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Economy of Réunion

The economy of Réunion has traditionally been based on agriculture. Sugarcane has been the primary crop for more than a century, in some years it accounts for 85% of exports; the government has been pushing the development of a tourist industry to relieve high unemployment, which amounts to more than 40% of the labour force. The gap in Réunion between the well-off and the poor is large and accounts for the persistent social tensions; the outbreak of severe rioting in February 1991 illustrated the seriousness of socio-economic tensions. However, this gap has been closing in the last 15 years. In 2007 the GDP per capita of Réunion at nominal exchange rates, not at PPP, was €17,146. However, while this is exceptionally high compared with its neighbours in Madagascar and the African continent, it is only 57% of the 30,140 euros per capita GDP of metropolitan France in 2007; the total GDP of the island was US$18.8 billion in 2007. Essential oil Bourbon vanilla Fish & seafood Tuna and Patagonian toothfish Currency: 1 euro = 100 Cent Exchange rates: See: Euro exchange rate Fiscal year: calendar year Economy of France in: French Guiana, French Polynesia, Martinique, New Caledonia, Réunion, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and Futuna Taxation in France Economic history of France Poverty in France

W. B. Thompson Mansion

The W. B. Thompson Mansion known as Alder Manor, is a historic home located on North Broadway in the Greystone section of Yonkers, New York, United States, it is an early 20th-century mansion designed by Carrère and Hastings in the Renaissance Revival architectural style. In 1982, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it was built as his weekend home. At the turn of the century, large riverside estates characterized much of Yonkers; the Thompson family lived there until the mid-20th century. After ten years as a high school, it was upgraded to a junior college. A few years after merging with Iona College, the campus was closed. While the other buildings on the property were repurposed, the mansion fell into neglect and was looted until Tara Circle, an Irish American cultural organization, bought it from the city. To raise money for its restoration, Tara Circle holds occasional events there and rents it out for weddings and filming for movies such as Mona Lisa Smile and A Beautiful Mind.

The mansion is located in the northwestern corner of Yonkers, on bluffs 300 feet above the Hudson River a thousand feet to the west. It is on the west side of North Broadway, set back 600 feet from the road atop a slight rise, at the end of a curving driveway flanked by shrubs and small trees that ends in a paved forecourt with a stone balustrade. On the opposite side of North Broadway is the South Westchester Executive Park with taller modern buildings. To the north is the 39-acre Lenoir Nature Preserve, a Westchester County park. St. John's Riverside Hospital is on the south; the trailway along the Old Croton Aqueduct, a National Historic Landmark, passes through the woods next to the preserve on the steep slopes leading westward down to the river. At the river itself are some modern high-rise apartment buildings around the Greystone station on Metro-North Railroad's Hudson Line. Around the house is extensive landscaping. There are terraces and sculpture gardens to the south, it is complemented on the north by a walled classically inspired garden with many authentic Roman artifacts.

At its west end is a replica of the Theatre of Dionysus in Athens. The main building is a 2½-story seven-bay limestone structure on a full basement, its main block is topped by a tiled hipped roof pierced by chimneys and alternating hipped and gabled dormer windows set with one-over-one double-hung sash. A small two-bay wing projects from the south. On the north end is a two-story service wing, itself with two small wings. A brick terrace continuing the stone balustrade from the forecourt surrounds the building; the north facade incorporates the facade of an actual 16th-century Italian church. All bays below the roof on the main block are set with multi-pane casement windows. In the center of the west face is an elaborate garden entrance. At the first story three French doors are recessed in a Palladian arcade. Above them is an entablature and central arch flanked by oval windows and supported by a combination of pilasters and freestanding columns. On the opposite side, a broken pediment above the segmental arched main entrance is supported by engaged columns.

It has other classical detailing. Doors of glass and wrought iron open into a vestibule with marble floors and terra cotta bas-reliefs; the marble floors continue into the entrance hall, with a plaster ceiling designed by Thomas Hastings. All other floors are wooden parquet, with the exception of tile in the kitchen; some of the doors retain their original Gorham knobs. Many of the original artwork and finishes remain; the drawing room has walnut panelling and bolection molding with carved birds and swags around the fireplace. Above it is a rare English-style trompe-l'œil ceiling. An Italian-style coffered ceiling is in the music room, complementing its imported 15th-century Italian stone fireplace; the dining room has French-style coffering. The stairwell is three stories high; the main stair has a carved iron and wood rail, the walls feature pilasters and railings, all forming low colonnades at each level. At the top organ pipes of a Welte Philharmonic Organ are arranged in the shape of a window frame.

