Polaris Industries is an American manufacturer of snowmobiles, ATV, neighborhood electric vehicles. Polaris was founded in Minnesota, USA, where it still has engineering and manufacturing; the company's corporate headquarters is in Minnesota. The company manufactured motorcycles through its Victory Motorcycles subsidiary until January 2017, produces motorcycles through the Indian Motorcycle subsidiary, which it purchased in April 2011. Polaris produced personal watercraft from 1994-2004. Robin developed and supplied all-terrain vehicle and snowmobile engines for Polaris Industries Inc. Starting in 1995 with the Polaris Magnum 425 4-stroke ATV and in 1997, with the introduction of the "twin 700" snowmobile engine Polaris started the development and production of in-house produced power plants, known as the "Liberty" line of engines, now found in many models across their current production lines. Since that time Polaris has continued to develop their in-house engine production capacity, now designing and manufacturing all of their own power plants, while maintaining the partnership with Subaru.
In 2010 Polaris relocated a portion of its sport vehicle assembly to Mexico. Components manufactured in Osceola and the vehicle assembly in Roseau, Minnesota; the vast majority of powertrain and vehicles for the off-road line are manufactured in the Osceola and Roseau facilities, respectively. Both the Victory and Indian motorcycle brands are American made with complete powertrains and vehicle assembly located in Osceola and Spirit Lake, respectively. Edgar Hetteen, described by the Snowmobile Hall of Fame in St. Germain, Wisconsin as the father of the snowmobile, David Johnson, Edgar's brother Allan Hetteen were partners in Hetteen Hoist and Derrick in Roseau, Minnesota. Edgar had dropped out of school after the eighth grade in 1934. David Johnson and company employees Paul Knochenmus and Orlen Johnson, the first person to ride a Polaris, decided to create a vehicle that could travel through snow; these vehicles' primary use was to make hunting locations more accessible. David Johnson and several employees created the prototype in 1954 while Edgar was on a business trip.
Edgar returned to Roseau to discover the snow machine and was furious the employees had used their time and company resources on the machine. This first machine used a grain silo conveyor belt as a track, a Briggs and Stratton motor, an old Chevy bumper for skis. Edgar was skeptical of its value, the No. 1 sled was soon sold to Roseau lumberyard owner "Silver Pete" H. F. Peterson for $465 in order to meet company payroll. However, the employees continued to focus on building snowmobiles and soon a second model was created, with Allan Hetteen leading the way; the first production model rolled off the assembly line in Minnesota in 1956. The original models moved at a speed of about 20 mph; as Polaris snowmobiles gained sales traction, Edgar Hetteen became an advocate of the new product line. In order to promote the new snowmobile and prove its reliability and usefulness, in 1960 Edgar led a three-snowmobile, 1,200-mile trek across the Alaskan wilderness, starting from Bethel, Alaska; the trip took three weeks, much of the time, Edgar struggled to maintain 10 mph over the snow.
The Fairbanks Daily News-Miner put them on its front page. However, Edgar's absence caused problems for him with the Roseau bank's board of directors. Soon after completing the trip, Edgar left the company in June and started a competing company called Polar Manufacturing in Thief River Falls, Minnesota; the company name changed to Arctic Enterprises. The company continues on today as Arctic Cat. Polaris began developing a smaller consumer-sized, front-engine snowmobile to compete with the Ski-Doo in the early 1960s. In 1964, Polaris released the Comet. However, the Comet soon ran into problems. Polaris recalled the sleds and developed a new prototype to avoid bankruptcy; the new model, the 1965 Mustang, boosted Polaris sales. Polaris continued to develop snowmobiles similar to this model throughout the 1960s-1970s, went on to become one of the leaders in the snowmobile industry. In the early 1980s, Polaris started creating an Indy style snowmobile with a wider stance, they continued with the Indy style sled in the 90's with the Storm and Trail lines, within the last few years Polaris has re-introduced the INDY model name.
