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Economy of Namibia

The economy of Namibia has a modern market sector, which produces most of the country's wealth, a traditional subsistence sector. Although the majority of the population engages in subsistence agriculture and herding, Namibia has more than 200,000 skilled workers and a considerable number of well-trained professionals and managerials. Namibia is a higher middle income country with an estimated annual GDP per capita of US$5,828 but has extreme inequalities in income distribution and standard of living, it leads the list of countries by income inequality with a Gini coefficient of 59.7 and 74.3, respectively. Since independence, the Namibian Government has pursued free-market economic principles designed to promote commercial development and job creation to bring disadvantaged Namibians into the economic mainstream. To facilitate this goal, the government has courted donor assistance and foreign investment; the liberal Foreign Investment Act of 1990 provides guarantees against nationalisation, freedom to remit capital and profits, currency convertibility, a process for settling disputes equitably.

Namibia is addressing the sensitive issue of agrarian land reform in a pragmatic manner. However, Government runs and owns a number of companies such as Air Namibia and NamPost, most of which need frequent financial assistance to stay afloat; the country's sophisticated formal economy is based on capital-intensive farming. However, Namibia's economy is dependent on the earnings generated from primary commodity exports in a few vital sectors, including minerals diamonds and fish. Furthermore, the Namibian economy remains integrated with the economy of South Africa, as the bulk of Namibia's imports originate there. In 1993, Namibia became a signatory of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade signatory, the Minister of Trade and Industry represented Namibia at the Marrakech signing of the Uruguay Round Agreement in April 1994. Namibia is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, has acceded to the European Union's Lomé Convention. Given its small domestic market but favourable location and a superb transport and communications base, Namibia is a leading advocate of regional economic integration.

In addition to its membership in the Southern African Development Community, Namibia presently belongs to the Southern African Customs Union with South Africa, Botswana and Swaziland. Within SACU, there is no customs on goods produced in, being transported amidst, its members. Namibia is a net receiver of SACU revenues; the Namibian economy is linked to South Africa with the Namibian dollar pegged to the South African rand. Privatisation of several enterprises in coming years may stimulate long-run foreign investment, although with the trade union movement opposed, so far most politicians have been reluctant to advance the issue. In September 1993, Namibia introduced its own currency, the Namibia Dollar, linked to the South African Rand at a fixed exchange rate of 1:1. There has been widespread acceptance of the Namibia Dollar throughout the country and, while Namibia remains a part of the Common Monetary Area, it now enjoys more flexibility in monetary policy although interest rates have so far always moved closely in line with the South African rates.

Namibia imports all of its goods from South Africa. Many exports go to the South African market, or transit that country. Namibia's exports consist of diamonds and other minerals, fish products and meat products, karakul sheep pelts, light manufactures. In recent years, Namibia has accounted for about 5% of total SACU exports, a higher percentage of imports. Namibia is seeking to diversify its trading relationships away from its heavy dependence on South African goods and services. Europe has become a leading market for Namibian fish and meat, while mining concerns in Namibia have purchased heavy equipment and machinery from Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada; the Government of Namibia is making efforts to take advantage of the American-led African Growth and Opportunity Act, which will provide preferential access to American markets for a long list of products. In the short term, Namibia is to see growth in the apparel manufacturing industry as a result of AGOA; the following table shows the main economic indicators in 1990–2017.

Namibia is dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Taxes and royalties from mining account for 25% of its revenue; the bulk of the revenue is created by diamond mining, which made up 7.2% of the 9.5% that mining contributes to Namibia's GDP in 2011. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia is a large exporter of uranium and over the years the mining industry has seen a decline in the international commodity prices such as uranium, which has led to the reason behind several uranium projects being abandoned. Experts say that the prices are expected to rise in the next 3 years because of an increase in nuclear activities from both Japan and China; the mining industry in Namibia is going to reach US1.79bn by the year 2018. Diamond production totalled 1.5 million carats in 2000, generating nearly $500 million in export earnings. Other important mineral resources are uranium, copper and zinc; the country extracts gold, tin, semiprecious gemstones, phosphate and mines salt.

Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa, the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium, the producer of large quantities of lead, tin

Richard Godson

Richard Godson was an English barrister and politician. He was member of Parliament for St Albans in 1831–32 and Kidderminster 1832–34 and 1837–1849, his father was William Godson of Worcester who died in 1822. His brothers were Septimus Holmes Godson and Stephen Godson, attorney. Godson's relationship with Kidderminster began when he defended carpet-weavers on trial there in 1830. In 1835, following the abolition of slavery, Godson received compensation for enslaved persons associated with the Pusey Hall Estate in Jamaica, he had declared this "embarrassment" while campaigning, during which time he supported both the First Reform Bill and emancipation

Common Type System

In Microsoft's. NET Framework, the Common Type System is a standard that specifies how type definitions and specific values of types are represented in computer memory, it is intended to allow programs written in different programming languages to share information. As used in programming languages, a type can be described as a definition of a set of values, the allowable operations on those values; the specification for the CTS is contained in Ecma standard 335, "Common Language Infrastructure Partitions I to VI." The CLI and the CTS were created by Microsoft, the Microsoft. NET framework is an implementation of the standard. To establish a framework that helps enable cross-language integration, type safety, high performance code execution. To provide an object-oriented model that supports the complete implementation of many programming languages. To define rules that languages must follow, which helps ensure that objects written in different languages can interact with each other; the CTS defines the rules that ensures that the data types of objects written in various languages are able to interact with each other.