What appears to be paneling along the walls of the upper stories is a line of closets. The master bedroom has another imported European fireplace. At the northern end of the second floor is a tiled indoor pool with a stained glass window looking out on the garden; the basement den has been extensively remodeled, but it still has an Asian design and a Chinese decorative wood carving along the stair leading to it. After success in the mining industry in his native Montana, William Boyce Thompson came to New York in 1895, he continued to be involved in mining as an investor on Wall Street, made more money. A decade he began acquiring the 22 acres on which he built his mansion. Called Alder Manor after Alder Gulch, his hometown, it was intended to be a weekend residence, he commissioned Hastings to design the house. As a lover of plants and gardens, Thompson had supervised the planning and planting of the landscapes around the house, retained considerable influence over it. While the house has many similarities with the Frick Mansion in New

Islamabad International Airport

Islamabad International Airport. It is built 20 km west of the twin cities near the Kashmir Motorway Interchange; the airport commenced full operations on 3 May 2018, replacing the defunct Benazir Bhutto International Airport which now forms part of the PAF Base Nur Khan. It is one of the largest airports in Pakistan in terms of passenger capacity, capable of serving 9 million passengers every year in its first phase. Further planned expansions will allow it to serve up to 25 million passengers a year; the terminal includes 15 gates with ten remote gates, duty-free shops, a food court and 42 immigration counters. Additionally, Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority is acquiring 2,833 acres of land to build a third runway at the airport. Furthermore it is the first and only airport in Pakistan capable of handling the Airbus A380; the plan to construct a new airport was announced in January 2005 by Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority. A land of 3242 acres land was acquired at the cost of Rs 2.5 billion in November 2005 near Ranjha, Fateh Jang in Attock District.

The construction of a new airport was planned in response to increasing air traffic and passenger load at the existing Benazir Bhutto International Airport. It was estimated that the number of passengers at the former airport was growing by 14 percent annually compared to national air passenger growth rate of less than four percent, making it the second busiest airport in the country at the time. Therefore, a site in Attock district was selected as the site for the construction of a new airport just a few kilometers from the Islamabad interchange on M1/M2 motorways; the foundation stone of the project was laid by former President Pervez Musharraf and Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz on 7 April 2007. It was a unique project of the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority and designed by French company Aéroports de Paris Ingenierie and CPG Corporation of Singapore; the whole project was financed by PCAA on its own. It is built on more than 3200 acres of land and consists of a passenger terminal building, 2 runways, taxiways and parking bays for wide-body aircraft.

There is a cargo terminal, air traffic control complex, fuel farm, as well as a fire and rescue facility. The site of the airport is near Fateh Jang Attock, some 20 km from Zero Point, Islamabad and 23 km from Saddar, Rawalpindi; the airport was developed to be on par with international standards to serve as a major hub for all aviation activities in Pakistan. The PCAA asked a team of British architects to design the new airport. PCAA signed an agreement with Louis Berger Group of USA in association with Pakistani consulting firm GT AASR, to undertake project management services. On 1 May 2018, Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi inaugurated the new airport; this was followed up with the airport commencing full commercial flight operations on 3 May 2018 and thus replacing the old airport. On 8 July 2018, the first Airbus A380 landed in Pakistan at the airport which arrived from Dubai International Airport. Since August 2019, Pakistan International Airlines has shifted its hub for international flights from Karachi's Jinnah International Airport to Islamabad International Airport in Islamabad.