In 1985, Polaris introduced the Trail Boss, considered to be the first American-made all-terrain vehicles. In the late 1990s, Polaris introduced the Polaris Rocky Mountain King - a snowmobile specific for mountain terrain. In May 2009, Polaris announced the creation of an On-Road Vehicle Division; the new division will be devoted to the growth of Victory motorcycles and other on-road products and brands. In 2010, Polaris introduced the Polaris Rush snowmobile which had a new suspension system and better trail handling capabilities; this snowmobile is available with retro graphics on the Rush and Iq models. In late 2005, Polaris Industries announced. Through this venture KTM has developed their own ATV and Polaris has developed Sport ATVs which utilize the KTM 525 and 450 powerplants. On May 21, 2010, Polaris announced; the sister facility in Osceola, Wisconsin still rem
U. S. Bancorp is an American bank holding company based in Minneapolis and incorporated in Delaware, it is the parent company of US Bank National Association, known as US Bank, ranked 7th on the list of largest banks in the United States. The company provides banking, mortgage and payment services products to individuals, governmental entities, other financial institutions, it has 3,106 branches and 4,842 ATMs in the Midwestern United States, has 72,400 employees. The company owns Elavon, a processor of credit card transactions. U. S. Bancorp operates under the second-oldest continuous national charter Charter #24, granted in 1863 following the passage of the National Bank Act. Earlier charters have expired as banks were closed or acquired, raising U. S. Bank's charter number from #24 to #2; the oldest national charter granted to the First National Bank of Philadelphia, is held by Wells Fargo, which it obtained upon its merger with Wachovia. The U. S. Bank name first appeared as United States National Bank of Portland, established in Portland, Oregon, in 1891.
It changed its name to the United States National Bank of Oregon in 1964. In 1902, it merged with Ainsworth National Bank of Portland, but kept the U. S. National Bank name; the central part of the franchise dates from 1864, with the formation of First National Bank of Minneapolis. In 1929, that bank merged with First National Bank of St. Paul and several smaller Upper Midwest banks to form the First Bank Stock Corporation, which changed its name to First Bank System in 1968. In the eastern part of the franchise and Millers Bank in Milwaukee opened its doors in 1853, growing into the First National Bank of Milwaukee and becoming First Wisconsin and Firstar Corporation. In Cincinnati, First National Bank of Cincinnati opened for business in 1863 under National Charter #24—the charter that U. S. Bancorp still operates under today, one of the oldest active national bank charters in the nation. Despite having started up in the midst of the Civil War, First National Bank of Cincinnati went on to survive many decades to grow into Star Bank.
U. S. Bancorp of Oregon became a banking holding company for the U. S. National Bank of Oregon in January 1969 after receiving authorization from its bank directors on September 9, 1968 and subsequently receiving legal approval to proceed from the Comptroller of the Currency on November 28, 1968. LeRoy B. Staver and chief executive officer of the bank, was appointed chairman and chief executive officer for the new holding company while Robert B. Wilson was appointed president of the holding company and executive vice president for the bank. Wilson resign as president in December 1972 and his position was filled eight months by John A. Elorriaga. After a long period of service, Staver retired in October 1974 and was succeeded by John Elorriaga, promoted to chairman and chief executive officer while Carl May was named president in Elorriaga's place. A major change in the organization of leadership in U. S. Bancorp of Oregon occurred in August 1983. Although Elorriaga remained as chairman and chief executive officer for the firm, May was appointed to the new position of executive assistant to the chairman while Edmund P. Jensen was appointed president as replacement to May, Roger L. Breezley was appointed to the new post of chief operating officer.
In December 1986, U. S. Bancorp of Oregon announced the pending acquisition of the Forest Grove, Oregon-based Valley National Corporation with its five-branch Valley National Bank of Forest Grove subsidiary for $13.7 million in stock. U. S. Bancorp of Oregon made its first acquisition outside the state of Oregon by announcing in December 1986 the pending acquisition of the Spokane, Washington-based Old National Bancorp with its Old National Bank of Washington and First National Bank of Spokane subsidiaries for $174 million; the acquisition was completed in July 1987 on the first day that the state of Washington had allowed bank acquisitions by out-of-state companies. In December 1986, U. S. Bancorp of Oregon announced the pending acquisition of the Camas, Washington-based Heritage Bank for $2.8 million. In May 1987, U. S. Bancorp of Oregon announced the pending acquisition of the Seattle, Washington-based Peoples Bancorp with its Peoples National Bank subsidiary for $275 million in stock; the acquisition was completed in December 1987.
