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Economy of North Macedonia

The economy of North Macedonia has become more liberalized, with an improved business environment, since its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, which deprived the country of its key protected markets and the large transfer payments from Belgrade. Prior to independence, North Macedonia was Yugoslavia's poorest republic. An absence of infrastructure, United Nations sanctions on its largest market the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a Greek economic embargo hindered economic growth until 1996. Worker remittances and foreign aid have softened the subsequent volatile recovery period; the country's GDP has increased each year except in 2001, rising by 5% in 2000. However, growth in 1999 was held down by the severe regional economic dislocations caused by the Kosovo war. Successful privatization in 2000 boosted the country's reserves to over $700 million; the leadership demonstrated a continuing commitment to economic reform, free trade, regional integration. The economy can meet its basic food needs but depends on outside sources for all of its oil and gas and most of its modern machinery and parts.

Inflation jumped to 11% in 2000 due to higher oil prices. North Macedonia experiences one of Europe's biggest growth rates at an average of 4% making it comparable to nations such as Romania and Poland. North Macedonia's economy has always been agricultural in nature from the beginning of the Ottoman Empire when it was part of the District of Üsküp and Province of Salonika, it concentrated on vineyard growing. Opium poppy, introduced into the region in 1835, became an important crop as well by the late 19th century, remained so until the 1930s; the role of industry in the region's economy increased during the industrial age. North Macedonia was responsible for large outputs of textiles and several other goods in the Ottoman Empire. However, outdated techniques to produce the goods persisted; the stagnation of the Macedonian economy began under the rule of the Kingdom of Serbia. When World War II ended, the local economy began to experience revitalization by way of subsidies from Federal Belgrade.

The subsidies assisted North Macedonia to redevelop its lost industry and shift its agricultural-centered economy to an industry-centered economy with new hearts of industry emerging all over the country in Veles, Bitola and Kumanovo. Skopje was the only industrial centre in North Macedonia, this expanded to several other cities during Socialist Yugoslavia. After the fall of Socialist Yugoslavia, the economy experienced several shocks that damaged the local economy. Starting with the Western embargo on the Yugoslavian common market, ending with the Greek embargo on North Macedonia over the country's former name, Republic of Macedonia; the economy began to recover in 1995 and experienced a full recovery after the 2001 insurgency by ethnic Albanians. North Macedonia's GDP grew by an average of 6% annually until the financial crisis of 2007–2008 when its economy contracted; the crisis had little impact on the country due to Macedonian banks' stringent rules. North Macedonia today maintains a low debt-to-GDP ratio and is experiencing a revitalized investment interest by companies from Turkey, Algeria and others.

North Macedonia is vulnerable to economic developments in Europe - due to strong banking and trade ties - and dependent on regional integration and progress toward EU membership for continued economic growth. At independence in September 1991, North Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services; the collapse of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Yugoslavia, a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. Since North Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has so far lagged the region in attracting foreign investment and creating jobs, despite making extensive fiscal and business sector reforms. Official unemployment remains high at 24.6%, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, not captured by official statistics.

In the wake of the global economic downturn, North Macedonia has experienced decreased foreign direct investment, lowered credit availability, a large trade deficit. However, as a result of conservative fiscal policies and a sound financial system, in 2010 the country credit rating improved to BB+ and was kept at that level in 2011. Macroeconomic stability has been maintained by a prudent monetary policy, which keeps the domestic currency pegged against the euro; as a result, GDP growth was modest, but positive, in 2010 and 2011, inflation was under control. Latest data from North Macedonia's State Statistical Office show that overall, output for 2012 dropped by 6.6 percent compared to 2011. Real GDP in the first half of 2011 increased by 5.2%. This robust growth was driven by 23.6% growth in the construction sector. Industrial output in the first 8 months of 2011 was 7.5% higher than in the same period of 2010. Low public and external debt and a comfortable level of foreign exchange reserves allowed for further relaxation of monetary policy, with the reference interest rate of the Central Bank decreasing to 4%.

Due to rising prices for energy and food on international markets, inflation inc

1990 Dunhill Cup

The 1990 Dunhill Cup was the sixth Dunhill Cup. It was a team tournament featuring 16 countries, each represented by three players; the Cup was played 11–14 October at the Old Course at St Andrews in Scotland. The sponsor was the Alfred Dunhill company; the Irish team of David Feherty, Ronan Rafferty, Philip Walton beat the English team of Richard Boxall, Howard Clark, Mark James in the final. It was the second win in the Dunhill Cup for Ireland; the Cup was played as a single-elimination, match play event played over four days. The top eight teams were seeded with the remaining teams randomly placed in the bracket. In each match, the three players were paired with their opponents and played 18 holes at medal match play. Tied matches were extended to a sudden-death playoff only if they affected the outcome between the two teams. Source: Source: Source: Source: Feherty won on third playoff hole. Source

Harry Bradley (musician)

Harry Bradley is an Irish flute player. He began playing tin whistle at age 12 and went on to flute in his early teens inspired by local musicians and the early recordings of Irish music made in America, he received further inspiration from local flute players such as Noel Lenaghan, Michael Clarkson, Sam Murray and Brendan O'Hare. He has toured Europe and America both as a solo performer and teacher, as a member of groups such as Dervish and Cran, his debut solo CD, Bad Turns and Horse-shoe Bends, was released to broad critical acclaim and was chosen as the number one traditional album of 2000 by Earle Hitchner of New York’s Irish Echo. Bradley is a dedicated uilleann piper and has served as a member of the board of directors of Na Píobairí Uilleann, the society for uilleann pipers, where he taught the instrument, he was elected TG4 Musician of the Year in 2014. As a solo artist2000 Bad Turns and Horse-shoe Bends Outlet 2002 As I Carelessly Did Stray 2006 The Night Rambler’s Companion As a collaborative artist2003 The Tap Room Trio 2005...

