The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c
National Council (Monaco)
The National Council is the parliament of the Principality of Monaco. The body is composed of twenty-four members. Councilors serve for five-year terms, though it may act independently of the Prince, he may dissolve it at any time, provided that new elections be held within three months; the Council meets at least twice per year to vote on the country's budget and bills proposed by the prince's government. Ordinances are debated in the Council of Government, once approved, must be submitted to the prince within eighty days for his signature, which makes them enforceable. If he does not express opposition within ten days of submission, they become valid; the current president of the national council is Stéphane Valeri. Official website Bulletin of Conseil National
Transport in Monaco
Transport in Monaco is facilitated with road, air and water networks. Rail transport is operated by SNCF and its total length is 1.7 km. Monaco has five bus routes operated by Compagnie des Autobus de Monaco. There are two other bus routes which connect Monaco with neighboring regions such as Nice and Menton; the railway is underground within Monegasque territory, no trains can be seen at ground level within the nation. It links Marseilles to Ventimiglia through the principality, was opened in 1868. Two stations were provided, named'Monaco' and'Monte-Carlo', but neither remain in current use; the railway line was re-laid, in a new permanent way in underground tunnels, constructed in two stages. The first, in 1964, was a 3,500 metre tunnel which rendered the original Monte-Carlo station redundant; the second stage, opened in 1999, was a 3 km-long tunnel linked to the first one, allowing the new "underground railway station of Monaco-Monte Carlo" to open. Where the above ground railway was is now available for development, schools and commercial facilities, can locate here totaling some four hectares.
This station is served by international trains and regional trains. Monaco has 50 km of urban roads. Monaco buries its highways so more land is available. There are seven main inclined lifts which provide public transport: between the Place des Moulins and the beaches between the Princess Grace Hospital Centre and the Exotic Garden between the Port Hercules harbor and the Avenue de la Costa between the Place Str Dévôte and the area of Moneghetti between the terraces of the Casino and the Boulevard Louis II between the Avenue des Citronniers and the Avenue Grande-Bretagne between the highway and the Boulevard Larvotto There are six bus routes in Monaco, all operated by Compagnie des Autobus de Monaco. There are 143 bus stops through the Principality. Line 1: Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo, Saint Roman and return Line 2: Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo, Exotic Garden and return Line 4: Place d'Armes, Railway station, Monte-Carlo, Saint Roman and return Line 5: Railway station, Fontvieille and return Line 6: Larvotto Beach and return There are four other bus routes which connect Monaco with neighbouring regions.
Line 11: La Turbie and return Line 100: Nice, Monaco and return Line 100X: Nice and return Line 110: Nice Airport, Monaco and return There is a ferry service "Bateaubus" which operates between both sides of Monaco port. The boat operates under the urban bus system tariff. A narrow gauge subway line is a perennial project in Monaco. There are two ports in Monaco, one is Port Hercules and the other is in Fontvieille. There are seasonal ferry lines like the one from Nice to Saint-Tropez. There is no airport in the Principality of Monaco; the closest airport is Cote d'Azur Airport in Nice, connected to Monaco by the Express 110 bus. A heliport, the Monaco Heliport, is the only aviation facility in the principality, it features shuttle service to and from the international airport at France. As of May 2005, all Royal Helicopter Service is provided by the James Drabble Aviation Services Committee; this deal sparked a great deal of controversy in the National Council of Monaco, as there was no precedent yet set.
Helicopter charter services to French ski resorts are available. Getting Around in Monaco
Republic of Genoa
The Republic of Genoa was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean. The republic began when Genoa became a self-governing commune within the imperial Kingdom of Italy, ended when it was conquered by the French First Republic under Napoleon and replaced with the Ligurian Republic. Corsica was ceded to France in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768; the Ligurian Republic was annexed by the First French Empire in 1805. Before 1100, Genoa emerged as an independent city-state, one of a number of Italian city-states during this period. Nominally, the Holy Roman Emperor was overlord and the Bishop of Genoa was president of the city. Genoa was one of the so-called "Maritime Republics", along with Venice and Amalfi and trade and banking helped support one of the largest and most powerful navies in the Mediterranean; the Adorno and other smaller merchant families all fought for power in this Republic, as the power of the consuls allowed each family faction to gain wealth and power in the city.
The Republic of Genoa extended over modern Liguria and Piedmont, Corsica and had complete control of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Through Genoese participation on the Crusades, Genoese colonies were established in the Middle East, in the Aegean, in Sicily and Northern Africa; the collapse of the Crusader States was offset by Genoa's alliance with the Byzantine Empire. As Venice's relations with the Byzantine Empire were temporarily disrupted by the Fourth Crusade and its aftermath, Genoa was able to improve its position. Genoa took advantage of this opportunity to expand into Crimea. Internal feuds between the powerful families, the Grimaldi and Fieschi, the Doria and others caused much disruption, but in general the republic was run much as a business affair. Between 1218–1220 Genoa was served by the Guelph podestà Rambertino Buvalelli, who introduced Occitan literature to the city, soon to boast such troubadours as Jacme Grils, Lanfranc Cigala, Bonifaci Calvo. Genoa's political zenith came with its victory over the Republic of Pisa at the naval Battle of Meloria in 1284, with a temporary victory over its rival, Venice, at the naval Battle of Curzola in 1298.
