Coconut cream is similar to coconut milk but contains less water. The main difference is its consistency, it has a thicker, more paste-like consistency, while coconut milk is a liquid. Coconut cream is used as an ingredient in cooking, having a mild non-sweet taste. Coconut cream can be made by simmering 1 part shredded coconut with 1 part water or milk until frothy straining the mixture through a cheesecloth, squeezing out as much liquid as possible; the coconut milk is refrigerated and allowed to set. Coconut cream is the thick non-liquid part that separates and rises to the top of the coconut milk. Cream of coconut is coconut cream, sweetened for use in desserts and beverages like the piña colada. Cream of coconut is a key ingredient of many desserts originating from Southeast Asian countries including Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, it is an important ingredient used in Polynesian Cuisine. Creamed coconut is a compressed block of coconut flesh, dehydrated and is sold in a waxy lump.
Coconut water Coconut
Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades, maybe for millions of years. The climate system is comprised of five interacting parts, the atmosphere, cryosphere and lithosphere; the climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun, with a tiny amount from earth's interior. The climate system gives off energy to outer space; the balance of incoming and outgoing energy, the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth's energy budget is positive and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling; as this energy moves through Earth's climate system, it creates Earth's weather and long-term averages of weather are called "climate". Changes in the long term average are called "climate change"; such changes can be the result of "internal variability", when natural processes inherent to the various parts of the climate system alter Earth's energy budget.
Examples include cyclical ocean patterns such as the well-known El Nino Southern Oscillation and less familiar Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Climate change can result from "external forcing", when events outside of the climate system's five parts nonetheless produce changes within the system. Examples include changes in solar volcanism. Human activities can change earth's climate, are presently driving climate change through global warming. There is no general agreement in scientific, media or policy documents as to the precise term to be used to refer to anthropogenic forced change; the field of climatology incorporates many disparate fields of research. For ancient periods of climate change, researchers rely on evidence preserved in climate proxies, such as ice cores, ancient tree rings, geologic records of changes in sea level, glacial geology. Physical evidence of current climate change covers many independent lines of evidence, a few of which are temperature records, the disappearance of ice, extreme weather events.
The most general definition of climate change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Niño, do not represent climate change; the term "climate change" is used to refer to anthropogenic climate change. Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth's natural processes. In this sense in the context of environmental policy, the term climate change has become synonymous with anthropogenic global warming. Within scientific journals, global warming refers to surface temperature increases while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas levels affect. A related term, "climatic change", was proposed by the World Meteorological Organization in 1966 to encompass all forms of climatic variability on time-scales longer than 10 years, but regardless of cause.
During the 1970s, the term climate change replaced climatic change to focus on anthropogenic causes, as it became clear that human activities had a potential to drastically alter the climate. Climate change was incorporated in the title of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Climate change is now used as both a technical description of the process, as well as a noun used to describe the problem. Prior to the 18th century, scientists had not suspected that prehistoric climates were different from the modern period. By the late 18th century, geologists found evidence of a succession of geological ages with changes in climate. In the years since, a great deal of scientific progress has been made understanding the workings of the climate system. On the broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the Sun and the rate at which it is lost to space determine the equilibrium temperature and climate of Earth; this energy is distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions.
Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcings or "forcing mechanisms". These include processes such as variations in solar radiation, variations in the Earth's orbit, variations in the albedo or reflectivity of the continents and oceans, mountain-building and continental drift and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. There are a variety of climate change feedbacks that can either amplify or diminish the initial forcing; some parts of the climate system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond more in reaction to climate forcings, while others respond more quickly. There are key threshold factors which when exceeded can produce rapid change. Forcing mechanisms can be either "internal" or "external". Internal forcing mechanisms are natural processes within the climate system itself. External forcing mechanisms can be either natural. Whether the initial forcing mechanism is internal or external, the response of the climate system might be fast, slow (e.g. thermal exp
Fiji the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, Tuvalu to the north. Fiji consists of an archipelago of more than 330 islands—of which 110 are permanently inhabited—and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18,300 square kilometres; the most outlying island is Ono-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the total population of 898,760; the capital, Suva, on Viti Levu, serves as the country's principal cruise-ship port. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres such as Nadi—where tourism is the major local industry—or Lautoka, where the sugar-cane industry is paramount.