After the acquisition and Old National were combined to form U. S. Bank of Washington. John Elorriaga retired as chairman of the board and chief executive officer in November 1987 and was replaced by Roger L. Breezley while Jensen continues as president. In December 1987, U. S. Bancorp of Oregon announced the pending acquisition of the Bellingham, Washington-based Mt Baker Bank for $25 million. U. S. Bancorp of Oregon entered the state of California by announcing in April 1988 the pending acquisition of the Eureka, California-based Bank of Loleta with seven branch offices in Humboldt and Del Norte counties for $15.3 million in cash. The acquisition was completed in December 1988 and was renamed U. S. Bank of California. In April 1988, U. S. Bancorp of Oregon announced the pending acquisition of the Bellingham, Washington-based Northwestern Commercial Bank for $15.5 million. The acquisition was completed in November 1988. In July 1988, U. S. Bancorp of Oregon announced the pending acquisition of the Auburn, Washington-based Western Independent Bancshares with its Auburn Valley Bank subsidiary for $4.25 million in cash.
In October 1989, U. S. Bancorp of Oregon announced the pending acquisition of the Sacramento, California-ba
Control Data Corporation
Control Data Corporation was a mainframe and supercomputer firm. CDC was one of the nine major United States computer companies through most of the 1960s. CDC was well-known and regarded throughout the industry at the time. For most of the 1960s, Seymour Cray worked at CDC and developed a series of machines that were the fastest computers in the world by far, until Cray left the company to found Cray Research in the 1970s. After several years of losses in the early 1980s, in 1988 CDC started to leave the computer manufacturing business and sell the related parts of the company, a process, completed in 1992 with the creation of Control Data Systems, Inc; the remaining businesses of CDC operate as Ceridian. During World War II the U. S. Navy had built up a classified team of engineers to build codebreaking machinery for both Japanese and German electro-mechanical ciphers. A number of these were produced by a team dedicated to the task working in the Washington, D. C. area. With the post-war wind-down of military spending, the Navy grew worried that this team would break up and scatter into various companies, it started looking for ways to covertly keep the team together.
They found their solution: John Parker, the owner of a Chase Aircraft affiliate named Northwestern Aeronautical Corporation located in St. Paul, was about to lose all his contracts due to the ending of the war; the Navy never told Parker what the team did, since it would have taken too long to get top secret clearance. Instead they said the team was important, they would be happy if he hired them all. Parker was wary, but after several meetings with high-ranking Naval officers it became apparent that whatever it was, they were serious, he agreed to give this team a home in his military glider factory; the result was Engineering Research Associates. Formed in 1946, this contract engineering company worked on a number of unrelated projects in the early 1950s. Among these was the ERA Atlas, an early military stored program computer, the basis of the Univac 1101, followed by the 1102, the 36-bit ERA 1103; the Atlas was built for the Navy, which intended to use it in their non-secret code-breaking centers.
In the early 1950s a minor political debate broke out in Congress about the Navy "owning" ERA, the ensuing debates and legal wrangling left the company drained of both capital and spirit. In 1952, Parker sold ERA to Remington Rand. Although Rand kept the ERA team together and developing new products, it was most interested in ERA's magnetic drum memory systems. Rand soon merged with Sperry Corporation to become Sperry Rand. In the process of merging the companies, the ERA division was folded into Sperry's UNIVAC division. At first this did not cause too many changes at ERA, since the company was used to provide engineering talent to support a variety of projects. However, one major project was moved from UNIVAC to ERA, the UNIVAC II project, which led to lengthy delays and upsets to nearly everyone involved. Since the Sperry "big company" mentality encroached on the decision-making powers of the ERA founders, they left Sperry to form the Control Data Corp. in 1957, setting up shop in an old warehouse across the river from Sperry's St. Paul laboratory, in Minneapolis at 501 Park Avenue.
