Economy of Niger
Petit Marché in Niamey
|Currency||West African CFA franc (XOF)|
|€1 = 655.957 XOF|
|GDP||$7.892 billion (2017 est.) (Nominal), $21.655 billion (2017 est.) (PPP)|
|4.0% (2015), 5.0% (2016), |
5.2% (2017e), 5.3% (2018f) 
GDP per capita
|$440 (2017 est.) (Nominal), $1,153 (2017 est.) (PPP, 183th)|
GDP by sector
|agriculture: 44.3%; industry: 14.9%; services: 40.8% (2017)|
Population below poverty line
|6.5 million (2017)|
Labour force by occupation
|agriculture: 87%; industry: 4%; services: 9% (2016)|
|Unemployment||2.6% (2016 est.)|
|uranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses|
|Exports||$1.177 billion (2017. est)|
|uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions|
Main export partners
| France 31.3% |
China 5.3% (2016)
|Imports||$2.194 billion (2017. est)|
|Food, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals|
Main import partners
| France 28.3% |
Thailand 5.8% (2016 est.)
Gross external debt
|$3.09 billion (31 December 2017 est)|
|Revenues||$1.68 billion (2017. est)|
|Expenses||$2.235 billion (2017 est.)|
The economy of Niger is based largely upon internal markets, subsistence agriculture, and the export of raw commodities: foodstuffs to neighbors and raw minerals to world markets. Niger, a landlocked West African nation that straddles the Sahel, has consistently been ranked on the bottom of the Human development index, with a relatively low GDP and per capital income. Economic activity centres on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry, re-export trade, and export of uranium; the 50% devaluation of the West African CFA franc in January 1994 boosted exports of livestock, cowpeas, onions, and the products of Niger's small cotton industry. Exports of cattle to neighboring Nigeria, as well as Groundnuts and their oil remain the primary non-mineral exports; the government relies on bilateral and multilateral aid – which was suspended briefly following coups d'état in 1996 and 1999 – for operating expenses and public investment. Short-term prospects depend on continued World Bank and IMF debt relief and extended aid; the post 1999 government has broadly adhered to privatisation and market deregulation plans instituted by these funders.
- 1 Overall
- 2 GDP per capita
- 3 Agriculture
- 4 External trade and investment
- 5 Economic growth
- 6 Foreign investment
- 7 Currency
- 8 Government restructuring
- 9 Macro-economic trend
- 10 Statistics
- 11 Economy
- 11.1 Economic sectors
- 11.2 Growth rates
- 11.3 Economic reforms
- 11.4 Infrastructure
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Niger's economy is based largely on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Drought cycles, desertification, a 3.4% population growth rate and the drop in world demand for uranium have undercut an already marginal economy. Traditional subsistence farming, herding, small trading, and informal markets dominate an economy that generates few formal sector jobs. Between 1988 and 1995 28% to 30% of the total economy of Niger was in the unregulated Informal sector, including small and even large scale rural and urban production, transport and services.
GDP per capita
Current GDP per capita of Niger grew 10% in the 1960s, but this proved unsustainable and it consequently shrank by 27% in the 1980s and a further 48% in the 1990s. Much of this GDP is explained through the exploitation of uranium at Arlit in the far north of the country. Ore is partially processed on site by foreign mining corporations and transported by truck to Benin. Fluctuation of GDP can be mapped to changes in international uranium price, as well as price negations with the main mining company, France's Orano Cycle. Price rises in the mid-1970s were followed by a collapse in the market price through much of the 1980s and 1990s, thus the GDP per capita has little direct impact on the average Nigerien, although uranium funds much government operation. The 2006 Human Development Index ranked Niger sixth from worst in the world, with a HDI of 0.370: 174 of 179 nations.
