral and City Lines interchange at Lime Street in the city centre. Northern and Wirral lines interchange at Liverpool Central and Moorfields in the city centre The Northern Line is shown in blue on the Merseyrail map and denoted by the above wordmark on underground stations. Services operate on three main routes: from Hunts Cross in the south of Liverpool to Southport via the Link tunnel from Brunswick Station through central Liverpool, from Liverpool Central to Ormskirk and from Liverpool Central to Kirkby.
Each route operates a train every 15 minutes from Monday to Saturday, giving a frequent interval between trains on the central section. Some additional trains run at peak hours on the Southport line. Connections are available at Southport to Manchester Airport. On matchdays at the stadiums of Liverpool F. C.'s Anfield and Everton F. C.'s Goodison Park, Northern Line services connect with the SoccerBus service at Sandhills to transport fans to the stadiums. The buses depart at frequent intervals from Sandhills station and a ticket combining both methods of travel is available. Kirkdale station is within walking distance of Goodison Park; the Wirral Line is shown in green on the Merseyrail map and denoted by the above wordmark on underground stations. Services operate from the four terminus stations of: Chester, Ellesmere Port, New Brighton and West Kirby; each line from the terminus stations runs to Hamilton Square underground station in Birkenhead and through the Mersey Railway Tunnel, continuing aro
Barclays plc is a British multinational investment bank and financial services company, headquartered in London. Apart from investment banking, Barclays is organised into four core businesses: personal banking, corporate banking, wealth management, investment management. Barclays traces its origins to a goldsmith banking business established in the City of London in 1690. James Barclay became a partner in the business in 1736. In 1896, several banks in London and the English provinces, including Backhouse's Bank and Gurney's Bank, united as a joint-stock bank under the name Barclays and Co. Over the following decades, Barclays expanded to become a nationwide bank. In 1967, Barclays deployed the world's first cash dispenser. Barclays has made numerous corporate acquisitions, including of London and South Western Bank in 1918, British Linen Bank in 1919, Mercantile Credit in 1975, the Woolwich in 2000 and the North American operations of Lehman Brothers in 2008. Barclays has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.
It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Qatar Holdings, an investment vehicle of the State of Qatar, is the largest shareholder of the company. According to a 2011 paper by Vitali et al. Barclays was the most powerful transnational corporation in terms of ownership and thus corporate control over global financial stability and market competition, with AXA and State Street Corporation taking the 2nd and 3rd positions, respectively. Barclays traces its origins back to 1690 when John Freame, a Quaker, Thomas Gould started trading as goldsmith bankers in Lombard Street, London; the name "Barclays" became associated with the business in 1736, when Freame's son-in-law James Barclay became a partner. In 1728 the bank moved to 54 Lombard Street, identified by the'Sign of the Black Spread Eagle', which in subsequent years would become a core part of the bank's visual identity; the Barclay family were connected both as proponents and opponents. David and Alexander Barclay were engaged in the slave trade in 1756.
David Barclay of Youngsbury, on the other hand, was a noted abolitionist, Verene Shepherd, the Jamaican historian of diaspora studies, singles out the case of how he chose to free his slaves in that colony. In 1776 the firm was styled "Barclay and Bening" and so remained until 1785, when another partner, John Tritton, who had married a Barclay, was admitted, the business became "Barclay, Bevan and Tritton". In 1896 several banks in London and the English provinces, notably Backhouse's Bank of Darlington and Gurney's Bank of Norwich, united under the banner of Barclays and Co. a joint-stock bank. Between 1905 and 1916 Barclays extended its branch network by making acquisitions of small English banks. Further expansion followed in 1918 when Barclays amalgamated with the London and South Western Bank and in 1919 when the British Linen Bank was acquired by Barclays Bank, although the British Linen Bank retained a separate board of directors and continued to issue its own bank notes. In 1925 the Colonial Bank, National Bank of South Africa and the Anglo-Egyptian Bank were amalgamated and Barclays operated its overseas operations under the name Barclays Bank – Barclays DCO.
In 1938 Barclays acquired the first Indian exchange bank, the Central Exchange Bank of India, which had opened in London in 1936 with the sponsorship of Central Bank of India. In 1941 during the Nazi Occupation of France, a branch of Barclays in Paris headed by Marcel Cheradame worked directly with the invading force. Senior officials at the bank volunteered the names of Jewish employees as well as ceding an estimated 100 Jewish bank accounts to the Nazi occupiers; the Paris branch used its funds to increase the operational power of a large quarry that helped produce steel for the Nazis. There was no evidence of contact between the head office in London and the branch in Paris during the occupation. Marcel Cheradame was kept as the branch manager. In May 1958, Barclays was the first UK bank to appoint a female bank manager. Hilda Harding managed Barclays' Hanover Square branch in London until her retirement in 1970. In 1965, Barclays established Barclays Bank of California in San Francisco. Barclays launched the first credit card in the UK, Barclaycard, in 1966.