This prosperity did not last. The Black Death was imported into Europe in 1347 from the Genoese trading post at Caffa in Crimea, on the Black Sea. Following the economic and population collapse, Genoa adopted the Venetian model of government, was presided over by a doge; the wars with Venice continued, the War of Chioggia —where Genoa managed to decisively subdue Venice—ended with Venice's recovery of dominance in the Adriatic. In 1390 Genoa initiated a crusade against the Barbary pirates with help from the French and laid siege to Mahdia. Though it has not been well-studied, the fifteenth century seems to have been a tumultuous time for Genoa. After a period of French domination from 1394–1409, Genoa came under rule by the Visconti of Milan. Genoa lost Sardinia to Aragon, Corsica to internal revolt and its Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Asia Minor colonies to the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Genoa was able to stabilize its position as it moved into the sixteenth century thanks to the efforts of Andrea Doria, who established a new constitution in 1528, making Genoa a satellite of the Spanish Empire.
Under the ensuing economic recovery, many aristocratic Genoese families, such as the Balbi, Grimaldi and Serra, amassed tremendous fortunes. According to Felipe Fernandez-Armesto and others, the practices Genoa developed in the Mediterranean were crucial in the exploration and exploitation of the New World. Christopher Columbus, for example, was a native of Genoa and donated one-tenth of his income from the discovery of the Americas for Spain to the Bank of Saint George in Genoa for the relief of taxation on foods. At the time of Genoa's peak in the 16th century, the city attracted many artists, including Rubens and Van Dyck; the architect Galeazzo Alessi designed many of the city's splendid palazzi, as did in the decades that followed by fifty years Bartolomeo Bianco, designer of centrepieces of University of Genoa. A number of Genoese Baroque and Rococo artists settled elsewhere and a number of local artists became prominent. At the time of its founding in the early 11th century the Republic of Genoa consisted of the city of Genoa and the surrounding areas.
As the commerce of the city increased, so did the territory of the Republic. By 1015 all of Liguria fell under the Republic of Genoa. After the First Crusade in 1098 Genoa gained settlements in Syria. In 1261 the city of Smyrna in Asia Minor became Genoese territory. In 1255 Genoa established the colony of Caffa in Crimea. In the following years the Genoese established further colonies in Crimea: Soldaia and Cembalo. In 1275 the Byzantine Empire granted the islands of Samos to Genoa. Between 1316 and 1332 Genoa established the Black Sea colonies of La Samsun in Anatolia. In 1355 the Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos granted Lesbos to a Genoese lord. At the end of the 14th century the c
House of Grimaldi
The House of Grimaldi is associated with the history of the Republic of Genoa, of the Principality of Monaco. The Grimaldi dynasty is a princely house originating in Italy, founded by the Genoese leader of the Guelphs, Francesco Grimaldi, who in 1297 took the lordship of Monaco along with his soldiers dressed as Franciscans. In that principality his successors have reigned to the present day. During much of the Ancien Regime the family spent much of its time in the French court, where from 1642 they used their French title of Duke of Valentinois; the current head of the family is Albert II of Monaco, Sovereign Prince of Monaco and successor of Prince Rainier III and the princess consort Grace of Monaco Grace Kelly. The Grimaldis descend from a Genoese statesman at the time of the early Crusades, he may have been a son of Otto Canella, a consul of the Republic of Genoa in 1133. In turn Grimaldo became a consul in 1160, 1170 and again in 1184, his numerous descendants led maritime expeditions throughout the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, soon the North Sea.
They became one of the most powerful families of Genoa. The Grimaldis feared that the head of a rival Genoese family could break the fragile balance of power in a political coup and become lord of Genoa, as had happened in other Italian cities, they entered into a Guelphic alliance with the Fieschi family and defended their interests with the sword. But the Guelfs were banned from the City in 1271, took refuge in their castles in Liguria and Provence, they signed a treaty with Charles of Anjou, King of Naples and Count of Provence to retake control of Genoa, to provide mutual assistance. In 1276, they accepted a peace under the auspices of the Pope, which however did not put an end to the civil war. Not all the Grimaldis chose to return to Genoa, as they preferred to settle in their fiefdoms, where they could raise armies. In 1299, the Grimaldis and their allies launched a few galleys to attack the port of Genoa before taking refuge on the Western Riviera. During the following years, the Grimaldis entered into different alliances that would allow them to return to power in Genoa.