Niger's agricultural and livestock sectors are the mainstay of all but 18% of the population. Fourteen percent of Niger's GDP is generated by livestock production (camels, goats, sheep and cattle), said to support 29% of the population; the 15% of Niger's land that is arable is found mainly along its southern border with Nigeria. Rainfall varies and when insufficient, Niger has difficulty feeding its population and must rely on grain purchases and food aid to meet food requirements. Although the rains in 2000 were not good, those in 2001 were plentiful and well distributed. Pearl millet, sorghum, and cassava are Niger's principal rain-fed subsistence crops. Irrigated rice for internal consumption, while expensive, has, since the devaluation of the CFA franc, sold for below the price of imported rice, encouraging additional production. Cowpeas and onions are grown for commercial export, as are small quantities of garlic, peppers, potatoes, and wheat. Groundnuts, and to a lesser degree Cotton, introduced by former colonial power France in the 1930s and 1950s respectively, account for most of the world market for Nigerien industrial agriculture. Prior to the mass exploitation of uranium in the early 1970s, groundnut oil was the largest Nigerien export by worth.
The majority of Niger's population are rural residents engaged in agriculture, mostly in the south centre and south west of the nation. While these people are dependent on the agricultural market portions of their production and consumption, much of Nigerien farming is subsistence agriculture outside of the marketplace.
External trade and investment
Of Niger's exports, foreign exchange earnings from livestock, although impossible to quantify, are second only to those from uranium. Actual exports far exceed official statistics, which often fail to detect large herds of animals informally crossing into Nigeria; some hides and skins are exported and some are transformed into handicrafts.
The persistent uranium price slump has brought lower revenues for Niger's uranium sector, although uranium still provides 72% of national export proceeds; the nation enjoyed substantial export earnings and rapid economic growth during the 1960s and 1970s after the opening of two large uranium mines near the northern town of Arlit. When the uranium-led boom ended in the early 1980s, however, the economy stagnated and new investment since then has been limited. Niger's two uranium mines (SOMAIR's open pit mine and COMINAK's underground mine) are owned by a French-led consortium and operated by French interests.
Exploitable deposits of gold are known to exist in Niger in the region between the Niger River and the border with Burkina Faso. Substantial deposits of phosphates, coal, iron, limestone, and gypsum also have been found. Numerous foreign companies, including American firms, have taken out exploration licenses for concessions in the gold seam in western Niger, which also contains deposits of other minerals.
Several oil companies explored for petroleum since 1992 in the Djado plateau in north-eastern Niger and the Agadem basin, north of Lake Chad but made no discoveries worth developing at the time. In June 2007, however, China National Petroleum Corporation (state-owned by the People's Republic of China) signed a US$5 billion agreement to extract oil in the Agadem block, as well as build a 20,000 barrels (3,200 m3) per day oil refinery and a 2,000 km oil pipeline in the country; production is expected to start in 2009.
Niger's known coal reserves, with low energy and high ash content, cannot compete against higher quality coal on the world market. However, the parastatal SONICHAR (Société nigérienne de charbon) in Tchirozerine (north of Agadez) extracts coal from an open pit and fuels an electricity generating plant that supplies energy to the uranium mines.
After the economic competitiveness created by the January 1994 CFA franc devaluation contributed to an annual average economic growth of 3.5% throughout the mid-1990s, the economy stagnated due the sharp reduction in foreign aid in 1999, which gradually resumed in 2000, and poor rains in 2000. Reflecting the importance of the agricultural sector, the return of good rains was the primary factor underlying a projected growth of 4.5% for 2001.
In recent years, the Government of Niger promulgated revisions to the investment code (1997 and 2000), petroleum code (1992), and mining code (1993), all with attractive terms for investors; the present government actively seeks foreign private investment and considers it key to restoring economic growth and development. With the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), it has undertaken a concerted effort to revitalize the sector.
Niger shares a common currency, the CFA franc, and a common central bank, the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO), with six other members of the West African Monetary Union; the Treasury of the Government of France supplements the BCEAO's international reserves in order to maintain a fixed rate of 100 CFA (Communauté Financière Africaine) to the French franc (to the euro as of January 1, 2002).
In January 2000, Niger's newly elected government inherited serious financial and economic problems including a virtually empty treasury, past-due salaries (11 months of arrears) and scholarship payments, increased debt, reduced revenue performance, and lower public investment. In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund program for Highly Indebted Poor Countries and concluded an agreement with the Fund on a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF).