Due to its terrain, the interior of Viti Levu is sparsely inhabited. The majority of Fiji's islands formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago; some geothermal activity still occurs today, on the islands of Vanua Taveuni. The geothermal systems on Viti Levu are non-volcanic in origin, with low-temperature surface discharges. Sabeto Hot Springs near Nadi is a good example. Humans have lived in Fiji since the second millennium BC—first Austronesians and Melanesians, with some Polynesian influences. Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century onwards, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji operated as a Crown colony until 1970. A military government declared a Republic in 1987 following a series of coups d'état. In a coup in 2006, Commodore Frank Bainimarama seized power; when the High Court ruled the military leadership unlawful in 2009, President Ratu Josefa Iloilo, whom the military had retained as the nominal Head of State, formally abrogated the 1997 Constitution and re-appointed Bainimarama as interim Prime Minister.
In 2009, Ratu Epeli Nailatikau succeeded Iloilo as President. After years of delays, a democratic election took place on 17 September 2014. Bainimarama's FijiFirst party won 59.2% of the vote, international observers deemed the election credible. Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific thanks to its abundant forest and fish resources, its currency is the Fijian dollar, its main sources of foreign exchange are its tourist industry, remittances from Fijians working, bottled water exports. The Ministry of Local Government and Urban Development supervises Fiji's local government, which takes the form of city and town councils. Fiji's main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name "Fiji" is derived, though the common English pronunciation is based on that of their island neighbours in Tonga, its emergence can be described as follows: Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga.
They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific, but not great sailors. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, all their Manufactures bark cloth and clubs, were valued and much in demand, they called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, it was by this foreign pronunciation, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known. "Feejee", the Anglicised spelling of the Tongan pronunciation, was used in accounts and other writings until the late 19th century, by missionaries and other travellers visiting Fiji. Located in the central Pacific Ocean, Fiji's geography has made it both a destination and a crossroads for migrations for many centuries. According to oral tradition, the indigenous Fijians of today are descendants of the chief Lutunasobasoba and those who arrived with him on the Kaunitoni canoe. Landing at what is now Vuda, the settlers moved inland to the Nakauvadra mountains. Though this oral tradition has not been independently substantiated, the Fijian government promotes it, many tribes today claim to be descended from the children of Lutunasobasoba.
Pottery art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled by Austronesian peoples before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, with Melanesians following around a thousand years although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. It is believed that the Lapita people or the ancestors of the Polynesians settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians arrived. Archeological evidence shows signs of settlement on Moturiki Island from 600 BC and as far back as 900 BC. Aspects of Fijian culture are similar to the Melanesian culture of the western Pacific but have a stronger connection to the older Polynesian cultures. Trade between Fiji and neighbouring archipelagos long before European contact is testified by the canoes made from native Fijian trees found in Tonga and Tongan words being part of the language of the Lau group of islands. Pots made in Fiji have been found in Samoa and the Marquesas Islands. In the 10th century, the Tu'i Tonga Empire was established in Tonga, Fiji came within its sphere of influence.
The Tongan influence brought Polynesian cu
Building material is any material, used for construction purposes. Many occurring substances, such as clay, rocks and wood twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic; the manufacturing of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry, insulation and roofing work. They provide the make-up of structures including homes. In history there are trends in building materials from being natural to becoming more man-made and composite; these trends tend to increase the initial and long term economic, ecological and social costs of building materials. Initial economic cost of building materials is the purchase price; this is what governs decision making about what materials to use. Sometimes people take into consideration the energy savings or durability of the materials and see the value of paying a higher initial cost in return for a lower lifetime cost.
