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Economy of Montserrat

The economy of Montserrat was disrupted by volcanic activity which began in July 1995. Prior to this date, the small island country of 12,000 had an export economy based on agriculture, electronic parts and plants, with a per capita gross national product of USD 3,000 to 8,000. Montserrat had an international reputation as a tourist getaway, the record producer George Martin established an important recording studio there, Associated Independent Recording. Destroyed by Hurricane Hugo in 1989, the studio was never reestablished; some of the funds were raised in a London concert called "Music for Montserrat". A catastrophic eruption of Soufrière Hills in June 1997 closed the W. H. Bramble Airport and seaport at Plymouth, causing further economic and social dislocation. Two-thirds of the inhabitants fled the island; some began to return in 1998. The agriculture sector continued to be affected by the lack of suitable land for farming and the destruction of crops. Prospects for the economy depend on developments in relation to the volcano and on public sector construction activity.

The UK launched a three-year $122.8 million aid program to help reconstruct the economy. Half of the island was expected to remain uninhabitable for another decade. Today, Montserrat’s main economic activity is in construction and government services which together accounted for about 50 percent of GDP in 2000 when it was EC$76 million. In contrast and insurance together accounted for less than 10 percent of GDP; the unemployment rate in 1998 was estimated at 6 percent. Montserrat’s domestic financial sector is small and has seen a reduction in offshore finance in recent years with only 11 offshore banks remaining. Real GDP declined from EC$122 million in 1995 to about EC$60 million in 1999, with the rate of decline peaking at -21.5 percent for 1996. The decline in economic activity reflected in large part the completion of major projects in both the private and public sectors. However, the rate of decline slowed markedly since 2000 and 2001, when GDP contracted by less than 3 percent. In 2002, the GDP growth rate reverted to a positive 4.6 percent reversing the declining trend over the past six years and maybe more.

The Montserrat Development Corporation was an entity founded by the Government of Montserrat and the Department for International Development in 2008. The company's primary mandate was to help foster private sector investment and development on the island; the company had announced plans to develop the new town of Little Bay on the northwest coast of Montserrat between Brades and Davy Hill, however an internal audit of the company in 2015 led to the company's dissolution. The audit revealed. Slated for completion by 2020, the new town will be the new focus of tourism and housing and will house the seat of government

Emil Iversen

Emil Iversen is a Norwegian cross-country skier who represents IL Varden. He is 4 × 10 km relay. 2010/11Iversen was junior world champion in the relay in 2011 with Sindre Bjørnestad Skar, Mathias Rundgreen and Erik Bergfall Brovold. He debuted in the FIS Cross-Country World Cup in Lillehammer on 7 December 2013. 2015/16Iversen won his first World Cup stage race on 5 January 2016 in the classic sprint stage of the Tour de Ski in Oberstdorf. He won his second World Cup in the skate sprint in Lahti on 20 February 2016, he won his third World Cup in the 17.5 km classic mass start stage in Montréal on 2 March 2016. All results are sourced from the International Ski Federation. 2 medals – 7 victories – 21 podiums – 2 victories – 3 podiums – Media related to Emil Iversen at Wikimedia Commons Emil Iversen at the International Ski Federation

List of Hajime no Ippo characters

This is a list of the fictional characters that appear in the manga and anime series Hajime no Ippo known as Fighting Spirit. Characters are grouped by the boxing gym they are a member of. Ippo Makunouchi Voiced by: Kōhei Kiyasu and Steve Cannon Ippo is the main protagonist of the series, his boldness as a boxer is juxtaposed with his amiable personality outside the ring. He lives with his mother, Hiroko Makunouchi, helps with the family charter boat fishing business—a job which has developed his lower body well enough to become an effective boxer; when he was young, Ippo used to get picked on by others in his school. As fate would have it, Takamura came upon Ippo as he was getting a beating from a couple of bullies and decided to help him. Takamura introduced him to the world of boxing. After seeing a video of Tyson, Ippo becomes inspired to take up boxing to feel reborn with strength and asks Takamura to get him into Kamogawa Gym. After arriving at Kamogawa Gym he impresses Takamura and Kamogawa with his explosive punching power and guts in the ring.