Born for Sport 2009 The Pleasures Of Hope - Flute Music From Belfast and Beyond 2013 The First of May 2016 The Forest of Ornaments With Altan2002 The Blue Idol 2012 Gleann Nimhe - The Poison Glen Wallis, Geoff. "Harry Bradley". CD Review. Irish Music Review. Retrieved 23 July 2014

Amos Learned Farm

The Amos Learned Farm is a historic farmstead on New Hampshire Route 137 in Dublin, New Hampshire. This 1-1/2 story wood frame Cape style house was built c. 1808 by Benjamin Learned, Jr. son of one of Dublin's early settlers, is a well-preserved example of a period hill farmstead. The property was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983; the Amos Learned Farm is located in a rural setting of eastern Dublin, on the west side of NH 137, about 0.6 miles south of its junction with New Hampshire Route 101. It is a 1-1/2 story wood frame structure, with a gabled roof, central chimney, clapboarded exterior, its main facade is oriented presenting a side gable to the street. Windows are placed irregularly, with a center entrance on the south facade. A single-story ell extends to the west, stylistically similar, there is a modern garage about 100 feet south of the house; the house was built about 1808 by Benjamin Learned Jr. Both of the Learneds moved to Maine; the house stands near a discontinued road that went to the Upper Jaffrey Road, where their father's house still stands.

Owners of the property include Irish and Finnish immigrants, representatives of a broadening of the population demographics of Dublin in the early 20th century. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cheshire County, New Hampshire

Decker, Indiana

Decker is a town in Johnson Township, Knox County, United States. The population was 249 at the 2010 census, it was founded 1869 by Isaac Decker. Decker is near the White River, is well known for the watermelon and cantaloupe produced in the surrounding rural area; the school at Decker provided all grades until 1967, when the middle and high school grades were consolidated into South Knox High School. The school continued to provide grades K-5 until 1999, when those grades were consolidated; the school mascot was the'Aces,' which referred to wartime airplane pilots, on to the aces in playing cards. Decker is located at 38°31′6″N 87°31′26″W. According to the 2010 census, Decker has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 249 people, 92 households, 68 families living in the town. The population density was 1,383.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 109 housing units at an average density of 605.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.6% White, 1.2% African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.4% from two or more races.

There were 92 households of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.0% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 26.1% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.16. The median age in the town was 39.3 years. 24.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.8 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 283 people, 107 households, 80 families living in the town; the population density was 1,081.0 people per square mile. There were 120 housing units at an average density of 458.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.65 % 0.35 % from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.35% of the population. There were 107 households out of which 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 15.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.3% were non-families.

23.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.05. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $24,821, the median income for a family was $28,750. Males had a median income of $25,000 versus $15,714 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,482. About 14.3% of families and 21.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.7% of those under the age of eighteen and 20.6% of those sixty five or over

Australian Sharpie

The Australian Sharpie is a 3-person sailing dinghy which has evolved from the 12-square-metre class sailed in the 1956 Olympics in Melbourne, Australia. Australian Sharpies are 19 feet, 11 3⁄4 inches long, with a single mast. Sharpies race with a battened mainsail, a jib and a spinnaker, they are sailed competitively in all six Australian states. The Australian Sharpie National Titles is run as a carnival each year rotating from state to state. A National Conference is held each year during this event by officials from the Australian Sharpie Sailing Association. Famous Sharpie sailors include 1983 America's Cup winner John Bertrand, Sir James Hardy and John Cuneo. Development of the Australian Sharpie is controlled by the Australian Sharpie Sailing Association, which has chapters in each of the states which have Sharpie fleets; the current craft was referred to as a "Lightweight Sharpie". to distinguish it from an earlier design, referred to as a "Heavyweight Sharpie". The Lightweight Sharpie was founded by the Addison brothers in Western Australia.

Because of the design, the type has limitations. Fiberglass, by its nature, is stronger; the flat bottom and sides of a sharpie are not well suited to this building material. Some designers, such as Bruce Kirby and Reuel Parker have managed to add some curves without compromising the qualities of the type, but there are limits as to what can be done before the boat becomes something other than a sharpie; the earlier heavyweight Sharpie is still sailed to this day with fleets in the UK, Holland and Portugal. The association consists of representatives from each state with an active sailing Sharpie fleet. Office bearers in the association include an: Australian Commodore Australian President Australian Measurer Australian Secretary Carnival Secretary Regatta Technical Advisor Australian Regatta Secretary Australian Publicity OfficerEach state division of the association has its own office bearers including a President, Secretary, Race Officer and Publicity Officer; the Carnival is held annually in consecutive states in the following order: South Australia Western Australia New South Wales Tasmania Victoria QueenslandThe National Titles trophy consists of 7 races.

These races are preceded by two invitation races. A number of perpetual trophies are presented at the end of the annual carnival; these include the following: Australian Champion Runner-up Australian Champion Third Place Champion Fourth Place Champion Overall Consistency Champion Best Junior Skipper Most Carnival Wins Best Country Representative First Non-State Team Competitor Overall Consistency on Handicap Open Invitation Events First Non-State Team Competitor Handicap Golden Oldies First skipper over 50 First female skipper Champion Team First Handicap Champion Chug-a-lug