In addition to changes in the budgetary process and public finances, the new government has pursued economic restructuring towards the IMF promoted privatization model; this has included the privatization of water distribution and telecommunications and the removal of price protections for petroleum products, allowing prices to be set by world market prices. Further privatizations of public enterprises are in the works. In its effort comply with the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility plan, the government also is taking actions to reduce corruption and, as the result of a participatory process encompassing civil society, has devised a Poverty Reduction Strategy Plan that focuses on improving health, primary education, rural infrastructure, and judicial restructuring.
The most important donors in Niger are France, the European Union, the World Bank, the IMF and other United Nations agencies (UNDP, UNICEF, FAO, WFP, and UNFPA). Other principal donors include the United States, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. While USAID does not have an office in Niger, the United States is a major donor, contributing nearly $10 million each year to Niger's development; the U.S. also is a major partner in policy coordination in such areas as food security and HIV/AIDS. The importance of external support for Niger's development is demonstrated by the fact that about 45% of the government's FY 2002 budget, including 80% of its capital budget, derives from donor resources. In 2005 the UN drew attention to the increased need for foreign aid given severe problems with drought and locusts resulting in a famine endangering the lives around a million people.
This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Niger at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of CFA Francs.
|Year||Gross Domestic Product||US Dollar Exchange||Inflation Index (2000=100)|
|1980||530,000||211.23 CFA Francs||46|
|1985||647,100||449.37 CFA Francs||69|
|1990||675,596||272.26 CFA Francs||61|
|1995||938,800||499.09 CFA Francs||87|
|2000||1,280,372||710.13 CFA Francs||100|
|2005||1,841,244||527.12 CFA Francs||113|
Mean wages were $0.37 per man-hour in 2008.
The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2017.
|GDP in $
|3.10 bil.||3.51 bil.||4.64 bil.||4.94 bil.||6.29 bil.||9.25 bil.||10.09 bil.||10.69 bil.||11.95 bil.||11.96 bil.||13.11 bil.||13.68 bil.||15.58 bil.||16.67 bil.||18.24 bil.||19.17 bil.||20.39 bil.||21.84 bil.|
|GDP per capita in $
|4.9 %||7.7 %||−1.3 %||−6.6 %||−2.6 %||8.4 %||5.8 %||3.2 %||9.7 %||−0.7 %||8.4 %||2.2 %||11.9 %||2.3 %||7.5 %||4.0 %||5.0 %||5.2 %|
|7.3 %||−1.0 %||−2.0 %||10.9 %||2.9 %||7.8 %||0.1 %||0.1 %||11.3 %||4.3 %||−2.8 %||2.9 %||0.5 %||2.3 %||−0.9 %||1.5 %||0.2 %||2.4 %|
(Pct. of GDP)
|...||...||...||91 %||89 %||66 %||27 %||25 %||21 %||28 %||24 %||28 %||27 %||26 %||32 %||41 %||45 %||47 %|
GDP: purchasing power parity – $21.86 billion (2017 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 4.9% (2017 est.)
GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $1,200 (2017 est.)
GDP – composition by sector:
services: 38.7% (2017)
Population below poverty line: 45.4% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 29.3% (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2017 est.)
Labour force: 6.5 million (2017 est.)
Labour force – by occupation: agriculture 79.2% , industry: 3.3%, services: 17.5% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 0.3% (2017 est.)
revenues: $1.757 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 2.171 billion (2017 est.)
Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2017 est.)
electrification: total population: 15% (2013)
electrification: urban areas: 62% (2013)
electrification: rural areas: 4% (2013)
Electricity – production: 494.7 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity – production by source:
fossil fuel: 95%
other: 0% (2017)
Electricity – consumption: 1.065 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity – imports: 779 million kWh (2016 est.)
Exports: $4.143 billion (2017 est.)