For example, an asphalt shingle roof costs less than a metal roof to install, but the metal roof will last longer so the lifetime cost is less per year. Some materials may require more care than others, maintaining costs specific to some materials may influence the final decision. Risks when considering lifetime cost of a material is if the building is damaged such as by fire or wind, or if the material is not as durable as advertised; the cost of materials should be taken into consideration to bear the risk to buy combustive materials to enlarge the lifetime. It is said that,'if it must be done, it must be done well'. Pollution costs can be micro; the macro, environmental pollution of extraction industries building materials rely on such as mining and logging produce environmental damage at their source and in transportation of the raw materials, transportation of the products and installation. An example of the micro aspect of pollution is the off-gassing of the building materials in the building or indoor air pollution.
Red List building materials are materials found to be harmful. The carbon footprint, the total set of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the life of the material. A life-cycle analysis includes the reuse, recycling, or disposal of construction waste. Two concepts in building which account for the ecological economics of building materials are green building and sustainable development; the Initial energy costs include the amount of energy consumed to produce and install the material. The long term energy cost is the economic and social costs of continuing to produce and deliver energy to the building for its use and eventual removal; the initial embodied energy of a structure is the energy consumed to extract, deliver, the materials. The lifetime embodied energy continues to grow with the use and reuse/recycling/disposal of the building materials themselves and how the materials and design help minimize the life-time energy consumption of the structure. Social costs are injury and health of the people producing and transporting the materials and potential health problems of the building occupants if there are problems with the building biology.
Globalization has had significant impacts on people both in terms of jobs and self-sufficiency are lost when manufacturing facilities are closed and the cultural aspects of where new facilities are opened. Aspects of fair trade and labor rights are social costs of global building material manufacturing. Brush structures are built from plant parts and were used in primitive cultures such as Native Americans and pygmy peoples in Africa These are built with branches and leaves, bark, similar to a beaver's lodge; these were variously named wikiups, lean-tos, so forth. An extension on the brush building idea is the wattle and daub process in which clay soils or dung cow, are used to fill in and cover a woven brush structure; this gives the structure more thermal strength. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest building techniques. Many older timber frame buildings incorporate wattle and daub as non load bearing walls between the timber frames. Snow and ice, were used by the Inuit peoples for igloos and snow is used to build a shelter called a quinzhee.
Ice has been used for ice hotels as a tourist attraction in northern climates. Clay based buildings come in two distinct types. One being when the walls are made directly with the mud mixture, the other being walls built by stacking air-dried building blocks called mud bricks. Other uses of clay in building is combined with straws to create light clay and daub, mud plaster. Wet-laid, or damp, walls are made by using the mud or clay mixture directly without forming blocks and drying them first; the amount of and type of each material in the mixture used leads to different styles of buildings. The deciding factor is connected with the quality of the soil being used. Larger amounts of clay are employed in building with cob, while low-clay soil is associated with sod house or sod roof construction; the other main ingredients straw/grasses. Rammed earth is both an old and newer take on creating walls, once made by compacting clay soils between planks by hand. Soil, clay, provides good the
Economy of Tuvalu
Tuvalu is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia. The economy of Tuvalu is constrained by its lack of economies of scale. Government revenues come from fishing licences; the lease of its fortuitous.tv Top Level Domain contributes revenue. The Tuvalu Trust Fund was established for the intended purpose of helping to supplement national deficits, underpin economic development, help the nation achieve greater financial autonomy; the Trust Fund, has contributed 15% of the annual government budget each year since 1990. With a capital value of about 2.5 times GDP, the Trust Fund provides an important cushion for Tuvalu's volatile income sources from fishing and royalties from the sale of the.tv domain. World Bank Statistics outline that in 2010 Tuvalu produced a bottom-tier ranking Gross Domestic Product of $31,350,804 and Gross National Income of $4,760. In terms of GNI the nation compares, adequately with other Pacific SIDS states such as Kiribati and the Marshall Islands.