On 27 June 1967, Barclays deployed the world's first cash machine, in Enfield. The British actor Reg Varney was the first person to use the machine. In 1969, a planned merger with Martins Bank and Lloyds Bank was blocked by the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, but the acquisition of Martins Bank on its own was permitted; that year, the British Linen Bank subsidiary was sold to the Bank of Scotland in exchange for a 25% stake, a transaction that became effective from 1971. Barclays DCO changed its name to Barclays Bank International in 1971. In August 1975, following the secondary banking crash, Barclays acquired Mercantile Credit Company. In 1980, Barclays Bank International expanded its business to include commercial credit and took over American Credit Corporation, renaming it Barclays American Corporation; the following year Barclays Bank and Barclays Bank International merged, as part of the corporate reorganisation the former Barclays Bank plc became a group holding company, renamed Barclays plc, UK retail banking was integrated under the former BBI, renamed Barclays Bank PLC from Barclays Bank Limited.
In 1986 Barclays sold its South African business operating under the Barclays National Bank name after protests against Barclays' involvement in South Africa and its apartheid government. That year Barclay
Grand Princess is a Grand-class cruise ship owned by Princess Cruises. Built in 1998 by Fincantieri Cantieri Navali Italiani in Monfalcone, with hull number 5956, at a cost of US$450 million, she was the largest and most expensive passenger ship built at the time. Grand Princess was the flagship in the Princess Cruises fleet until the new Royal Princess took that title in June 2013. Grand Princess was the first of the"Grand"-class ships, has a different decor scheme to her sister ships, using darker woods, the interior decor is more similar to the smaller Sun-class ships; when Grand Princess was launched, she featured in the Princess Cruises brochures as a "Sun" class ship. She is the sister ship of Golden Princess. Grand Princess was the setting for a task in the second series of the UK version of the reality TV show The Apprentice. Grand Princess has a large central performance lounge and an aft show lounge. In May 2011, Grand Princess completed the most extensive drydock in Princess Cruises history that included a refit and removal of the passengers lounge from her stern.
This resolved her tendency to sail bow high, has improved her fuel economy by about 3-4%. The bow high tendency was peculiar to Grand Princess, does not affect any of the other Grand class ships as unlike Grand Princess they have aluminium upper decks; as of September 2016, Grand Princess is based year-round in San Francisco, California sailing to Alaska, Victoria on Vancouver Island, Mexico Riviera, California Coastal Cruises. On 9 August 2017, a dead whale was found at the bow of the ship while docked in Alaska. Media related to Grand Princess at Wikimedia Commons Official website The picture of Grand Princess departing from Fort Lauderdale post refit
Bootle is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Sefton, Merseyside, in the north of England. The town had a population of 51,394 in 2011. Part of Lancashire, Bootle's development and history has been centred on its close proximity to the River Mersey and the industrial expansion of the city of Liverpool to the south. While a small hamlet, the town grew during the 1800's firstly as a dormitory town for wealthy merchants, later as a centre of commerce and industry in its own right following the arrival of the railroad and the expansion of the docks and shipping industries. During World War II the town was damaged during Liverpool Blitz raids against the port and other industrial targets. Post war economic success in the 50's and 60's gave way to a downturn precipitated by reduction in the significance of the Liverpool Docks internationally, changing levels of industrialisation, coupled with the development of modern suburbs and the expansion of industries into the Merseyside hinterlands. By the 1980s there had been a sharp spike in a progressive population decline.
More large-scale renewal projects were begun to help regenerate the local economy. Etymologically Bootle derives from Botle meaning a dwelling, it was recorded as Boltelai in the Domesday Book in 1086. By 1212 the spelling had been recorded as Botle; the spellings Botull and Bothell are recorded in the 14th century. In the 18th century, it was known as Bootle cum Linacre. Bootle was a small hamlet built near the'sand hills' or dunes of the river estuary. In the early 19th century, it began to develop as a bathing resort, attracting wealthy people from Liverpool; some remaining large villas which housed well-to-do commuters to Liverpool are located in the area known locally as'Bootle Village'. The Liverpool and Southport Railway arrived in the 1840s and Bootle experienced rapid growth. By the end of the 19th century the docks had been constructed along the whole of the river front as far as Seaforth Sands to the north; the town became industrialised. Bootle was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1868 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, was granted the status of a county borough by the Local Government Act 1888 in 1889, becoming independent from the administrative county of Lancashire.
During this time period it was sometimes formally known as Bootle-cum-Linacre. Orrell was added to the borough in 1905. There are still large areas of Victorian terraced houses in Bootle occupied by dock workers; these are built in distinctive pressed red brick. Bootle's town hall and other municipal buildings were erected in the last quarter of the 19th century; the population of the town swelled during this period, boosted in large part by Irish immigration and the attraction of plentiful work on the docks. The wealth to pay for the splendour of the town hall and the gentrified'Bootle Village' area was generated by these docks; the skilled workers lived in terraced houses in the east of the town, while the casual dock labourers lived in cramped, dwellings near the dockside. Stories about three streets in particular, Raleigh Street, Dundas Street and Lyons Street, caused great alarm. Lyons Street, the scene of the'Teapot Murder' was renamed Beresford Street shortly before the First World War. On the positive side, Bootle was the first borough to elect its own school board, following the passage of William Forster's Elementary Education Act 1870.