Exports – commodities: uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
Exports – partners: France 30.2%, Thailand 18.3%, Malaysia 9.9%, Nigeria 8.3%, Mali 5%, Switzerland 4.9% (2017)
Imports: $1.829 billion (2017 est.)
Imports – commodities: foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Imports – partners: France 28.8%, China 14.4%, Malaysia 5.7%, Nigeria 5.4%, Thailand 5.3%, US 5.1%, India 4.9% (2017)
Debt – external: $3.728 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
Economic aid – recipient: $222 million (1995)
Currency: 1 Communauté Financière Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Communauté Financière Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 – 670 (January 2000), 560.01 (January 1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995)
note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro
Fiscal year: calendar year
The economy of Niger centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Drought cycles, desertification, a 2.9% population growth rate, and the drop in world demand for uranium have undercut the economy.
Niger shares a common currency, the CFA franc, and a common central bank, the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO), with seven other members of the West African Monetary Union. Niger is also a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).
In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund program for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and concluded an agreement with the Fund for Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). Debt relief provided under the enhanced HIPC initiative significantly reduces Niger's annual debt service obligations, freeing funds for expenditures on basic health care, primary education, HIV/AIDS prevention, rural infrastructure, and other programs geared at poverty reduction.
In December 2005, it was announced that Niger had received 100% multilateral debt relief from the IMF, which translates into the forgiveness of approximately US$86 million in debts to the IMF, excluding the remaining assistance under HIPC. Nearly half of the government's budget is derived from foreign donor resources. Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. Uranium prices have recovered somewhat in the last few years. A drought and locust infestation in 2005 led to food shortages for as many as 2.5 million Nigeriens.
The agricultural economy is based largely upon internal markets, subsistence agriculture, and the export of raw commodities: foodstuffs and cattle to neighbors. Foreign exchange earnings from livestock, although difficult to quantify, are considered the second source of export revenue behind mining and oil exports. Actual exports far exceed official statistics, which often fail to detect large herds of animals informally crossing into Nigeria; some hides and skins are exported, and some are transformed into handicrafts. 
Niger's agricultural and livestock sectors are the mainstay of all but 18% of the population. 14% of Niger's GDP is generated by livestock production (camels, goats, sheep and cattle), said to support 29% of the population. Thus 53% of the population is actively involved in crop production; the 15% of Niger's land that is arable is found mainly along its southern border with Nigeria.
In these areas, Pearl millet, sorghum, and cassava are the principal rain-fed subsistence crops. Irrigated rice for internal consumption is grown in parts of the Niger River valley in the west. While expensive, it has, since the devaluation of the CFA franc, sold for below the price of imported rice, encouraging additional production. Cowpeas and onions are grown for commercial export, as are small quantities of garlic, peppers, potatoes, and wheat. Oasis farming in small patches of the north of the country produces onions, dates, and some market vegetables for export.
But for the most part, rural residents engaged in crop tending are clustered in the south centre and south west of the nation, in those areas (the Sahel) which can expect to receive between 300 to 600 mm (12 to 24 in) of rainfall annually. A small area in the southern tip of the nation, surrounding Gaya can expect to receive 700 to 900 mm (28 to 35 in) or rainfall. Northern areas which support crops, such as the southern portions of the Aïr Massif and the Kaouar oasis, rely upon oases and a slight increase in rainfall due to mountain effects. Large portions of the northwest and far east of the nation, while within the Sahara desert, see just enough seasonal rainfall to support semi-nomadic animal husbandry; the populations of these areas, mostly Tuareg, Wodaabe – Fula, and Toubou, travel south (a process called transhumance) to pasture and sell animals in the dry season, north into the Sahara in the brief rainy season.
Rainfall varies and when it is insufficient, Niger has difficulty feeding its population and must rely on grain purchases and food aid to meet food requirements. Rains, as in much of the Sahel, have been marked by annual variability; this has been especially true in the 20th century, with the most severe drought on record beginning in the late 1960s and lasting, with one break, well into the 1980s. The long-term effect of this, especially to pastoralist populations, remains in the 21st century, with those communities which rely upon cattle, sheep, and camels husbandry losing entire herds more than once during this period. Recent rains remain variable. For instance, the rains in 2000 were not good, while those in 2001 were plentiful and well distributed.