Fishing licensing agreements with Taiwan, South Korea, New Zealand and the United States generating an income of A$9 million in 2009. In 2013 revenue from fishing licenses doubled in 2013 to more than 45% of GDP. A large proportion of national income is obtained through the employment of 15% of adult male Tuvaluans, overseas in the maritime industry; the value of these remittances was valued at A$4 million and on average accounts for 10% of GDP. A UN Report makes reference to the fact that these revenue streams are vulnerable to macroeconomic change while the national budget remains subsidised through international aid and funding schemes such as the Tuvalu Trust Fund with a strong reliance on the importation of food. Tuvalu joined the International Monetary Fund on 24 June 2010. On 5 August 2012, the Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund concluded the Article IV consultation with Tuvalu, assessed the economy of Tuvalu: “A slow recovery is underway in Tuvalu, but there are important risks.
GDP grew in 2011 for the first time since the global financial crisis, led by the private retail sector and education spending. We expect growth to rise slowly”; the IMF Article IV consultation with Tuvalu, completed in August 2014, concluded that: “Large revenues from fishing licenses, together with substantial foreign aid, facilitated a sizable budget surplus in the past two years but an expansionary budget in 2014. The large increase in budget spending is set to cause some inflationary pressure. More the difficulties in unwinding the budget expansion and potential liabilities arising from weaknesses in state-owned banks and public enterprises make fiscal sustainability a major concern over the medium to long run.”In 2018, the IMF Article IV consultation with Tuvalu concluded that growth is projected to accelerate to 4.3 percent on higher fiscal expenditure and infrastructure projects and the fiscal balance is projected to weaken in the medium term following a surplus of 6 percent of GDP in 2018 due to higher fishing revenue.
Agriculture in Tuvalu is focused on coconut trees and growing pulaka in large pits of composted soil below the water table. Subsistence farming of coconut palms to produce copra and fishing remain the primary economic activities off the capital island of Funafuti. There is no apparent large income disparity among the residents, although the only jobs in the islands that pay a steady wage or salary are with the government, which make up about two-thirds of those in formal employment. About 15% of adult males work as seamen on foreign-flagged merchant ships. Population growth on the outer islands, the limits as to available land and the lack of employment opportunities, results in a flow of people from the outer islands to the capital in Funafuti with further pressure to migrate to Australia or New Zealand. There is few new jobs being created. Given the absence of natural resources, the constrains imposed on the Tuvaluan economy by its remoteness and lack of economies of scale, practical policies are needed for improvements to the livelihoods of the growing numbers of young Tuvaluans who aspire to a more affluent lifestyle than older generations.
Tuvalu comprises four reef islands and five true atolls that result in a contiguous zone: 24 nmi exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi territorial sea: 12 nmi Its nearest neighbours are Kiribati, Nauru and Fiji. Tuvalu has worked with Secretariat of the Pacific Community and the European Union and enacted the Seabed Minerals Act 2014; the SPC-EU Pacific Deep Sea Minerals Project involves cooperation between the Cook Islands, Fiji and Tuvalu with the object of those countries making informed decisions about future deep seabed mineral activities. The population at the 2012 census was 10,460, which makes Tuvalu the third-least populous sovereign state in the world. In terms of physical land size, at just 26 square kilometres Tuvalu is the fourth smallest country in the world.
Economy of New Zealand
The economy of New Zealand is the 53rd-largest national economy in the world when measured by nominal gross domestic product and the 68th-largest in the world when measured by purchasing power parity. New Zealand has one of the most globalised economies and depends on international trade – with Australia, the European Union, the United States, South Korea and Canada. New Zealand's Closer Economic Relations agreement with Australia means that the economy aligns with that of Australia. New Zealand's diverse market economy has a sizable service sector, accounting for 63% of all GDP activity as of 2013. Large-scale manufacturing industries include aluminium production, food processing, metal fabrication and paper products. Mining, electricity, gas and waste services accounted for 16.5% of GDP as of 2013. The primary sector continues to dominate New Zealand's exports, despite accounting for only 6.5% of GDP as of 2013. The major capital market is the New Zealand Exchange; as of February 2014, NZX had a total of 258 listed securities with a combined market capitalisation of NZD $94.1 billion.