International traffic of PIA originates from the northern areas of the country due to which the national carrier decided to move most of its schedule to the capital city. Islamabad International Airport has a 180,000m² modular terminal building, capable of handling 9 million passengers and 80,000 metric tons cargo per annum; the numbers are expected to reach 25 million passengers by 2024. Being a new airport, a significant portion of the land has been earmarked for commercial purposes such as duty-free shops and convention center, air malls, business centre, food courts and cinema facilities. *Notes: 1: Air China's flight from Islamabad to Beijing continues on to Jinnah International Airport. However, Air China does not have eighth freedom rights to carry passengers from Islamabad to Karachi; the airport is connected to Rawalpindi via the GT Road. A four-lane highway is under construction to serve cargo traffic; the Islamabad Metrobus is being expanded to connect to the airport. List of airports in Pakistan List of the busiest airports in Pakistan Airlines of Pakistan Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority Pakistan International Airlines Shaheen Airport Services Transport in Pakistan

1923–24 in Swedish football

The 1923–24 season in Swedish football, starting August 1923 and ending July 1924: Final Sweden: Robert Zander - Valdus Lund, Fritjof Hillén - Ivar Klingström, Sven Friberg, Harry Sundberg - Rune Wenzel, Sven Rydell, Per Kaufeldt, Gunnar Paulsson, Rudolf Kock. Sweden: Sigfrid Lindberg - Valdus Lund, Fritjof Hillén - Ivar Klingström, Sven Friberg, Harry Sundberg - Rune Wenzel, Harry Dahl, Per Kaufeldt, Albin Dahl, Rudolf Kock. Sweden: Kurt Envall - Gösta Wihlborg, Sten Mellgren - Henning Helgesson, Gustaf Möller, Erik Andersson - Charles Brommesson, Harry Dahl, Olof Detter, Bertil Karlsson, Olle Ringdahl. Sweden: Gunnar Karlsson - Valdus Lund, Gösta Wihlborg - Henning Helgesson, Gustaf Möller, Erik Andersson - Anders Rydén, Harry Dahl, Olof Detter, Bertil Karlsson, Emil Gudmundsson. Sweden: Sigfrid Lindberg - Konrad Hirsch, Fritjof Hillén - Sven Friberg, Gunnar Holmberg, Harry Sundberg - Thorsten Svensson, Sven Rydell, Gunnar Olsson, Albin Dahl, Rudolf Kock. Sweden: Sigfrid Lindberg - Axel Alfredsson, Fritjof Hillén - Sven Friberg, Gustaf Carlson, Harry Sundberg - Charles Brommesson, Sven Rydell, Per Kaufeldt, Tore Keller, Rudolf Kock.

Sweden: Sigfrid Lindberg - Axel Alfredsson, Fritjof Hillén - Sven Friberg, Gustaf Carlson, Harry Sundberg - Charles Brommesson, Sven Rydell, Per Kaufeldt, Thorsten Svensson, Rudolf Kock. Sweden: Sigfrid Lindberg - Axel Alfredsson, Fritjof Hillén - Sven Friberg, Gustaf Carlson, Harry Sundberg - Charles Brommesson, Sven Rydell, Per Kaufeldt, Albin Dahl, Rudolf Kock. Sweden: Sigfrid Lindberg - Konrad Hirsch, Sten Mellgren - Sven Lindqvist, Gustaf Carlson, Harry Sundberg - Evert Lundqvist, Sven Rydell, Per Kaufeldt, Albin Dahl, Rudolf Kock. Sweden: Sigfrid Lindberg - Axel Alfredsson, Fritjof Hillén - Gunnar Holmberg, Sven Friberg, Harry Sundberg - Evert Lundqvist, Sven Rydell, Per Kaufeldt, Tore Keller, Rudolf Kock. Sweden: Robert Zander - Axel Alfredsson, Douglas Krook - Sven Friberg, Gustaf Carlson, Ivar Klingström - Rune Wenzel, Sven Rydell, Per Kaufeldt, Bror Carlsson, Rudolf Kock. Sweden: Sigfrid Lindberg - Axel Alfredsson, Fritjof Hillén - Ivar Klingström, Sven Friberg, Harry Sundberg - Charles Brommesson, Sven Rydell, Per Kaufeldt, Tore Keller, Rudolf Kock.

