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Economy of Madagascar

The economy of Madagascar is a market economy and is supported by Madagascar's well-established agricultural industry and emerging tourism and mining industries. Malagasy agriculture produces tropical staple crops such as rice and cassava, as well as cash crops such as vanilla and coffee. Madagascar's wealth of natural resources supports its sizable mining industry. Additionally, Madagascar's status as a developing nation exempts Malagasy exports from customs protocol in some areas, notably the United States and European Union; these exemptions have supported the growth of the Malagasy textile industry. Despite Madagascar's natural resources and developing industries, the 2009 Malagasy political crisis—considered by the international community to be an illegal coup—deterred foreign investments in Madagascar and caused the Malagasy economy to decline. Foreign investments have resumed following the resumption of elections in early 2014. At 2018, Madagascar is one of the world's fastest-growing economies.

Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is Madagascar's largest industry and employs 82% of its labor force. Madagascar's varied climate, ranging from tropical along the coasts, moderate in the highlands and arid in the south, allows for the cultivation of tropical crops such as rice, cassava and bananas. In 2011, agricultural products—especially cloves, cacao, sugar and coffee—accounted for Madagascar's top twelve exports by value. Madagascar produces the second largest vanilla harvest in the world and Malagasy vanilla accounts for about a quarter of the global vanilla market. Exports from Madagascars' Export Processing Zones, located around Antananarivo and Antsirabe, account for the majority of garment exports and are exempt from customs restrictions in the United States under the African Growth and Opportunity Act and in the European Union under the Everything But Arms agreement. A small but growing part of the economy is based on mining of ilmenite, with investments emerging in recent years near Tulear and Fort Dauphin.

Mining corporation Rio Tinto Group started production at its Fort Dauphin mine in January 2009, following several years of preparation. The mining project is controversial, with Friends of the Earth and other environmental organizations filing reports to detail their concerns about the mine's effect on the environment and local communities. Gemstone mining is an important part of Madagascar's economy. Several major projects are underway in the mining and oil and gas sectors that, if successful, will give a significant boost. In the mining sector, these include the development of nickel near Tamatave; the Ambatovy nickel mine is a huge operation and has cost USD $4.76 million to date and is due to start production in 2011. In oil, Madagascar Oil is developing the massive onshore heavy oil field at Tsimiroro and ultra heavy oil field at Bemolanga. Following the 2002 political crisis, the government attempted to set a new course and build confidence, in coordination with international financial institutions and donors.

Madagascar developed a recovery plan in collaboration with the private sector and donors and presented it at a "Friends of Madagascar" conference organized by the World Bank in Paris in July 2002. Donor countries demonstrated their confidence in the new government by pledging $1 billion in assistance over five years; the Malagasy Government identified road infrastructure as its principal priority and underlined its commitment to public-private partnership by establishing a joint public-private sector steering committee. The Madagascar-U. S. Business Council was formed as a collaboration between the United States Agency for International Development and Malagasian artisan producers in Madagascar in 2002; the U. S.-Madagascar Business Council was formed in the United States in May 2003, the two organisations continue to explore ways to work for the benefit of both groups. The government of former President Marc Ravalomanana was aggressively seeking foreign investment and had planned to tackle many of the obstacles to such investment, including combating corruption, reforming land-ownership laws, encouraging study of American and European business techniques, active pursuit of foreign investors.

President Ravalomanana rose to prominence through his agro-foods TIKO company, is known for attempting to apply many of the lessons learned in the world of business to running the government. Prior to Ravalomanana's resignation, concerns had arisen about the conflict of interest between his policies and the activities of his firms. Most notable among them the preferential treatment for rice imports initiated by the government in late 2004 when responding to a production shortfall in the country. Madagascar's appeal to investors stems from its trainable work force. More than 200 investors garment manufacturers, were organized under the country’s export processing zone system since it was established in 1989; the absence of quota limits on textile imports to the European market under the Lome Convention helped stimulate this growth. Growth in output in 1992–97 averaged less than the growth rate of the population. Growth has been held back by a decline in world coffee demand, the erratic commitment of the government to economic reform.