Of the members forming CDC, William Norris was the unanimous choice to become the chief executive officer of the new company. Seymour Cray soon became the chief designer, though at the time of CDC's formation he was still in the process of completing a prototype for the Naval Tactical Data System, he did not leave Sperry to join CDC until it was complete. CDC started business by selling subsystems drum memory systems, to other companies. Cray joined the next year, he built a small transistor-based 6-bit machine known as the "CDC Little Character" to test his ideas on large-system design and transistor-based machines. "Little Character" was a great success. In 1959, CDC released a 48-bit transistorized version of their re-design of the 1103 re-design under the name CDC 1604. S. Navy in 1960 at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. Legend has it that the 1604 designation was chosen by adding CDC's first street address to Cray's former project, the ERA-Univac 1103. A 12-bit cut-down version was released as the CDC 160A in 1960 considered among the first minicomputers.
The 160A was notable as it was built as a standard office desk, unusual packaging for that era. New versions of the basic 1604 architecture were rebuilt into the CDC 3000 series, which sold through the early and mid-1960s. Cray turned to the design of a machine that would be the fastest machine in the world, setting the goal at 50 times the speed of the 1604; this required radical changes in design, as the project "dragged on" — it had gone on for about four years by — the management got upset and it demanded greater oversight. Cray in turn demanded saying that otherwise, he would quit. Norris agreed, Cray and his team moved to Cray's home town, Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. Not Bill Norris, the founder and president of CDC, could visit Cray's laboratory without an invitation. In the early 1960s, the corporation moved to Ford Parkway in the Highland Park neighborhood of St. Paul where Norris lived. Through this period, Norris became worried that CDC had to develop a "critical mass" in order to compete
Mall of America
The Mall of America is a shopping mall located in Bloomington, United States. It lies southeast of the junction of Interstate 494 and Minnesota State Highway 77, north of the Minnesota River, across the Interstate from the Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport. Opened in 1992, it is the largest mall in the United States in terms of total floor area, the fifth largest mall in North America in terms of leaseable space, the twelfth largest in the world; the mall is managed by the Triple Five Group. Eighty percent of visitors to the Mall of America are from Minnesota, Iowa, the Dakotas, Illinois and Canada; the mall's concept was designed by the Triple Five Group, owned by the Ghermezian brothers, who own the largest shopping mall in North America, the West Edmonton Mall. The Mall of America is located on the site of the former Metropolitan Stadium, where the Minnesota Vikings and Minnesota Twins played until the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome opened in 1982. A plaque in the mall's amusement park commemorates the former location of home plate, one seat from Met Stadium was placed in Mall of America at the exact location it occupied in the stadium, commemorating a 520-foot home run hit by hall-of-famer Harmon Killebrew on June 3, 1967.
In 1986, the Bloomington Port Authority signed an agreement with the Ghermezian organization. Groundbreaking for the mall took place on June 14, 1989. Organizations involved include Melvin Simon and Associates, Teachers Insurance and Annuity and the office of architect Jon Jerde. Mall of America opened its doors to the public on August 11, 1992, its anchors were Nordstrom, Macy’s, Bloomingdale's and Sears. Before opening, the mall had earned several nicknames, including "The Megamall", "Sprawl of America", "Hugedale"—in reference to the four major "dale" shopping malls within the Twin Cities: Rosedale, Southdale and the now-defunct Brookdale. Mall of America became the largest shopping mall in total area and largest in total store vendors in the United States when it opened; the Mall of America's 42 million annual visitors equal eight times the population of the state of Minnesota. As of 2015, the mall employed over 13,000 during peak seasons. In 2003, after a protracted six-year legal battle between Simon Property Group, the managing general partner of the property, the Ghermezian brothers/Triple Five Group, over majority ownership of the site, a federal appeals court ruled in favor of the Ghermezians transferring control and planning authority of the mall back to the creator of the concept.