Soils that have become degraded, for example by intensive cereal production, cover 50 per cent of Niger's land. Laterite soils have a high clay content, which means they have higher Cation Exchange Capacity and water-holding capacity than sandy soils. If laterite soils become degraded, a hard crust can form on the surface, which hinders water infiltration and the emergence of seedlings, it is possible to rehabilitate such soils, using a system called the Bioreclamation of Degraded Lands.
This involves using indigenous water-harvesting methods (such as planting pits and trenches), applying animal and plant residues, and planting high-value fruit trees and indigenous vegetable crops that are tolerant of drought conditions; the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has employed this system to rehabilitate degraded laterite soils in Niger and increase smallholder farmers' incomes. Trials have demonstrated that a 200 m2 (2,153 sq ft) plot can yield an income of around US$100, which is what men traditionally earn from millet production per hectare (10000m²); as women are often given degraded soils, using this practice has helped to improve livelihoods for women in Niger.
The Kandadji Dam on the Niger River, whose construction started in August 2008, is expected to improve agricultural production in the Tillaberi Department by providing water for the irrigation of 6,000 hectares initially and of 45,000 hectares by 2034.
Drought and food crisis
As one of the Sahelian nations in West Africa, Niger has faced several droughts which led to food shortages and, in some cases, famines since its independence in 1963; this includes a series of droughts in the 1970s and 1980s and more recently in 2005–2006 and again in 2010. The existence of widespread famine in 2005–2006 was debated by the government of Niger as well some local NGOs.
The Niger mining industry is the main source of national exports, of which uranium is the largest export. Niger has been a uranium exporter since the 1960s and has had substantial export earnings and rapid economic growth during the 1960s and 1970s; the persistent uranium price slump has brought lower revenues for Niger's uranium sector, although it still provides 72% of national export proceeds. When the uranium-led boom ended in the early 1980s the economy stagnated, and new investment since then has been limited. Niger's two uranium mines—SOMAIR's open pit mine and COMINAK's underground mine—are owned by a French-led consortium and operated by French company Orano.
As of 2007[update], many licences have been sold to other companies from countries such as India, China, Canada and Australia in order to exploit new deposits. In 2013, the government of Niger sought to increase its uranium revenue by subjecting the two mining companies to a 2006 Mining Law; the government argued that the application of the new law will balance an otherwise unfavorable partnership between the government and Areva. The company resisted the application of the new law that it feared would jeopardize the financial health of the companies, citing declining market uranium prices and unfavorable market conditions. In 2014, following nearly a year long negotiation with the government of Niger, Areva agreed to the application of 2006 Mining Law of Niger, which would increase the government's uranium revenues from 5 to 12%.[needs update]
In addition to uranium, exploitable deposits of gold are known to exist in Niger in the region between the Niger River and the border with Burkina Faso. In 2004, the first Nigerien gold ingot was produced from the Samira Hill Gold Mine, in Tera Department; the Samira Hill Gold Mine thus became the first commercial gold production in the country. The reserves at the location were estimated at 10,073,626 tons at an average grade of 2.21 grams (0.078 oz) per ton from which 19,200 kilograms (42,300 lb) will be recovered over a six-year mine life. Other gold deposits are believed to be in nearby areas known as the "Samira Horizon", which is located between Gotheye and Ouallam.
SONICHAR (Société Nigerienne de Charbon) in Tchirozerine (north of Agadez) extracts coal from an open pit and fuels an electricity generating plant that supplies energy to the uranium mines. Based on 2012 reports by the government of Niger, 246016 tons of coal were extracted by SONICHAR in 2011. There are additional coal deposits to the south and west that are of a higher quality and may be exploitable. Substantial deposits of phosphates, coal, iron, limestone, and gypsum have also been found in Niger.
