Economy of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

The economy of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, due to the islands' location, has been dependent on fishing and servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, due to disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a decline in the number of ships stopping at the islands. In 1992 an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 square kilometres to settle a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents only 25 percent of what France had sought; the islands are subsidized by France, which benefits the standard of living. The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects, test drilling for oil may pave the way development of the energy sector. Economy of FranceList of French regions and overseas collectivities by GDP

Mizoguchi Naoaki

Mizoguchi Naoaki was the 10th daimyō of Shibata Domain in Echigo Province, Japan. His courtesy title was Hōki-no-kami, his Court rank was Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade. Mizoguchi Naoaki was the eldest son of Mizoguchi Naotoki and became daimyō at the age of four on his father's death. Due to his youth, the rōjū Matsudaira Nobuakira of Yoshida Domain served as regent until 1813; this was the same person who had earlier punished the domain by transferring 20,000 koku of its holdings in Echigo Province to a scattering of holdings in Mutsu Province. Naoaki was received in formal audience by Shōgun Tokugawa Ienari in 1814. In 1808, the domain was ordered to dispatch persons with knowledge of artillery to Sado Island to strengthen the defenses of that island against incursions by foreign ships, the domain was ordered to send reinforcements to Sado in 1810. Once Naoaki took control of the domain, he revived his predecessors fiscal austerity programmes. However, in 1823, the domain received 8000 koku of former tenryō lands in Echigo Province, a further 2000 koku in 1828 and 1830 in exchange for the 13,000 koku of holdings scattered across Mutsu.

In 1838, Naoaki retired, lived in Edo to his death in 1858. In his retirement, he establish a school in Tokyo and wrote several works on various topics including education, maritime defense and the theory of labor, he was a practitioner of the Japanese tea ceremony. His grave is at the temple of Kisshō-ji in Tokyo. Naoaki was married to a daughter of Asano Narikata of Hiroshima Domain, after her death, remarried to her younger sister, he had a total of 15 daughters. Mizoguchi clan "Shibata-han" on Edo 300 HTML ) The content of much of this article was derived from that of the corresponding article on Japanese Wikipedia


Didsbury is a suburban area of Manchester, England, on the north bank of the River Mersey, 4.5 miles south of Manchester city centre. The population at the 2011 census was 26,788. A part of Lancashire, there are records of Didsbury existing as a small hamlet as early as the 13th century, its early history was dominated by being part of the Manor of Withington, a feudal estate that covered a large part of what is now the south of Manchester. Didsbury was described during the 18th century. In 1745 Charles Edward Stuart crossed the Mersey at Didsbury in the Jacobite march south from Manchester to Derby, again in the subsequent retreat. Didsbury was rural until the mid-19th century, when it underwent development and urbanisation during the Industrial Revolution, it became part of Manchester in 1904. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds was formed in Didsbury in 1889. Didsbury derives its name from the Anglo-Saxon Dyddi's burg referring to a man known as Dyddi whose stronghold or township it was on a low cliff overlooking a place where the River Mersey could be forded.

In the 13th century Didsbury was variously referred to as Dydesbyre, Didsbury or Dodesbury. A charter granted in about 1260 shows that a corn-grinding mill was operating in Didsbury, along the River Mersey, but the earliest reference to Didsbury is in a document dating from 1235, recording a grant of land for the building of a chapel; the church was named St James Church in 1855. It underwent major refurbishment in 1620 and again in the 19th century, although most of the stonework visible today dates from the 17th century. A parsonage was built next to one of the two public houses that flanked the nearby village green, Ye Olde Cock Inn, so-called because of the cockfighting that used to take place there; the parsonage soon gained a reputation for being haunted. Local alderman Fletcher Moss bought the house in 1865, lived in it for more than 40 years. In 1902, he installed a gateway complete with wrought iron gates which he purchased from the soon to be demolished Spread Eagle Hotel in central Manchester which he once owned, at the entrance to the parsonage's garden, because of the building's reputation, became known locally as "the gates to Hell".

The parsonage became a museum, now closed. The area around St James' Church has the highest concentration of listed buildings in Manchester, outside the city centre. Didsbury was one of the few places between Stretford and Stockport where the River Mersey could be forded, which made it significant for troop movements during the English Civil War, in which Manchester was on the Parliamentarian side; the Royalist commander, Prince Rupert, stationed himself at Didsbury Ees, to the south of Barlow Moor. It is likely that Bonnie Prince Charlie crossed the Mersey at Didsbury in 1745, in the Jacobite march south from Manchester to Derby, again in his subsequent retreat. Jewish immigrants started to arrive in Manchester from the late 18th century settling in the suburbs to the north of the city. From the 1890s onwards, many of them moved to what were seen as the more "sophisticated" suburbs in the south, such as Withington and Didsbury; the influx of Jewish immigrants led to West Didsbury being nicknamed "Yidsbury" and Palatine Road, a main road through West Didsbury, "Palestine Road".

During the Victorian expansion of Manchester, Didsbury developed as a prosperous settlement. The opening of the Midland Railway line in 1880 contributed to the rapid growth in the population of Didsbury, with stations at Didsbury and Withington and West Didsbury offering easy rail connections to Manchester Central; the line closed in 1967, although Didsbury station building remained standing until its demolition in the 1980s. The station clock and water fountain have survived, dedicated to local doctor and campaigner for the poor, Dr. J. Milson Rhodes. On 28 April 1910, French pilot Louis Paulhan landed his Farman biplane in Barcicroft Fields, Pytha Fold Farm, on the borders of Withington and Didsbury, at the end of the first flight from London to Manchester in under 24 hours, with one short overnight stop at Lichfield. Arriving at 5:30 am, Paulhan beat the British contender, Claude Grahame-White, winning a £10,000 prize offered by the Daily Mail; this was the first powered flight into Manchester from any point outside the city.

Two special trains were chartered to the newly built but unopened Burnage railway station to take spectators to the landing, many of whom had stood throughout the night. Paulhan's progress was followed throughout by a special train carrying his wife, Henri Farman and his mechanics. Afterwards his train took the party to a civic reception given by the Lord Mayor of Manchester in the town hall. A house in Paulhan Road, constructed in the 1930s near the site of his landing, is marked by a blue plaque to commemorate his achievement. In the early 13th century, Didsbury lay within the manor of Withington, a feudal estate that included the townships of Withington, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Moss Side, Burnage and Haughton, ruled by the Hathersage and Tatton families, within the historic county boundaries of Lancashire. Didsbury remained within the manor of Withington for several centuries. By 1764, Didsbury was described as a township in its own right, it became a civil parish in 1866, in 1876 was incorporated into the Withington Urban Sanitary District, superseded in 1894 by the crea