The dispute stemmed from a 1999 purchase of Teacher's Insurance's 27.5% equity stake by Simon Properties, giving them majority ownership. The Ghermezians claimed they were never told of the deal and sued Simon, citing fiduciary responsibility. On November 3, 2006, the Ghermezians gained full control of Mall of America by spending US$1 billion. On May 18, 2008, the Mall of America received a tax break for a proposed $2 billion expansion; the bill gave the city of Bloomington the ability to increase taxes on sales and food and beverages to finance a parking ramp at the mall. On March 24, 2012, the Triple Five Group announced the start of a $200 million expansion that would build into the north parking lot of the mall; the plans called for an additional 200,000 square feet of retail space. The project broke ground in the fall of 2013 and began opening in stages in the summer of 2015. In March 2014, ground was broken on the mall's north side for the $104 million, 14-story JW Marriott hotel and financed by the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community.
In 2018, it was announced that MOA had proposed to build an indoor water park, with a cost between $150 to $200 million for the project. The Mall of America has a gross area of 4,870,000 sq ft or 96.4 acres, enough to fit seven Yankee Stadiums inside, with 2,500,000 sq ft available as retail space. The mall is nearly symmetric, with a rectangular floor plan. More than 530 stores are arranged along three levels of pedestrian walkways on the sides of the rectangle, with a fourth level on the east side. Four anchor department stores are located at the corners; the mall is organized into four different zones, each of those zones had its own decorative style until a series of renovations from 2010 to 2015 led to a unified and more luxurious style, as well as to coincide with the mall's first major expansion. Despite Minnesota's cold winters, only the mall's entrances and some below ground areas are heated. Heat is allowed in through skylights above the central amusement park area; the majority of the heat is produced by lighting fixtures, other electric devices, people in the mall.
In fact during the winter, air conditioning systems may still be in use during peak hours to ensure a comfortable shopping environment. Although the common areas are unheated, the individual stores do have heating systems. Two nearly identical seven-story parking ramps on the east and west sides of the mall provide 12,287 parking spaces. Overflow parking north of the building provides an additional 1,200–1,500 spaces, 1,407 spaces are provided by IKEA, which opened in July, 2004. Level One is the location of Nickelodeon Universe amusement park, first level of general retail which includes Sea Life Minnesota Aquarium, Hard Rock Cafe, Lego Store, American Girl Place, Apple Store, Barnes & Noble, Nordstrom, Macy's, Microsoft Store, Level Tw
Target Corporation is the eighth-largest retailer in the United States, is a component of the S&P 500 Index. Founded by George Dayton and headquartered in Minneapolis, the company was named Goodfellow Dry Goods in June 1902 before being renamed the Dayton's Dry Goods Company in 1903 and the Dayton Company in 1910; the first Target store opened in Roseville, Minnesota in 1962 while the parent company was renamed the Dayton Corporation in 1967. It became the Dayton-Hudson Corporation after merging with the J. L. Hudson Company in 1969 and held ownership of several department store chains including Dayton's, Hudson's, Marshall Field's, Mervyn's. Target established itself as the highest-earning division of the Dayton-Hudson Corporation in the 1970s; the company has found success as a cheap-chic player in the industry. The parent company was renamed the Target Corporation in 2000 and divested itself of its last department store chains in 2004, it suffered from a massive and publicized security breach of customer credit card data and the failure of its short-lived Target Canada subsidiary in the early 2010s but experienced revitalized success with its expansion in urban markets within the United States.