The history of oil prospecting and discovery goes back to the independence era with the first discovery of Tintouma oil field in Madama in 1975, it is the Agadem basin that has attracted much attention since 1970 with Texaco and then Esso prospecting in the basin until 1980. Exploration permits on the same basin were held successively by Elf Aquitaine (1980–1985), Esso-Elf (1985–1998), Esso (1998–2002) and Esso-Petronas (2002–2006). While the reserves were estimated at 324 millions barrels for oil and 10 billion m3 for gas, Esso-Petronas relinquished the permit because it deemed the quantities too small for production.
With the sudden increase in oil price, this assessment was no longer true by 2008. the government transferred the Agadem block rights to CNPC. Niger announced that in exchange for the US$5 billion investment, the Chinese company would build wells, 11 of which would open by 2012, a 20,000-barrel-per-day (3,200 m3/d) refinery near Zinder and a pipeline out of the nation; the government estimates the area has reserves of 324 million barrels (51,500,000 m3), and is seeking further oil in the Tenere Desert and near Bilma. Niger began producing its first barrels of oil in 2011.
The economic competitiveness created by the January 1994 devaluation of the Communauté Financière Africaine (CFA) franc contributed to an annual average economic growth of 3.5% throughout the mid-1990s. But the economy stagnated due to the sharp reduction in foreign aid in 1999 (which gradually resumed in 2000) and poor rains in 2000. Reflecting the importance of the agricultural sector, the return of good rains was the primary factor underlying economic growth of 5.1% in 2000, 3.1% in 2001, 6.0% in 2002, and 3.0% in 2003.
In recent years, the Government of Niger drafted revisions to the investment code (1997 and 2000), petroleum code (1992), and mining code (1993), all with attractive terms for investors; the present government actively seeks foreign private investment and considers it key to restoring economic growth and development. With the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), it has undertaken a concerted effort to revitalize the private sector.
In January 2000, Niger's newly elected government inherited serious financial and economic problems including a virtually empty treasury, past-due salaries (11 months of unpaid salaries) and scholarship payments, increased debt, reduced revenue performance, and lower public investment. In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund program for Highly Indebted Poor Countries and concluded an agreement with the Fund on a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF).
In addition to changes in the budgetary process and public finances, the new government has pursued economic restructuring towards the IMF promoted privatization model; this has included the privatization of water distribution and telecommunications and the removal of price protections for petroleum products, allowing prices to be set by world market prices. Further privatizations of public enterprises are in the works.
In its effort to comply with the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility plan, the government is also taking action to reduce corruption and, as the result of a participatory process encompassing civil society, has devised a Poverty Reduction Strategy Plan that focuses on improving health, primary education, rural infrastructure, and judicial restructuring.
A long planned privatization of the Nigerien power company, NIGELEC, failed in 2001 and again in 2003 due to a lack of buyers. SONITEL, the nation's telephone operator which was separated from the post office and privatised in 2001, was renationalised in 2009. Critics have argued that the obligations to creditor institutions and governments have locked Niger into a process of trade liberalization that is harmful for small farmers and in particular, rural women.
Transport is crucial to the economy and culture of this vast landlocked nation, with cities separated by huge uninhabited deserts, mountain ranges, and other natural features. Niger's transport system was little developed during the colonial period (1899–1960), relying upon animal transport, human transport, and limited river transport in the far south west and south east. No railways were constructed in the colonial period. Construction of a network of paved roads linking major cities began after the independence reaching its heights during the uranium boom in the 1970s and 1980s. Primary or paved road systems are limited to bigger cities or connection between major cities. Road connections or networks in rural areas are mostly unpaved, all-weather laterite surfaces to grated dirt or sand plowed roads with various degrees of maintenance. In 2012, there was 19,675 kilometres (12,225 mi) of road network throughout Niger, of which 4,225 kilometres (2,625 mi) were paved.
The Niger River, which crosses the southwestern part of the country, is unsuitable for river transport of any large scale, as it lacks depth for most of the year, and is broken by rapids at many spots. Camel caravan transport was historically important in the Sahara desert and Sahel regions which cover most of the north.