Sweden: Erik Hillerström - Carl Andersson, Justus Gustafsson - Ernst Hansson, Karl Gustafsson, Harry Sundberg - Algot Haglund, Bertil Karlsson, Per Kaufeldt, Tore Keller, Rudolf Kock. Sweden: Erik Hillerström - Carl Andersson, Sigurd Andersson - Ernst Hansson, Arvid Johansson, Bertil Nordin - Algot Haglund, Bertil Karlsson, Bror Carlsson, Tore Keller, Rudolf Kock. Print Online

Ministry of Education (Azerbaijan)

The Ministry of Education of Azerbaijan Republic is a governmental agency within the Cabinet of Azerbaijan in charge of regulating the education system in Azerbaijan. The ministry is headed by Jeyhun Bayramov; the Education Ministry was one of the government agencies established on May 18, 1918 when Azerbaijan Democratic Republic declared independence. The first agency named the Ministry of Public Enlightenment consisted of three departments: General Secondary Education and Secondary Specialized Education, Vocational Schools. Council of Ministers of Azerbaijan approved the motion on June 30, 1920. After Soviet rule was established in Azerbaijan on April 28, 1920, the ministry was transformed into the Commissariat of Public Enlightenment by the decree No.1 of the Council of Ministers of Azerbaijan SSR bringing all educational institutions in the republic under its direct supervision. In 1940, Council of Ministers approved creation of a separate government agency Department of Labour Reserves which would oversee the activities of vocational institutions.

In 1959, the authorities transformed the entity into State Committee of Vocational Education which functioned until 1988. In 1959, Council of Ministers approved establishment of the Committee of Higher and Secondary Special Education transferring all institutions of secondary and higher education under its control which from 1964 until 1988 acted as an independent government agency. In 1988 all education agencies were abolished by the decree of the Council of Ministers and Ministry of National Education was founded in their place; the Ministry was reorganized into Ministry of Education by the Presidential order on September 3, 1993. The ministry regulations were approved by the Presidential decree dated March 1, 2005. In 2013 Mikayil Cabbarov was appointed the Minister of Education; the ministry is headed by three deputy ministers. There is a separate Education Department for Baku. Functions of the ministry include but are not limited to enforcing government procedures and policies in the education sector, determining the development concepts of the education system of Azerbaijan and preparation of government programs for their realization.

There are 36 state-run and 15 private universities in Azerbaijan. The ministry-released reports state that in 2009 20,953 undergraduate students and 3,526 graduate students entered in universities nationwide. There are 104,925 undergraduate and graduate students, studying in higher education institutions, excluding the specialized higher education schools. Universities employ 12,616 faculty members in the country; the Ministry of Education of Azerbaijan is responsible for carrying out a state policy related to education, to prepare education development concept, to prepare and implement perspective programs, to protect citizens` education rights and monitoring the education institutions and the. The Ministry should organize cooperation with the international educational institutions, relevant foreign state bodies and organizations operating in the field of education and develop the relations; the Ministry has the rights to prepare educational legal acts, to make proposals on their improvement, to issue decrees, orders and to recruit and dismiss employees under the law "On the state service" and nomenclatures, to awards the employees working in the field of education, as well as to take measures to encourage them.

The Ministry may require information and references from relevant executive bodies, organizations operating in the field of education, monitor all the educational institutions in Azerbaijan. Issuing and eliminating licenses for the educational activity include the rights of the ministry. In parallel the Ministry of Education of Azerbaijan may represent Azerbaijan in the international educational events, relations and it has right to sign contracts and memorandums with relevant foreign state bodies, as well as international organization operating in the field of education; the international relations of the Ministry of Education of Azerbaijan are in the directions on the student and master exchange, joining scientific researches and international educational programs. The Ministry joined the international conventions on education and cooperates with international organizations such as Council of Europe and the European Union, UNESCO, UNICEF, ISESCO, European Education Foundation. Azerbaijani universities joined TEMPUS/TASIS program funded by European Union.21 projects amounting to 4.4 million Euros and covering 16 educational institutions in Azerbaijan have been implemented within the framework of TEMPUS program.