Like he has with Takamura, Kamogawa takes on Ippo as his pupil and starts him on the path to being a pro boxer. Since Takamura has treated Ippo like a younger brother and has taken him under his wing. Ippo is described as an in-fighter and is well known for his comeback KO victories, his Peek-a-Boo style defense and his heavy blows which include three signature punches: a rib-cracking Liver blow, Gazelle punch, the Dempsey roll, modeled after punches used by Mike Tyson, Floyd Patterson, Jack Dempsey respectively, he stands at 164 cm tall with a 165 cm reach and has weighed 126 pounds. His natural talents include stamina and enough punching power to turn around a match instantly, his destructive Dempsey roll technique has been a particular focus in the story and has continued to evolve through the series: in the match with Sawamura, he added a rapid stop-and-start to prevent it from being countered, against Jimmy Sisfa, he incorporated an uppercut to the rotation, but Makunouchi needs to continue to develop his lower body to use these without risking further injury.

He temporarily stopped using the Dempsey roll in order to refine his basics and become a more complete boxer. His nickname is the God of Wind, coined after the force of his powerful blows. In addition, his intense training has allowed him to mimic some fighters' specialities with a degree of success such as Sendo's smash attacks or Jimmy Sisfa's jolt attacks during their matches. During his fight with Sendo, Ippo showed the Dempsey Roll's perfect form. Since the Dempsey Roll could not be used if the opponent won't back down, Ippo utilized all three of his techniques. Starting with the liver blow, which damaged Sendo's right ribs, Ippo used a feint with his own version of "Sakki", called "Courage", making Sendo raise his guard. Ippo followed up with the Gazelle punch, which made Sendo's jaw fly up and stunned him for a few seconds. Taking the opportunity of Sendo being stunned, Ippo revved up his Dempsey Roll which hit Sendo a couple of times before knocking him out. Ippo used the same pattern of attack on his first title defense with Sanada but due to the damage that he sustained his attack stopped after a couple of hits.

Hajime no Ippo has covered each of Makunouchi's fights, starting with his introduction to the boxing world and winning the All Japan Rookie Kings tournament in a talented rookie Featherweight class. The story continues with his ascension to becoming the Japanese Featherweight Champion, a title he has defended eight times. He's now begun his journey towards the world stage by challenging other national title holders in the OPBF, his current record as a professional boxer is 26 matches, 23 wins and 3 losses with all 23 victories by KO, he holds the seventh ranking in the WBC. His only losses are to Eiji Date in his first attempt to challenge for the Japanese Featherweight title, Alfredo Gonzales, ranked #2 in the World, to Antonio Guevara after making a 10-month comeback. Date would go on to challenge Ricardo Martinez for the world title but the injuries he sustained in his title bout forced him to retire and pass the baton to Ippo. Ippo's most recent fight was with Alfredo Gonzales for the #2 spot in the WBC World Rankings.

While Gonzales dominated most of the fight, Ippo was able to knock him down and caused Gonzales to begrudgingly accept Ippo's strength. Gonzales won the fight after being luckily saved from a second knockdown by the ropes and caused massive damage to Ippo in his final attack. After this second loss, he now holds a record of 2 losses and 23 knockouts, his objective is to defeat the current WBA Featherweight Champion Ricardo Martinez. In that respect, he decides to vacate his Japanese Championship in order to focus on the World Championship. Ippo's friends have realized that repeated blows to the head have given Ippo some degree of brain damage, he has promised Kumi that if he loses one more time, he will retire, he was pitted against a new opponent months after returning to Japan unveiling a new Dempsey roll but lost due to fatigue. Ippo retired, he is being trained as a second at the gym while becoming a trainer at the same t