Air transport is mainly concentrated in Niamey. Niger's only international airport is Diori Hamani International Airport, is located in the capital, Niamey. Other airports in Niger include the Mano Dayak International Airport in Agadez city and Zinder Airport in Zinder city but as of January 2015, they were not regularly serviced by any carriers.
In 2014, construction for the railway extension connecting Niamey (Niger) to Cotonou via Parakou (Benin) began and is expected to be completed by 2016, it includes the construction of 574 kilometres (357 mi) new railway from Niamey to connect to the existing line in Parakou (Benin). Besides Niamey, the railway line will go through Dosso city and Gaya.
Accessibility to Energy
Niger has insufficient access to the energy it needs; the country's energy consumption is considered one of the lowest in the world. Niger's existing systems of energy consumption are also very underdeveloped to sustain energy efficiency within the state. Electricity access between urban areas such as Niamey enable 50 percent electricity service, and rural areas with 20 to 40 percent electricity service, with a region at its low of 10 percent electricity service. Other demands for electricity are met by NIGELEC, providing Diesel generator and thermal coal plants to create fuel for rent.
Primary Energy Outlets
Niger has three major energy consumption outlets; oil products, biofuel and waste, and electricity; as of 2016, Niger's energy consumption includes 486 ktoe via oil products, 2,217 ktoe via biofuel and waste, and 84 ktoe via electricity. Niger's dominate source of energy includes wood and charcoal, also known as biomass. Out of the 2,747 ktoe of energy supply in the country, 70% of it is from biomass. Households use up to 90% of biomass because of the lack of modern energy available, and the increased rates of imported energy that some cannot afford; the oil products predominately used are liquiefied patroleum gas, motor gasoline, gas and diesel, other kerosene, and fuel oil.
Sustainable and Renewable Energy
Niger also gets partial access from hydro electric power from dams created alongside the Niger River. Hydro electric power contributes about 280 MW to Niger's energy collectively from several hydropower sources, this includes 130 MW from the Kandadji, 122.5 from River Niger in Gambou, and 26 MW from Dyondyonga in Mekrou. Getting renewable energy via hydropower has had contriversial arguments due to the importance of rainfall in acquiring energy. Again, these hydro electric power dams are creating energy for Niger via Nigeria.
Solar energy has also been used to provide energy access. From 2004 to 2010 solar power generation was implemented, but there was a significant drop from 2010 to 2012. However, since 2016 approximately 5 Gwh of solar power was used.
Niger has potential to provide sustainable and renewable energy access within the country, which will help increase its energy intake and work with the growing demands of the population. Several projects have been discussed to bring solar power, hydropower, grid power, and wind power in works to create clean energy.
Many NGOs are working on funding projects to provide sustainable and renewable energy in parts of Africa. Affording the resources to create sustainable energy is one of the biggest barrier Niger faces, but agencies such as International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and AbuDhabi Fund for Development (ADFD) are funding low developing countries, including Niger, to help develop local renewable projects. Theses agencies will support projects including a hybrid micro-grid project employing solar PV and advanced lithium-ion batteries, a hydropower project, integrated wind and solar, and a combination project consisting of micro-grid and solar home kits. In addition, Lighting Africa, an NGO primarily working in Niger, is assisting in sustainable energy development through two World Bank-sponsored Energy Access Projects: the Niger Solar Electricity Project (NESAP), and the Regional Off-Grid Electrification Project (ROGEP); these projects will work with grid systems in two piloting countries, and this includes Niger. They will aim to increase electricity access in households, businesses, and communities through modern off-grid electrification.
- List of companies based in Niger
- List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty
- List of countries by Human Development Index
- List of countries by GDP (nominal)
- List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita
- List of countries by GDP (PPP)
- List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita
- List of countries by GNI (nominal) per capita
- List of countries by GDP growth
- List of countries by industrial production growth rate
- "World Bank forecasts for Niger, June 2018 (p. 153)" (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
- "Niger". The World Factbook. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
- "Ease of Doing Business in Niger". Doingbusiness.org. Retrieved 2017-01-25.