The CTS specifies the rules for type visibility and access to the members of a type, i.e. the CTS establishes the rules by which assemblies form scope for a type, the Common Language Runtime enforces the visibility rules. The CTS defines the rules governing virtual methods and object lifetime. Languages supported by. NET can implement all or some common data types…When rounding fractional values, the halfway-to-even method is used by default, throughout the Framework. Since version 2, "Symmetric Arithmetic Rounding" is available by programmer's option, it is used to communicate with other languages The common type system supports two general categories of types: Value types Value types directly contain their data, instances of value types are either allocated on the stack or allocated inline in a structure. Value types can be built-in, user-defined, or enumerations. Reference types Reference types store a reference to the value's memory address, are allocated on the heap. Reference types can be pointer types, or interface types.

The type of a reference type can be determined from values of self-describing types. Self-describing types are further split into arrays and class types; the class types are user-defined classes, boxed value types, delegates. The following example written in Visual Basic. NET shows the difference between reference types and value types: The output of the above example Values: 0, 123 Refs: 123, 123 Converting value types to reference types is known as boxing; as can be seen in the example below, it is not necessary to tell the compiler an Int32 is boxed to an object, because it takes care of this itself. However, an Int32 can always be explicitly boxed like this: The following example intends to show how to unbox a reference type back to a value type. First an Int32 is boxed to an object, it is unboxed again. Note that unboxing requires explicit cast.. NET Framework Blittable types Common Language Infrastructure Microsoft developer's guide describing the CTS Built-in types in the. NET Framework

How? (song)

"How?" is a song from John Lennon's second solo album Imagine, released in 1971. Lennon recorded "How?" on 25 May 1971 at Ascot Sound Studios, during the sessions for his Imagine album. String overdubs took place on 4 July 1971 in New York City. Robert Christgau deemed the song "confusing. John Lennonvocals, piano Nicky Hopkins – piano Klaus Voormannbass guitar John Barhamvibraphone Andy Davis – acoustic guitar Alan Whitedrums The Flux Fiddlers – stringsPersonnel per the Beatles Bible; the song was covered by the band Stereophonics as a B-side to the song "Handbags and Gladrags". The song was covered by English singer Julie Covington on her 1978 eponymous album. Ozzy Osbourne released a cover of this song in support of Amnesty International during the same week John Lennon would have become 70, he recorded a music video on the streets of New York to promote the single. Osbourne has stated that Lennon's song "Imagine" was an inspiration for Osbourne's own song "Dreamer"; the song was covered by American singer/songwriter Amy LaVere on her 2014 record Runaway's Diary

Ko Samui

Ko Samui is an island off the east coast of Thailand. Geographically in the Chumphon Archipelago, it is part of Surat Thani Province, though as of 2012, Ko Samui was granted municipal status and thus is now locally self-governing. Ko Samui, with an area of 228.7 km2, is Thailand's third largest island after Ko Chang. In 2018, it was visited by 2.7 million tourists. The island was first inhabited about 15 centuries ago, settled by fishermen from the Malay Peninsula and southern China, it appears on Chinese maps dating back under the name Pulo Cornam. The origin of the name samui is unknown, it may come from the Sanskrit-Tamil word สมวย, meaning'sea weather'. Or it may derive from the name of a tree known locally in southern Thailand as ต้นหมุย. A third possibility is. In Hainanese Chinese, เซ่าบ่วย means'first island','barrier', or'gate', or literally'beautiful beach'; as it was their first port of call in Thailand, it became its name and evolved over time to สมุย. Some people believe that the word "samui" derives from the Malay word saboey, or'safe haven'.

There is no firm corroboration of any of these theories. Ko is the Thai word for "island"; until the late-20th century, Ko Samui was an isolated self-sufficient community, having little connection with the mainland of Thailand. The island was without roads until the early 1970s, the 15 km journey from one side of the island to the other could involve a whole-day trek through the mountainous central jungles. Ko Samui's economy now is based on a successful tourist industry, as well as exports of coconut and rubber. Economic growth has brought not only prosperity, but major changes to the island's environment and culture; the first local government on Samui island was established in 1956 with the sanitary district Ko Samui, which however only covered the area around the settlement. In 1963 it was enlarged to cover the entirety of Samui and Pha-Nga islands, which at that time were still in the same district. In 1973, the area of the Ko Pha-Ngan District became a separate sanitary district. Since 1981, the sanitary district covers the area of the whole district.