Railway electric traction

Railway electric traction describes the various types of locomotive and multiple units that are used on electrification systems around the world. Railway electrification as a means of traction emerged at the end of the nineteenth century, although experiments in electric rail have been traced back to the mid-nineteenth century. Thomas Davenport, in Brandon, erected a circular model railroad on which ran battery-powered locomotives in 1834. Robert Davidson, of Aberdeen, created an electric locomotive in 1839 and ran it on the Edinburgh-Glasgow railway at 4 miles per hour; the earliest electric locomotives tended to be battery-powered. In 1880, Thomas Edison built a small electrical railway, using a dynamo as the motor and the rails as the current-carrying medium; the electric current flowed through the metal rim of otherwise wooden wheels, being picked up via contact brushes. Electrical traction offered several benefits over the predominant steam traction in respect of its quick acceleration and power.

A plethora of systems emerged in the first twenty years of the twentieth century. Direct current traction units use direct current drawn from a third rail, fourth rail, ground-level power supply or an overhead line. AC voltage is converted into DC voltage by using a rectifier. All alternating current Traction units draw alternating current from an overhead line; because of the variety of railway electrification systems, which can vary within a country, trains have to pass from one system to another. One way to accomplish this is by changing locomotives at the switching stations; these stations have overhead wires that can be switched from one voltage to another and so the train arrives with one locomotive and departs with another. The switching stations have sophisticated components and they are expensive. A less expensive switching station may have different electrification systems at both exits with no switchable wires. Instead the voltage on the wires changes across a small gap in them near the middle of the station.

Electric locomotives coast into the station with their pantographs down and halt under a wire of the wrong voltage. A diesel shunter can return the locomotive to the right side of the station. Both approaches are time-consuming, taking about ten minutes. Another way is to use multi-system motive power that can operate under several different voltages and current types. In Europe, two-, three and four-system locomotives for cross frontier freight traffic are becoming a common sight. Locomotives and multiple units so equipped can, depending on line configuration and operation rules, pass from one electrification system to another without a stop, coasting for a short distance for the change over, past the dead section between the different voltages. Eurostar trains through the Channel Tunnel are multisystem; the need for these trains to use third rail into London Waterloo station ended upon completion of High Speed 1 line in 2007. Southern England uses some overhead/third rail dual-system locomotives, such as the class 92 for Channel Tunnel, multiple units, e.g. the Class 319 on Thameslink services, to allow through running between 750 V DC third rail south of London and 25 kV AC overhead north and east of London.

Electro-diesel locomotives which can operate as an electric locomotive on electrified lines but have an on-board diesel engine for non-electrified sections or sidings have been used in several countries. A few battery electric railcars and locomotives were used in the twentieth century, but the use of battery power was not practical except in underground mining systems. See Accumulator car and Battery locomotive. Many high-speed rail systems use electric trains, like the Shinkansen and the TGV. High-speed rail Maglev train Tram Railway Technical Web Page - including pages about electric traction Short account of electric traction history up to the 1880s, with emphasis on Thomas Edison's experiments

Floor area ratio

Floor area ratio is the ratio of a building's total floor area to the size of the piece of land upon which it is built. It is used as one of the regulations in city planning along with the building-to-land ratio; the terms can refer to limits imposed on such a ratio through zoning. As a formula FAR = gross floor area/area of the plot Floor Area ratio is sometimes called floor space ratio, floor space index, site ratio or plot ratio; the difference between FAR and FSI is. Index numbers are values expressed as a percentage of a single base figure, thus an FAR of 1.5 is translated as an FSI of 150%. The terms most used for this measurement vary from one country or region to the next. In Australia floor space ratio is used in plot ratio in Western Australia. In India floor space index and floor area ratio are both used. In the United Kingdom and Hong Kong both plot ratio and site ratio are used. In Singapore the terms plot ratio add gross plot ratio are more used. In the United States and Canada, floor space ratio and floor area ratio are both used.