New Zealand's currency, the New Zealand dollar circulates in five Pacific island territories. The New Zealand dollar is the 10th-most traded currency in the world; the New Zealand economy has been ranked first in the world for Social Progression, which covers such areas as Basic Human Needs, Foundations of Wellbeing, the level of Opportunity available to its citizens. However, the outlook includes some challenges. New Zealand income levels, which used to be above those of many other countries in Western Europe prior to the crisis of the 1970s, have dropped in relative terms and never recovered; as a result, the number of New Zealanders living in poverty has grown and income inequality has increased dramatically. New Zealand has had persistent current account deficits since the early 1970s, peaking at -7.8% of GDP in 2006 but falling to -2.6% of GDP in FY 2014. The CIA World Fact Book notes that 2017 public debt was 31.7% of GDP. Between 1984 and 2006, net external foreign debt increased 11-fold, to NZ$182 billion.
As of June 2018 gross core crown debt was NZ$84,524 million or 29.5% of GDP and net core crown debt was NZ$62,114 million or 21.7% of GDP. Despite New Zealand's persistent current account deficits, the balance on external goods and services has been positive. In FY 2014, export receipts exceeded imports by NZ$3.9 billion. There has been an investment income net outflow for debt-servicing of external loans. In FY 2014, New Zealand's investment income from the rest of the world was NZ$7 billion, versus outgoings of NZ$16.3 billion, a deficit of NZ$9.3 billion. The proportion of the current account deficit, attributable to the investment income imbalance grew from one third in 1997 to 70% in 2008. Taxation in New Zealand is collected at a national level by the Inland Revenue Department on behalf of the Government of New Zealand. National taxes are levied on personal and business income, on the supply of goods and services. There is no capital gains tax although certain "gains" such as profits on the sale of patent rights are deemed to be income, income tax does apply to property transactions in certain circumstances speculation.
Local property taxes are collected by local authorities. Some goods and services carry a specific tax, referred to as an excise or a duty such as alcohol excise or gaming duty; these are collected by a range of government agencies such as the New Zealand Customs Service. There is no social security land tax in New Zealand. In the 2010 New Zealand budget, personal tax rates were cut with the top personal tax rate reduced from 38% to 33% The cuts gave New Zealand the second-lowest personal tax burden in the OECD. Only Mexico's citizens had a higher percentage-wise "take home" proportion of their salaries; the cuts in income tax were estimated to have reduced revenue by $2.46 billion. To compensate, GST was raised from 12.5% to 15%. Treasury figures show that top income earners in New Zealand pay between 6% and 8% of their income on GST; those at the bottom end, earning less than $356 a week, spend between 11% and 14% on GST. Based on these figures, the New Zealand Herald predicted that putting GST up to 15% would increase living costs for the poor more than twice as much as for the rich.
New Zealand was ranked 1st on the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index of 2017. In 2015 Statistics New Zealand published details of the break-down of Gross Domestic Product in the Regions of New Zealand for the year ended March 2015: Prior to the economic shock created by Britain's decision to join the EEC in 1973, removing it as New Zealand's primary market for exports, unemployment in New Zealand was low; the official number of people unemployed in 1959 was only 21. A year it was 22. A recession and collapse in wool prices in 1966 led to unemployment rising by 131%, but was still only a 0.7% increase in unemployment. After 1973, unemployment became a persistent social issue in New Zealand. Recessions from 1976 to 1978 and 1982 to 1983 increased unemployment again. Between 1985 and 2012, the unemployment rate averaged 6.29%. After the stock market crash of 1987, unemployment rose 170% reaching an all-time high of 11.20% in September 1991. The Asian financial crisis of 1997 set unemployment upwards again, by 28%.