Like all sanitary districts, Ko Samui became a subdistrict municipality in 1999. In 2008, the subdistrict municipality was upgraded to a town municipality, in 2012, the town was upgraded to a city municipality; the conversion of the municipality into a special administrative area with greater powers of self-governance similar to Pattaya has been discussed since 2008, but as of 2018 no action has been taken. Ko Samui is in the Gulf of Thailand, about 35 km northeast of Surat Thani town, it is the most significant island in the Chumphon Archipelago. The island measures some 25 km at its widest point. To the north are the populated resort islands of Ko Pha-ngan, Ko Tao, Ko Nang Yuan. Close to Bangrak in northeast Samui is the small uninhabited island of Ko Som, to the northeast of Chaweng is the tiny Ko Matlang. To the south are Ko Taen and Ko Matsum, each of which have small tourist facilities. To the far west are 44 other islands which together compose Mu Ko Ang Thong National Park, accessible by a day-trip boat tour from Ko Samui.

The central part of Ko Samui is tropical jungle, including its largest mountain, Khao Pom, peaking at 635 meters. The various lowland and coastal areas are connected by Route 4169, a 51 kilometre-long road, encircling the island. Many other concrete roads branch off from Route 4169 to service other areas. On the west coast of the island is the original capital, which still houses many government offices, as well as two of the island's five major piers. Nathon is the major port for vehicular and goods transportation from the mainland; as the site of the main port and the closest city to the mainland has made Nathon the commercial centre for Samui locals. More the transition from dependence on the local coconut industry along with the continued growth and development of the tourist industry, as well as the northeastern location of the airport, has led to the increase of commercial activity in Chaweng and Bophut. Ko Samui has a tropical savanna climate according to the Köppen climate classification.

The island has a dry season month, with the average monthly precipitation in February falling below 60 mm, the threshold for a tropical dry season month. The temperature is well above the threshold of 18 degrees Celsius year round, indeed closer to an average temperature of 28 degrees; the climate is humid for most of the year. In comparison to Phuket and most of the rest of southern Thailand, Samui's weather is drier; the heaviest precipitation falls in the months of October and November. For the rest of the year, given the tropical climate, rain showers are brief. Ko Samui is an amphoe of Surat Thani Province, divided into seven sub-districts and 39 administrative villages; the entire island is one city municipality. The district covers the island, as well as the Ang Thong archipelago and some other small islands nearby; the district included all of the islands of Surat Thani Province. The islands Ko Pha-ngan and Ko Tao were split off as the minor district Ko Pha-ngan effective 1 October 1970.

In 1980, administrative village number seven of Ang Thong Sub-district covering the islands Ko

Operation Tiberius

Operation Tiberius was an official internal Metropolitan Police investigation, commissioned in October 2001, written in 2002, but leaked to The Independent newspaper in 2014. The Metropolitan Police have acknowledged it was born of other investigations, but describe it as a new strategic approach to corruption, rather than a single operation; the Parliamentary Home Affairs Committee has published a redacted copy of a summary of the investigation, with a lengthy annexe detailing other earlier corruption investigations Operation Russell. It investigated the charge that certain "organized criminals" were able to infiltrate Scotland Yard by bribery. 19 former and 42 serving officers were investigated for alleged corruption. It has been claimed that the Metropolitan Police suffered “endemic corruption” and given the small number of convictions, doubt has been expressed over whether this police force has extirpated the problem. According to The Independent, the gangs used their contacts inside Freemasonry to “recruit corrupted officers”.

The report concluded that this was one of “the most difficult aspects of organised crime corruption to proof against”. Allegations of evidence tampering, interference with the pursuit of criminal suspects by other forces, close cooperation between senior police officers and master criminals those involved in illicit drugs and prostitution, have been raised. Charges that jurors were bought off or threatened to return not-guilty verdicts, corrupt individuals working for HMRC, both in the UK and overseas, “get out of jail free cards” being bought for £50,000 are cited in the report. One of the highest-ranking gangsters in the UK, John Palmer, was alleged by The Times from Operation Tiberius files, to have been protected from arrest and investigation by a clique of high-ranking corrupt Metropolitan Police officers. Palmer's companions were once discovered with a silenced Uzi submachine gun and 380 rounds of ammunition. On 29 February 2016, the BBC screened an edition of Panorama entitled "Cops, Corruption: The Inside Story".

It covered police corruption, including material uncovered by Operation Tiberius. However, there was no mention of the manner in which contacts were established and maintained between senior police officers and criminals. In particular, there was no mention of the involvement of Freemasonry, in contrast to The Independent article and what had been leaked from the Operation Tiberius report. Operation Othona House of Commons Home Affairs Committee. "Operation Tiberius". House of Commons Official website. Retrieved 2014-12-13