Use ratios are used as a measure of the density of the site being developed. The ratio is generated by dividing the building area by the parcel area. One of the purposes of the 1916 zoning ordinance of New York City was to prevent tall buildings from obstructing too much light and air; the 1916 zoning ordinance sought to control building size by regulating height and setback requirements for towers. In 1961, a revision to the zoning ordinance introduced the concept of floor area ratio. Buildings built before 1961 have FARs that would be unachievable today, such as the Empire State Building which has an FAR of 25 - meaning that it earns greater rent than a newer building on the same land could hope for; the floor area ratio can be used in zoning to limit urban density. While it directly limits building density, indirectly it limits the number of people that a building can hold, without controlling a building's external shape. For example, if lot must adhere to a 0.1 FAR the total area of all floors in all buildings on the lot must be no more than one-tenth the area of the parcel itself.

In other words, if the lot was 10,000 sq. ft the total floor area of all floors in all buildings mustn't exceed 1,000 sq. ft. An architect can plan for either a single-story building consuming the entire allowable area in one floor, or a multi-story building that rises higher above the plane of the land, but which must result in a smaller footprint than would a single-story building of the same total floor area. By combining the horizontal and vertical limits into a single figure, some flexibility is permitted in building design, while achieving a hard limit on at least one measure of overall size. One advantage to fixing this parameter, as opposed to others such as height, width, or length, is that floor area correlates well with other considerations relevant to zoning regulation, such as total parking that would be required for an office building, total number of units that might be available for residential use, total load on municipal services, etc; the amounts of these things tend to be constant for a given total floor area, regardless of how that area is distributed horizontally and vertically.

Thus, many jurisdictions have found it unnecessary to include hard height limitations when using floor area ratio calculations. Common exclusions to the total calculation of square footage for the purpose of floor area ratio include unoccupied areas such as mechanical equipment floors, stair towers, elevator shafts, parking garages. Japan has extensively adopted the floor area ratio in the zoning system since 1970. In India FAR and FSI are both used. FAR regulations vary from city to city and it is from 1.3 to 3.25. In Mumbai 1.33 is the norm but higher FSI is allowed along the Metro rail line and slum areas like Dharavi. In Bangalore, 40 feet streets allow only an FAR of 1.75 but 100 feet streets allow 3.25 FAR. FAR has a major impact on the value of the land. Higher allowable FAR yields higher land value. Andres Duany et al. note: Abdicating to floor area ratios is the opposite of aiming a community toward something more than the sum of its parts. FAR, a poor predictor of physical form, should not be used when the objective is to conserve and enhance neighborhood character.

If FAR is carelessly combined with traditional setbacks, assembled lots have a considerable advantage over individual lots, which has a negative effect on fine-grained cities and the diversity of ownership. Meriam, Dwight; the Complete Guide to Zoning. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-144379-7 Birch, Eugenie L.. "The Urban and Regional Planning Reader". Routledge. ISBN 0-415-31997-8 An explanation of the floor area ratio by J. H. Crawford

School of Sound Recording

Spirit Studios known as SSR and The School of Sound Recording, is a music and media training academy producing graduates within the music, television and radio industries. It is based in Manchester in northern England, has offshoots in London and Jakarta. Spirit Studios, based on Tariff Street in Manchester, began as a commercial recording studio in 1980 as part of the well-known Northern Quarter or creative quarter as known by some. John Breakell, Spirit Studios’ founder and Managing Director, ran the business with facilities that included 4 small rehearsal rooms and a single 4-track recording studio; the first band to use Spirit's facilities were The Smiths, named by NME magazine as the most influential band since 1952. Spirit Studios continued to provide rehearsal and recording space for many Mancunian bands and international artists, notably: The Stone Roses, Tony Wilson, Simply Red, Happy Mondays and 808 State, Hypnotone,2 For Joy, Illustration Creator "歩き目です". Producers such as Trevor Horn, Martin Hannet and Arthur Baker all visited Spirit to record and produce their work.