This time, it was the turn of the Spinola family, to be exiled from the city. During this period, both the Guelphs and Ghibellines took and abandoned the castle of Monaco, ideally located to launch political and military operations against Genoa. Therefore, the tale of Francis Grimaldi and his faction — who took the castle of Monaco disguised as friars in 1297 — is anecdotal. In the early 14th century, the Aragonese raided the shores of Provence and Liguria, challenging Genoa and King Robert of Provence. In 1353, the combined fleet of eighty Venetian and Aragonese galleys gathered in Sardinia to meet the fleet of sixty galleys under the command of Anthony Grimaldi. Only nineteen Genoese vessels survived the battle. Fearing an invasion, Genoa rushed to request the protection of the Lord of Milan. Several of the oldest feudal branches of the House of Grimaldi appeared during these conflicts, such as the branches of Antibes, Nice and Sicily. In 1395, the Grimaldis took advantage of the discords in Genoa to take possession of Monaco, which they ruled as a condominium.
This is the origin of today's principality. As was customary in Genoa, the Grimaldis organised their family ties within a corporation called albergo. In the political reform of 1528, the Grimaldi became one of the 28 alberghi of the Republic of Genoa, which included the Doria and Pallavicini families, to which other families were formally invited to join; the House of Grimaldi provided several doges, cabinet ministers, military officers of historical note. By convention, sovereign European houses are reckoned in the male line. Therefore, since 1731, it has been determined genealogically that it was in fact the French noble House of Goyon-Matignon that ruled as Princes of Monaco until 1949. However, one of the terms of James de Goyon de Matignon becoming Prince of Monaco jure uxoris was that he adopt the name and arms of Grimaldi so that the house would be preserved on the throne, the right of succession was through his wife Louise-Hippolyte Grimaldi, who abdicated in her husband's favour; when Charlotte Louvet was legitimised in 1911 and made successor to Monaco, her husband, Count Pierre de Polignac, adopted, as a condition of the marriage, the name and arms of Grimaldi.
In this way the "Grimaldi" name and arms were continued. There is a branch of the Grimaldi family in England who believe they have more right to the throne as they are descended from an all-male line from Alessandro Maria Grimaldi, an exile from Genoa, himself a direct descendant of Otto Canella, the father of Grimaldo Canella, who started the patronymic "Grimaldi."Until 2002, a treaty between Monaco and France stated that if the reigning Prince failed to leave dynastic offspring sovereignty over the Grimaldi realm would revert to France. The 2002 agreement modified this to expand the pool of potential heirs to dynastic collaterals of the reigning Prince, guaranteeing Monegasque independence. Article I of Monaco's house law requires that the reigning Prince or Princess bear the surname of Grimaldi; the coat of arms of the House of Grimaldi is described as fusily argent and gules, i.e. a red and white diamond pattern, with no further modifiers. Albert II of Monaco, Sovereign Prince of Monaco and successor of Rainier III and Grace Kelly.
Charlène de Monaco, Princess Consort of Monaco. Jacques, Hereditary Prince of Monaco, son of Albert II and Charlène. Princess Gabriella, Countess of Carladès, daughter of Albert II and Charlène. Caroline, Princess of Hanover, older si
Land reclamation in Monaco
Land reclamation is done in Monaco because land is scarce, as the country is comparatively tiny, at 0.78 mi². To solve this problem and continue economic development, for years the country has been adding to its total land area by reclaiming land from the sea; the entire district of Fontvieille was constructed on land reclaimed from the sea in the 1970s. It is the newest of the four traditional quartiers in the principality of Monaco, one of ten Wards for modern administrative purposes, it is located in the western part of Monaco. Land has been added to areas of La Condamine and Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Prince Albert's father, Rainier III, was known as the "Builder Prince". In an attempt to further develop the economy of Monaco, he first supported the idea of land reclamation. Since it was impossible to extend into France, the only solution was to reclaim land from the sea. First, the Larvotto beach district was created in the early 1960s the Fontvieille industrial area, increasing the principality's surface area by 20 percent.
More Port Hercules has been extended to welcome larger cruise ships on one side, to provide land for a new Yacht Club on the other. Prince Albert II is planning to reclaim more land, he intends to build into the Mediterranean to create a new area about 5 hectares in size. The new district will extend from the Fontvieille district at the western foot of the Rock of Monaco, where Monaco's palace and historic centre are situated; the project will cost an estimated €11 billion. It was suspended in 2009 due to the global financial crisis and the prince's concerns regarding the marine environment. However, the project was resumed in 2010 and is expected to be completed by 2014. Monaco's coastline on the Mediterranean is a fragile and vulnerable environment. Any further land reclamation projects threaten to damage the coastal ecosystem. Monaco's leaders have approached the prospect of further land reclamation with caution and have stated that new projects would have to meet strict environmental standards to limit damage to flora and wildlife.
Due to the concerns that land reclamation could damage local marine ecosystems, Prince Albert II has insisted the entire expansion be placed on stilts, like an oil rig, in order to disturb the sea floor as little as possible. Land reclamation in Hong Kong Land reclamation in the UAE