During a period of solid growth from 1997 to 2001, poverty levels remained stubbornly high in rural areas. A six-month political crisis triggered by a dispute over the outcome of the presidential elections held in December 2001 halted economic activity in much of the country in the first half of 2002. Real GDP dropped 12.7% in 2002, inflows of foreign investment dropped sharply

The Best FIFA Men's Player

The Best FIFA Men's Player is an association football award presented annually by the sport's governing body, FIFA, to the world's best men's player since 2016. The award was known as the FIFA World Player of the Year, merged with France Football's Ballon d'Or in 2010 to become the FIFA Ballon d'Or in a six-year partnership. In 2010, the FIFA World Player of the Year award combined with the Ballon d'Or to create the FIFA Ballon d'Or in a six-year partnership. FIFA presided over the FIFA Ballon d'Or after agreeing to pay £13million for the merge of the two major player awards with France Football; the six editions of the FIFA Ballon d'Or were dominated by Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo, as part of their ongoing rivalry. In 2016, the Ballon d’Or again lost its ‘FIFA’ tag and would be voted for by journalists, while the FIFA World Player of the Year award — which ran from 1991 to 2009 — was resurrected, this time as The Best FIFA Men's Player. According to reports, FIFA’s decision not to renew the deal was made in order to improve the organization’s strained relationship with England’s FA.

This was based on the fact the annual ceremony was held in Zurich – and new FIFA president Gianni Infantino wanted to move the next one to London. The selection criteria for the players of the year are sporting performance, as well as general conduct on and off the pitch; the votes are decided by media representatives, national team coaches, national team captains. In October 2016, it was announced that the general public would be allowed to vote; each group has 25% of the overall vote. The Best FIFA Football Awards The Best FIFA Women's Player Official Facebook website

The Battle (Allen-Lande album)

The Battle is the first studio album by hard rock supergroup Allen-Lande, a collaboration between vocalists Russell Allen and Jørn Lande. It was released on 19 September 2005, is the first of three albums in a row to feature Magnus Karlsson as songwriter and performer of most instruments, Jaime Salazar on drums. All tracks are written by Magnus Karlsson. MusiciansRussell Allen - lead and backing vocals Jørn Lande - lead and backing vocals Magnus Karlsson - guitars, bass guitar, keyboards Jaime Salazar - drumsProductionAnders Theander, Magnus Karlsson, Serafino Perugino - production Rodney Matthews - cover art

Savon Sanomat

Savon Sanomat is a Finnish language morning broadsheet newspaper published in Kuopio, Finland. Savon Sanomat was established in 1907; the paper is part of the Keskisuomalainen Oyj Group. The company owns Keskisuomalainen. Both papers are published by Keskisuomalainen Oy. Savon Sanomat is published in broadsheet format; the circulation of Savon Sanomat was 67,212 copies in 2001. In 2003 the paper had a circulation of 65,000 copies; the 2004 circulation of the paper was 66,250 copies. The same year the paper had a readership of 179,000; the circulation of the paper was 64,471 copies in 2006. Savon Sanomat had a circulation of 64,789 copies in 2007, its circulation was 65,056 copies in 2008 and 64,113 copies in 2009. It was 61,546 copies in 2010 and 61,666 copies in 2011, its circulation fell to 59,289 copies in 2012. Official site

Positive organizational behavior

Positive Organizational Behavior is defined as "the study and application of positively oriented human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured and managed for performance improvement in today’s workplace". For a positive psychological capacity to qualify for inclusion in POB, it must be positive and must have extensive theory and research foundations and valid measures. In addition, it must be state like, which would make it open to development and manageable for performance improvement. Positive states that meet the POB definitional criteria are researched, measured and managed at the individual, micro level; the state-like criterion distinguishes POB from other positive approaches that focus on positive traits, whereas its emphasis on micro, individual-level constructs separates it from positive perspectives that address positive organizations and their related macro-level variables and measures. Meeting the inclusion criteria for POB are the state-like psychological resource capacities of self-efficacy, hope and resiliency and, when combined, the underlying higher-order, core construct of Positive psychological capital or PsyCap.

POB is the application of Positive psychology to the workplace. Its focus is on strengths and on building the best in the workplace under the basic assumption is that goodness and excellence can be analyzed and achieved. Although POB research is new, its core ideas are based on ideas of earlier scholars. POB origins developed from the Positive Psychology movement, initiated in 1998 by Martin Seligman and colleagues. Positive Psychology aims to shift the focus in psychology from dysfunctional mental illness to mental health, calling for an increased focus on the building of human strength; the levels of analysis of positive psychology have been summarized to be at the subjective level. By integrating positive psychology to organizational setting, Fred Luthans has pioneered the positive organizational behavior research in 1999. Since Luthans and colleagues have been attempting to find ways of designing work settings that emphasize people's strengths, where they can be both their best selves and at their best with each other.