As of February 2, 2019, Target operates 1,844 stores throughout the United States. The company is ranked No. 39 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Their retail formats include the discount store Target, the hypermarket SuperTarget, "flexible format" stores named CityTarget and TargetExpress before being consolidated under the Target branding. Target is recognized for its emphasis on "the needs of its younger, image-conscious shoppers", whereas its rival Walmart more relies on its strategy of "always low prices"; the Westminster Presbyterian Church in downtown Minneapolis burned down during the Panic of 1893. Without insurance coverage to cover the financial loss, the congregation found itself unable to rebuild; the church appealed to parishioner George Dayton to purchase an empty corner lot adjacent to the original church in its possession. Dayton convinced the Reuben Simon Goodfellow Company to move its nearby Goodfellows department store into the newly erected building in 1902, although its owner retired altogether and sold his interest in the store to Dayton.
The store was renamed the Dayton Dry Goods Company in 1903, was shortened to the Dayton Company in 1910. The company made its first expansion with the acquisition of the Minneapolis-based jeweler J. B. Hudson & Son right before the Wall Street Crash of 1929. Dayton died in 1938 and was succeeded by his son Nelson as the president of the $14 million business. Nelson died in 1950 and was replaced by his own son Donald, who with his cousins replaced the Presbyterian guidelines set by his predecessors with a more secular approach; the company acquired the Lipman's department store company during the 1950s and operated it as a separate division. John F. Geisse developed the concept of upscale discount retailing while working for the Dayton Company. Using his concepts, the company opened its first Target discount store at 1515 West County Road B in the Saint Paul suburb of Roseville, Minnesota; the name "Target" originated from publicity director Stewart K. Widdess, was intended to prevent consumers from associating the discount store with the department store.
It opened three additional units in the first year, reported its first gain in 1965 with sales reaching $39 million. That decade, B. Dalton Bookseller was formed as a subsidiary of the Dayton Company; the parent company acquired the jewelers Shreve & Co. and J. E. Caldwell, the Pickwick Book Shops, the electronics and appliances chain Lechmere, it went public with its first offering of common stock, built its first distribution center in Fridley, Minnesota. In 1969, the Dayton Company itself merged with the Detroit-based J. L. Hudson Company, together formed the Dayton-Hudson Corporation; the new company, at the time the 14th-largest retailer in the United States, consisted of Target and the department stores Dayton's, Diamond's, Hudson's, John A. Brown, Lipman's. Target reached $200 million in sales while Dayton-Hudson acquired Team Electronics and the jewelers C. D. Peacock, Inc. and Jessop and Sons in the 1970s. Target reported a decrease in profits in 1972, due to the rapid pace of expansion with the purchase and conversion of several former Arlan's department store locations.
New management marked down merchandise to reduce its overstock and only opened one new location that year, Target became Dayton-Hudson's top revenue producer in 1975. Dayton-Hudson was established as the seventh-largest general merchandise retailer in the United States with its acquisition of Mervyn's in 1978. Dayton-Hudson sold Lipman's to Marshall Field's and acquired the discount store chain Ayr-Way in 1980, expanded into the West Coast market with the purchase and conversion of several FedMart stores in 1982, it sold the Dayton-Hudson Jewelers subsidiary to Henry Sons of Montreal. The company founded the Plums off-price clothing store with four locations in the Los Angeles area in 1983. In 1985, the company started R. G. Branden's, a chain that
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued; the trade stimulated the exploration and colonization of Siberia, northern North America, the South Shetland and South Sandwich Islands. Today the importance of the fur trade has diminished. Animal rights organizations oppose the fur trade, citing that animals are brutally killed and sometimes skinned alive. Fur has been replaced in some clothing by synthetic imitations, for example, as in ruffs on hoods of parkas. Before the European colonization of the Americas, Russia was a major supplier of fur pelts to Western Europe and parts of Asia, its trade developed in the Early Middle Ages, first through exchanges at posts around the Baltic and Black seas. The main trading market destination was the German city of Leipzig. Kievan Russia, the first Russian State, was the first supplier of the Russian Fur Trade.