In 1872 Dr R. J. Sprakeling was appointed the first Medical Officer of Health, was instrumental in improving sanitary conditions in the town; the Metropole Theatre on Stanley Road played host to stars such as music hall singer Marie Lloyd. The emporia in the Stanley Road and Strand Road areas of the town were filled with goods from all over the British Empire. Tree lined streets surrounded magnificent open spaces, such as Derby Park, North Park and South Park. Roman Catholic and Anglican churches sprang up all over the town, Welsh immigration brought with it Nonconformist chapels and the temperance movement. Local societies thrived, including sports teams and musical groups; the Bootle May Day carnival and the crowning of the May Queen were highlights of the social year. The town fought against absorption by neighbouring Liverpool in 1903; this was a matter of some civic pride to the people of Bootle and the Latin motto of the town, Aspice, was emblazoned on school buildings, the local press, police uniforms and all manner of other places.
The docks made Bootle a target for Nazi German Luftwaffe bombers during the Liverpool Blitz of the Second World War, with 90% of the houses in the town damaged. Situated adjoining the city of Liverpool, the site of numerous docks, Bootle had the distinction of being the most bombed borough in the UK. Bootle played an important role in the Battle of the Atlantic. Royal Navy's Captain Frederic John Walker, the famous U-boat hunter, would rest in the Mayor's Parlour of Bootle Town Hall and his ship, HMS Starling, sailed out of Bootle; the ship's bell and flags signalling the General Chase can still be seen in Bootle Town Hall's council chamber today. After the Second World War large council housing estates were built inland from the town centre, including the area of Netherton, built on new town principles; the Liverpool Overhead Railway and Liverpool Tramways Company closure in the 1950s reduced Bootle's connection to Liverpool. Bootle did share in the postwar boom; the centre of the town was redeveloped and the'Bootle New Strand' shopping centre was opened in the la
Culture of Liverpool
The Culture of Liverpool incorporates a wide range of activities within the city of Liverpool, England. The city is an important centre for culture not just in the north west of England, but the United Kingdom more broadly, its contributions to culture internationally were recognised in 2008, when it was named the European Capital of Culture. On 4 June 2003, Liverpool was named a European Capital of Culture for 2008, the other site being Stavanger, Norway. Beryl Bainbridge, one of England's greatest contemporary writers, grew up in Liverpool. Many of her stories are set there. A number of notable authors have visited Liverpool including Daniel Defoe, Washington Irving, Thomas De Quincey, Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Charles Dickens, Gerard Manley Hopkins and Hugh Walpole all of whom spent extended periods in the city. Hawthorne was stationed in Liverpool as United States consul between 1853 and 1856. Although he is not known to have visited Liverpool, Jung famously had a vivid dream of the city which he analysed in one of his works.
Liverpool was the centre in the 1960s of Merseybeat and since has been home to a music scene. The city is home to the UK's oldest-established orchestra, the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra, headquartered in the Philharmonic Hall, a youth orchestra. Max Bruch was one of numerous notable conductors of the RLPO, dedicated his Kol Nidre to the Jewish community in the city. Sir Edward Elgar dedicated his famous Pomp and Circumstance No.1 to the Liverpool Orchestral Society, the piece had its first performance in the city in 1901. Among Liverpool's curiosities, the Austrian émigré Fritz Spiegl is notable, he not only became a world expert on the etymology of Scouse, but composed the music to Z-Cars and the Radio 4 UK Theme. During the late 1960s the city became well known for the Liverpool poets, who include Roger McGough and the late Adrian Henri. An anthology of poems, The Mersey Sound, written by Henri, McGough and Brian Patten, has sold over 500,000 copies since first being published in 1967.
Liverpool has a history of performing arts, reflected every summer in its annual theatrical highlight, the Liverpool Shakespeare Festival and by the number of theatres in the city. These include the Empire, Playhouse, Royal Court and Unity Theatres; the Everyman and Playhouse Theatres all run their own theatre companies. Liverpool has more galleries and national museums than any other city in the United Kingdom apart from London. National Museums Liverpool is the only English national collection based wholly outside London; the Tate Liverpool gallery houses the modern art collection of the Tate in the North of England and was, until the opening of Tate Modern, the largest exhibition space dedicated to modern art in the United Kingdom. The FACT centre hosts touring multimedia exhibitions, whilst the Walker Art Gallery houses an extensive collection of Pre-Raphaelites. Sudley House contains another major collection of pre-20th-century art, the number of galleries continues to expand: Ceri Hand Gallery opened in 2008, exhibiting contemporary art, Liverpool University's Victoria Building was re-opened as a public art gallery and museum to display the University's artwork and historical collections which include the second-largest display of art by Audubon outside the US.
Artists have come from the city, including painter George Stubbs, born in Liverpool in 1724. The Liverpool Biennial festival of arts runs from mid-September to late November and comprises three main sections, it was during the 2004 festival that Yoko Ono's work "My mother is beautiful" caused widespread public protest when photographs of a naked woman's pubic area were exhibited on the main shopping street. Despite protests the work remained in place