Thus far research has shown that employees who are satisfied and find fulfillment in their work are more productive, absent less, demonstrate greater organizational loyalty. Despite initial studies and conceptualizations, the field of POB is still in its infancy. Further research regarding the precise antecedents and consequences of positive psychological behavior is needed; the challenge awaiting POB is to bring about a more profound understanding the real impact of positive states for organizational functioning and how these states can be enhanced within the work place. Positive psychological capital Positive psychology Positive organizational scholarship Fred Luthans, profile in University of Nebraska-Lincoln Institute of Applied Positive Psychology - A not-for-profit, research based, educational institution dedicated to advancing the use of positive psychology in organizations


WRSP-TV, virtual channel 55, is a Fox-affiliated television station licensed to Springfield, United States and serving Decatur. The station is owned by GOCOM Media, LLC, as part of a duopoly with Decatur-licensed CW affiliate WBUI. Both outlets are operated under joint sales and shared services agreements by the Sinclair Broadcast Group, making them sister stations to Springfield-licensed ABC affiliate WICS, channel 20. WRSP's transmitter is located west in unincorporated Sangamon County. However, WBUI operates an advertising sales office on South Main Street/US 51 in Downtown Decatur. WCCU in Urbana–Champaign operates as a semi-satellite of WRSP for the eastern portion of the Central Illinois market, including Danville; as such, it clears all network and syndicated programming from its parent but airs separate local commercial inserts, legal identifications, a weeknight prime time newscast. WCCU and WICD share transmitter facilities northeast of Homer, along the Vermilion–Champaign county line.

What is now WRSP signed-on June 1, 1979 as WBHW, a religious independent. It aired an analog signal on UHF channel 55, it was the first new commercial station in the market since WCIA launched back in 1953. On November 24, 1982, it was sold to new owners who changed the call letters to WRSP-TV and turned it into the area's first general entertainment independent. In the winter of 1985, WRSP announced; as part of the agreement, on February 19, 1986, it added full-time satellite WCCU in Urbana, with an analog signal on UHF channel 27. Both stations began transmitting digital signals in mid-2000 with programming from Fox in high definition, it introduced a new website based on the "My Fox" owned-and-operated station platform licensed from News Corporation Interactive. On June 20, 2007, GOCOM Media announced its intent to purchase WBUI from ACME Communications; the sale was approved on September 14 by the Federal Communications Commission, which allowed GOCOM to buy WBUI under a "failed station" waiver to its duopoly rules.

The Central Illinois market had one duopoly, Nexstar Broadcasting Group's WCIA and WCFN, under normal conditions there wouldn't have been enough unique station owners to allow a second duopoly. However, ACME claimed it was losing money on WBUI and could not find a buyer that did not require a duopoly waiver; the sale to GOCOM Media closed on October 25, 2007. At that point, WBUI consolidated its operations from its original studios at North Parkway Court in Decatur into WRSP's facilities in Springfield. In mid-2010, WRSP's web site was taken over by Broadcast Interactive Media. On December 31, 2012, Sinclair closed on the purchase of the non-license assets of GOCOM's three television stations, WRSP/WCCU and sister station WBUI for $25.6 million. Sinclair is providing sales and other non-programming services to the stations pursuant to shared services and joint sales agreements. Both WRSP/WCCU and WBUI were operated from separate facilities from WICS/WICD. However, WCCU moved its advertising sales operation from its location on South Neil Street/U.

S. 45 in Champaign into WICD's studios. WRSP and WBUI moved from their offices on Old Rochester Road in Springfield and were consolidated into WICS' facility; the stations' digital signals are multiplexed: Both stations shut down their analog signals on February 17, 2009, the original target date in which full-power television stations in the United States were to transition from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate. The station's digital channel allocations post-transition are as follows: WRSP-TV shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 55. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former UHF analog channel 55, among the high band UHF channels that were removed from broadcasting use as a result of the transition. WCCU shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 27. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former UHF analog channel 27. On January 14th 2020 WCCU-TV moved its digital channel from UHF 26 to UHF 36.

On September 11, 2006, WRSP/WCCU established a news share agreement with WICS/WICD. As a result, a nightly prime time newscast began airing on the Fox affiliates, jointly produced by the two ABC outlets. Known as NewsChannel at 9 on Fox Illinois, it aired from a modified set at WICS's Springfield studios featuring unique duratrans indicating the Fox-branded show. From the start, NewsChannel at 9 competed with a newscast established in the time slot on then-UPN affiliate WCFN. Unlike the WRSP/WCCU show, WCFN's broadcast originated from WCIA's Champaign facilities but was targeted at a Springfield audience; the WRSP/WCCU newscast featured market wide coverage, including contributions from WICD reporters, but there was a separate weeknight weather segment for WRSP and WCCU. WCFN's prime time broadcast would be canceled by WCIA on September 28, 2009. On October 7, 2013, the week