Russia exported raw furs, consisting in most cases of the pelts of martens, wolves, foxes and hares. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Russians began to settle in Siberia, a region rich in many mammal fur species, such as Arctic fox, sable, sea otter and stoat. In a search for the prized sea otter pelts, first used in China, for the northern fur seal, the Russian Empire expanded into North America, notably Alaska. From the 17th through the second half of the 19th century, Russia was the world's largest supplier of fur; the fur trade played a vital role in the development of Siberia, the Russian Far East and the Russian colonization of the Americas. As recognition of the importance of the trade to the Siberian economy, the sable is a regional symbol of the Ural Sverdlovsk Oblast and the Siberian Novosibirsk and Irkutsk Oblasts of Russia; the European discovery of North America, with its vast forests and wildlife the beaver, led to the continent becoming a major supplier in the 17th century of fur pelts for the fur felt hat and fur trimming and garment trades of Europe.
Fur was relied on to make warm clothing, a critical consideration prior to the organization of coal distribution for heating. Portugal and Spain played major roles in fur trading after the 15th century with their business in fur hats. From as early as the 10th century and boyars of Novgorod had exploited the fur resources "beyond the portage", a watershed at the White Lake that represents the door to the entire northwestern part of Eurasia, they began by establishing trading posts along the Volga and Vychegda river networks and requiring the Komi people to give them furs as tribute. Novgorod, the chief fur-trade center prospered as the easternmost trading post of the Hanseatic League. Novgorodians expanded farther east and north, coming into contact with the Pechora people of the Pechora River valley and the Yugra people residing near the Urals. Both of these native tribes offered more resistance than the Komi, killing many Russian tribute-collectors throughout the tenth and eleventh centuries.
As Muscovy gained more power in the 15th century and proceeded in the "gathering of the Russian lands", the Muscovite state began to rival the Novgorodians in the North. During the 15th century Moscow began subjugating many native tribes. One strategy involved exploiting antagonisms between tribes, notably the Komi and Yugra, by recruiting men of one tribe to fight in an army against the other tribe. Campaigns against native tribes in Siberia remained insignificant until they began on a much larger scale in 1483 and 1499. Besides the Novgorodians and the indigenes, Muscovites had to contend with the various Muslim Tatar khanates to the east of Muscovy. In 1552 Ivan IV, the Tsar of All the Russias, took a significant step towards securing Russian hegemony in Siberia when he sent a large army to attack the Kazan Tartars and ended up obtaining the territory from the Volga to the Ural Mountains. At this point the phrase "ruler of Obdor and all Siberian lands" became part of the title of the Tsar in Moscow.
So, problems ensued after 1558 when Ivan IV sent Grigory Stroganov to colonize land on the Kama and to subjugate and enserf the Komi living there. The Stroganov family soon came into conflict with the Khan of Sibir. Ivan told the Stroganovs to hire Cossack mercenaries to protect the new settlement from the Tatars. From ca 1581 the band of Cossacks led by Yermak Timofeyevich fought many battles that culminated in a Tartar victory and the temporary end to Russian occupation in the area. In 1584 Ivan’s son Fyodor sent military governors and soldiers to reclaim Yermak conquests and to annex the land held by the Khanate of Sibir. Similar skirmishes with Tartars took place across Siberia. Russian conquerors treated the natives of Siberia as exploited enemies who were inferior to them; as they penetrated deeper into Siberia, traders built outposts or winter lodges called zimovya where they lived and collected fur tribute from native tribes. By 1620 Russia dominated the land from the Urals eastward to the Yenisey valley and to the Altai Mountains in the south, comprising about 1.25 million square miles of land.
Furs would become Russia's largest source of wealth during the seventeenth centuries. Keeping up with the advances of Western Europe required significant capital and Russia did not have sources of gold and silver, but it did have furs, which became known as "soft gold" and provided Russia with hard cur
Remington Rand was an early American business machines manufacturer, best known as a typewriter manufacturer and in a incarnation as the manufacturer of the UNIVAC line of mainframe computers. Remington Rand was a diversified conglomerate making electric shavers, etc.. The Remington Rand Building at 315 Park Avenue South in New York City is a 20-floor skyscraper completed in 1911. After 1955 Remington Rand had a long list of mergers. Remington Rand was formed in 1927 by the merger of the Remington Typewriter Company and Rand Kardex Corporation. One of its earliest factories, the former Herschell–Spillman Motor Company Complex, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013. Within the first year, Remington Rand acquired the Dalton Adding Machine Company, the Powers Accounting Machine Company, the Baker-Vawter Company and the Kalamazoo Loose-Leaf Binder Company. One of its earliest factories, the former Herschell–Spillman Motor Company Complex, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013.