- C. Maldonado & J. Gasarian. SECTEUR INFORMEL: FONCTIONS MACRO-ECONOMIQUES ET POLITIQUES GOUVERNEMENTALES: LE CAS DU NIGER. Document de recherche S-INF-1-20. Département du développement des entreprises et des coopératives, Organisation internationale du Travail – OIT (1998).
- earthtrends.wri.org Archived January 31, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Human Development Report 2007/2008. United Nations Development Program.
- www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/[permanent dead link]
- Decalo, Samuel (1997). Historical Dictionary of the Niger (3rd ed.). Boston & Folkestone: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3136-8.
- "Niger set to become oil producer". BBC News. 2007-06-03. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
- IMF, 2006 estimates
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Retrieved 2018-08-27.
- "OHADA.com: The business law portal in Africa". Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- Background Notes for Niger: January 2009 Bureau of African Affairs, United States State Department. Retrieved 26 February 2009. Portions of the "Economy" section are here used verbatim, as this document is in the public domain.
- Bio-reclamation – Converting degraded lateritic soils into productive land, Rural 21, March 2013.
- "Kandadji" Ecosystems Regeneration and Niger Valley Development Programme (KERNVDP), Detailed Population Resettlement Plan, Executive Summary, Republic of Niger, Prime Minister's Office, High Commission for Niger Valley / African Development Bank, February 2008, p. 3-4.
- When Endemic Malnutrition is Labeled as Famine. Eden Foundation (Sweden), May 2006.
- "UPDATE 3-Areva signs uranium deal with Niger, delays new mine". Reuters. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- "Niger sets new terms in uranium ore deal with Areva". DW.DE. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- Background Note:Niger, United States State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs: Electronic Information and Publications Office. Bureau of African Affairs. September 2008
- "– Coal Production and Utilization 2007–2011 Report P218" (PDF).
- "Le Petrole Nigerien: D'Agadem a la Soraz" (in French). Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- As refinery opens, Niger joins club of oil producers, Agence France-Presse. 28 November 2011.
- Niger: Agricultural trade liberalization and women’s rights. August 2006. Report by 3D – Trade – Human Rights – Equitable Economy.
- (in French) Annuaire statistique du Niger 2008– 2012 . Transport routier
- World Bank. 2015. Niger – Electricity Access Expansion Project (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/918311468179953735/Niger-Electricity-Access-Expansion-Project
- Gado, Salifou (2015). "The Energy Sector of Niger: Perspectives and Opportunities" (PDF). energycharter.org.
- "Statistics". www.iea.org. Retrieved 2018-11-03.
- Economy of Niger at Curlie
- Invest in Niger: Centre de Promotion des Investissements Sis à la Chambre de Commerce d'Agriculture, d'Industrie et d'Atisanat du Niger.
- http://www.niger-tourisme.com: Ministère du tourisme et de l'artisanat nigérien.
- Niger latest trade data on ITC Trade Map
- The MBendi website, Niger: A South Africa-based business research group. Is especially useful for tracking government mining concessions.
- LA MAISON DE L'AFRIQUE: Niger. Franco-African business group.
- Institut de Recherche pour le Développement au Niger: French government development office in Niger.
- United Kingdom Department of International Development:Niger.
- Canadian International Development Agency:Niger.
- World Trade Organization MEMBER INFORMATION: Niger.
- The World Bank, Niger overview and resources.
- International Monetary Fund: Article IV Executive Board Consultation reports regarding Niger.
- IMF. Niger: Financial Position in the Fund as of January 31, 2008.
- IMF. Niger: Transactions with the Fund from May 01, 1984 to January 31, 2008.
- Estruscan Mining (Canada): corporate report on their Samira Hill Gold Mine, on the Benin border.
- West African Agricultural Market Observer/Observatoire du Marché Agricole (RESIMAO), a project of the West-African Market Information Network (WAMIS-NET), provides live market and commodity prices from fifty seven regional and local public agricultural markets across Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Niger, Mali, Senegal, Togo, and Nigeria. Sixty commodities are tracked weekly; the project is run by the Benin Ministry of Agriculture, and a number of European, African, and United Nations agencies.