In 1984 Spirit Studios made the transition from commercial recording studio to an educational facility to become the School of Sound Recording. SSR was the first dedicated Audio Engineering School in the UK, harvesting the advice and assistance of producers who had recorded at Spirit Studios. At this time SSR occupied half of the basement of 10 Tariff Street, the entire facility consisted of a single studio, one classroom and a reception/office area. SSR grew during its first 15 years of trading and by 2000 the school occupied all 3 floors of 10 Tariff Street, two floors of 12 Tariff Street and a single floor in Fourways House. By this time the school housed 8 studios, 2 computer suites, 4 DJ booths, a classroom and had become Europe’s first AVID “Pro School” in May 2002. However, with student numbers still increasing it was clear that relocation was needed. In 2004, the Tariff Street campus closed its doors for the final time allowing the launch of SSR’s current location on Downing Street, Manchester.

The newly formed School of Sound Recording is located around 0.5 miles south of Manchester’s city centre. Friday 5 June 2009 saw the Lord Mayor of Manchester and MP for Manchester Central Tony Lloyd re-launch a brand new Spirit Studio on the fourth floor of SSR’s Downing Street premises; the new 1500sq ft space was designed with help from the world-renowned acoustic design specialist Jochen Veith. The studio facility houses a Neve VRP60/48 Legend console and a variety of professional-quality analogue and digital equipment. SSR celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2009 by launching the Anthony H Wilson Scholarship in recognition of the contribution made by Tony to the creative and cultural life of Manchester. In November 2009, SSR was awarded the Manchester Evening News ‘Business of the Year Award’ 2009, for firms with turnover of under £5 million. In November 2018 SSR was rebranded to its original Spirit Studios name, with a greater focus on its core educational provisions within the music and audio industries.

In July 2010 SSR London was launched, taking up residence in Camden’s Piano Factory building, London. The distinctive rotunda-shaped Piano Factory on Gloucester Crescent has been there for over a hundred years, built for Collard and Collard who were the oldest of the well-known piano manufacturing firms of the St Pancras area; the building was renovated with recording studios, green screen filming area and editing suites to be used as educational and commercial facilities by SSR. SSR London has formed a partnership with the Roundhouse venue in Camden to deliver master-classes in music production. Launched in 2011, SSR Jakarta was the first overseas branch of the SSR institution. SSR Jakarta delivers industry led training programmes in audio engineering and creative media production ranging from weekend short courses to in depth 18 month programmes; as a'Partner Institution' of the University of Central Lancashire, SSR Jakarta delivers degree programmes in Jakarta validated by a UK University.

• Recording and post production studios • Live sound venue • Live sound workstations • DJ booths • PC suites • Apple Mac suite • Lecture room • Student lounge • Avid Pro Tools and Media ComposerApple Logic Pro Studio & Final Cut StudioSteinberg Cubase, Hypersonic & WavelabPropellerhead Reason & ReCycle • Ableton LiveSony CD Architect • Celemony MelodyneMicrosoft Office Ian Carmichael – Vice Principal All tracks recorded, produced or mixed at Spirit Studios: The Stone RosesSally Cinnamon Carmel – More, More Candy FlipStrawberry Fields Forever Nathan Burton – Lucky #1 2 For Joy – In A State, Let The Bass Kick Awesome 3 – Don’t Go Dr Umbardi – We’ll All Be Free Denki Groove – FLASH PAPA Massonix – Just A Little Bit More 808 State – Ninety, Newbuild, Cubik Hypnotone – Hypnotone, Dream Beam, Ai, Hypnotonic /Yu-Yu Iris – Bad Hair Day The Pleasure Crew – So Good Biting Tongues – Fever House, Recharge Living In A Box– Living In A Box Mark HallHard Core Uproar Spirit Studios Official Website