From 1936-1937 Remington Rand went on strike, which resulted in the loss of jobs. From 1942 to 1945, Remington Rand was one manufacturer of the M1911A1.45 caliber semi-automatic pistol used by the United States Armed Forces during World War II. Remington Rand produced more M1911A1 pistols than any other wartime manufacturer. Remington Rand ranked 66th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. In 1950, Remington Rand acquired the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, founded by the makers of the ENIAC, in 1952, they acquired Engineering Research Associates, both of which were pioneers in electronic computing. At that time, Remington Rand was one of the biggest computer companies in the United States. On June 14, 1951 the first computer came out and it was called Univac I. Many branches of the military such as, Air Force and the U. S. Army were the first ones to use the computers; when companies started to buy the computers they would leave the computers at the Remington Rand facility since they were so big and bulky.
The Univac I was about the size of a one car garage, 46 machines were built and sold for one million dollars each. Remington Rand was acquired by Sperry Corporation in 1955 to form a company known as Sperry Rand; however the brand name of "Remington Rand" remained as a subdivision for many years. Sperry merged in 1986 with Burroughs to form Unisys. Remington Rand had a strike from 1936-1937. Remington Rand bought the Noiseless Typewriter Company in 1924, the Noiseless Typewriter Company kept their company name and their workers were getting paid by Remington Rand. In the summer of 1936, James H. Rand Jr. tried to break up the strike by firing union workers and hiring new workers to take their places. Rand Jr. threatened to close the plant. The strike got so out of hand that the state and local police had to help keep the strikers from throwing stones at workers and vehicles; the strike started out by the Federal Union, affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. James Rand Jr. used the idea of the Mohawk Valley Formula to break up the strike.
The Mohawk Valley Formula was used to spread propaganda about the union strikes. The propaganda was done by spreading out rumors and bashing the union strikers for hurting their families, by having no income coming to their households since they are out of work; the propaganda was often used to call the union strikers communist or an anarchist, to make the public hate the union strikers. The National Labor Relations Board, which has a professional strikebreaker system, came in and tried to help the strikers and Remington Rand to reach a deal; the NLRB had strikebreakers come in and the strikebreakers had many different tactics to help the strikers return to work and work out a deal. The strikebreakers brought techniques that involved propaganda, which would spread demoralizing rumors among striking employees; the strikebreakers would use missionaries to go to the employees homes and would persuade them to go back to work. The missionaries would dress up as Remington Rand's personnel department in order to help persuade the employees.
In 1937, the NLRB decided in favor of the workers, the board ordered Rand to stop interfering with employee's unions and the right to organize. After the strike was broken in the summer of 1940 the Middletown plant had closed permanently leaving 1200 employees without jobs. There were still legal battles being fought for the employees that were in the strike while the plant was closing; the Middletown plant was run by strikebreakers until the closing of the plant in 1940. Produced by E. Remington and Sons, the Remington Typewriters were the first to use the QWERTY keyboard layout. Remington had bought the design from Christopher Sholes; the Remington No.1 was the first model released. All keys were uppercase. Remington spun off Remington Typewriter Company in 1886, after the 1927 merger, the Remington Rand Corp. continued to manufacture and sell typewriters. The UNIVAC I was the second commercial computer made in the United States, it was designed principally by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, the inventors of the ENIAC.
Design work was begun by their company, Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, was completed after the company had been acquired by Remington Rand. The first UNIVAC was delivered to the United States Census Bureau on March 31, 1951, was dedicated on June 14 that year; the fifth machine (built for the U. S. Atomic Ene