With the financial support of this program, measures on student exchange, specialist preparation, organization of internships for teachers abroad, provision of higher education institutions with technologies and teaching equipment have been carried out in the Baku State University, the Azerbaijan State Economic University, the Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, the Azerbaijan University of Languages, the Azerbaijan University of Architecture and Construction, as well as the Western University

Aslambek Vadalov

Aslambek Ilimsultanovich Vadalov known by his nom de guerre Emir Aslambek, is a Chechen rebel leader fighting in the North Caucasus. He was appointed the supreme leader of the Caucasus Emirate on 1 August 2010, though this was retracted. Aslambek Vadalov was born in 1972 and is a native of Ishkoy-Yurt, a village in the eastern portion of Chechnya's Gudermes. Vadalov seems to have spent much of his youth in the Gudermes region, though some reports have suggested that he studied for a short period of time in Moscow in the late 1980s at a technical institute. Following the outbreak of the First Chechen War in 1994, Vadalov joined the separatist fighters from Gudermes, it has been postulated that if Vadalov did indeed serve alongside Fathi, it would indicate a early exposure to the Islamist interpretation of the war in Chechnya. Though Vadalov played no role in the 1999 Dagestan incursion led by Shamil Basayev and Ibn al-Khattab, following Russia's re-invasion of Chechnya that autumn he joined Khattab's Arab Mujahideen in Chechnya.

After engaging in the battles for Argun and Gudermes, Vadalov's unit withdrew to the mountainous districts of Vedeno and Nozhay-Yurt in order to launch guerrilla attacks on Russian security forces. In 2000, Vadalov returned to Ishkoy-Yurt for unknown reasons and joined a small, local guerrilla force; the next few years saw the separatist movement incur significant losses, but Vadalov was able to distinguish himself due to his survival skills. As such, he was named Deputy Commander of the Gudermes Region of the Chechen Armed Forces under Emir Askhab. Although this unit that he commanded lacked manpower, his team and him were able to launch numerous small but significant attacks against the Russian security forces around Ishkoy-Yurt. Following Emir Askhab's death in early 2005, Vadalov was named Commander of the Gudermes region. However, while a capable small-unit commander, Vadalov struggled when in control of a larger fighting force that required a broader strategic perspective, his unit was driven out of Gudermes proper and forced back into the highlands of Vedeno and Nozhay-Yurt.

Despite these setbacks, he still maintained a reputation for "commitment to the cause and hard-fought guerrilla operations." He has been fighting with the Caucasus Emirate rebels against Russian forces since 1994 and was one of the first to swear allegiance to Doku Umarov in 2007. Caucasus Emirate was formed 2007, he was fighting for independent Chechnya until 2007. His relationship with Amir Khattab is of significance, he was the commander of the Eastern Front of the Armed Forces of the Caucasus Emirate, although in practice he was commanding a force of about 30-50 militants on the Ingushetian border. Akhmed Zakayev said Vadalov had been announced as the new Emir of the Caucasus Emirate because of a "loss of confidence among his subordinates. Methods of Dokku Umarov, including attacks against civilians, were not supported by militants." He said that Vadalov "is a supporter of other views and is not affected by ideologists of Wahhabism." The Russian paper Kommersant had reported that Zakayev, sentenced to death by the Sharia Court of the Caucasus Emirate, had plans to establish contacts with Vadalov.

On 1 August 2010 the "state web site" of the Caucasus Emirate, Kavkaz Center reported that Doku Umarov had stepped down from his position as Emir of the Caucasus Emirate and appointed Vadalov to become his successor. On the video containing the announcement Umarov states that "jihad should be led by younger and more energetic commanders." However, when the Kavkaz Center site was restored on-line after a "service break" on 3 August 2010, the original announcement had been replaced by one which stated, that Umarov only "proposed to appoint" Vadalov his successor. A few days Umarov said he had no intention of stepping down and called the video announcing his resignation a fabrication. On August 13, 2010 Kavkaz Center announced that Aslambek Vadalov had resigned from his post of Deputy Military Emir of the Caucasus Emirate. Days after Umarov rescinded his resignation, Vadalov was said to have renounced adherence of an oath given to Umarov. In July 2011, a sharia court ruled in favour of Umarov to close the rift caused by Umarov's reorganisation of the armed forces of Chechnya, the disbanding the so-called "eastern and south-western fronts" and dividing Chechnya into "military sectors."

The court asked the rebels to re-swear allegiance to Umarov. Amir Khamzat, the commander of the Riyad-us Saliheen Brigade of Martyrs or the organisation's suicide battalion, named the commander of the western sector. Hussein Gakayev, named to lead the eastern sector, Aslambek Vadalov and Tarkhan Gaziev followed suit and re-affirmed their allegiance to Umarov. In November 2016, Vadalov was arrested in Turkey