By 2007, it had dropped again and the rate stood at 3.5%, its lowest level since the current method of surveying began in 1986. This gave the country the 5th-best ranking in the OECD (with a
Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea that form edible tubers. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical world regions; the tubers themselves are called "yams", having numerous cultivars and related species. In parts of the United States and Canada, "yam" is sometimes used to refer to varieties of the unrelated sweet potato; the name, appears to derive from Portuguese inhame or Canarian ñame, which derived from West African languages during trade. The main derivations borrow from verbs meaning "to eat". In various places other unrelated root vegetables are sometimes referred to as "yams", including: In the United States, the sweet potato those with orange flesh, are referred to as "yams" In Okinawa, purple sweet potatoes may be called "yams" In New Zealand, the oca is referred to as "yam" In Japan, konjac corms are colloquially referred to as "yams" In Malaysia and Singapore the taro is referred to as a "yam"Yam has various common names across multiple world regions.
A monocot related to lilies and grasses, yams are vigorous herbaceous vines, providing an edible tuber. They are native to Africa and the Americas; some yams are invasive plants considered a "noxious weed", outside cultivated areas. Yam tubers vary in size from that of a small potato to over 60 g; some 870 species of yams are known, 95% of these crops are grown in Africa. Yam tubers can grow up to 15 m in length and 7.6 to 15.2 cm high. The tuber may grow into the soil up to 1.5 metres deep. The plant disperses by seed; the edible tuber softens after heating. The skins vary in color from dark brown to light pink; the majority of the vegetable is composed of a much softer substance known as the "meat". This substance ranges in color from pink in mature yams. Yam crop begins when whole seed tubers or tuber portions are planted into mounds or ridges, at the beginning of the rainy season; the crop yield depends on how and where the sets are planted, sizes of mounds, interplant spacing, provision of stakes for the resultant plants, yam species, tuber sizes desired at harvest.
Small-scale farmers in West and Central Africa intercrop yams with cereals and vegetables. The seed yams are bulky to transport. Farmers who do not buy new seed yams set aside up to 30% of their harvest for planting the next year. Yam crops face pressure from a range of insect pests and fungal and viral diseases, as well as nematode, their growth and dormant phases correspond to the wet season and the dry season. For maximum yield, the yams require a humid tropical environment, with an annual rainfall over 1500 mm distributed uniformly throughout the growing season. White and water yams produce a single large tuber per year weighing 5 to 10 kg. Despite the high labor requirements and production costs, consumer demand for yam is high in certain subregions of Africa, making yam cultivation quite profitable to certain farmers. Many cultivars of yams are found throughout the humid tropics; the most economically important are discussed below. Dioscorea rotundata, the white yam, D. cayenensis, the yellow yam, are native to Africa.
They are the most important cultivated yams. In the past, they were considered as two separate species, but most taxonomists now regard them as the same species. Over 200 varieties between them are cultivated. White yam tuber is cylindrical in shape, the skin is smooth and brown, the flesh is white and firm. Yellow yam has yellow flesh, caused by the presence of carotenoids, it looks similar to the white yam in outer appearance. The yellow yam has a shorter dormancy than white yam. The'Kokoro' variety is important in making dried yam chips, they are large plants. The tubers most weigh about 2.5 to 5 kg each, but can weigh as much as 25 kg. After 7 to 12 months' growth, the tubers are harvested. In Africa, most are pounded into a paste to make the traditional dish of "pounded yam," known as Iyan. D. alata, called "white yam", winged yam, water yam, purple yam, was first cultivated in Southeast Asia. Although not grown in the same quantities as the African yams, it has the largest distribution worldwide of any cultivated yam, being grown in Asia, the Pacific islands and the West Indies.
In Africa, the popularity of water yam is second only to white yam. The tuber shape is cylindrical, but can vary. Tuber flesh is watery in texture. Uhi was brought to Hawaii by the early Polynesian settlers and became a major crop in the 19th century when the tubers were sold to visiting ships as an stored food supply for their voyages. D. polystachya, Chinese yam, is native to China. The Chinese yam plant is somewhat smaller with the vines about 3 m long, it can be grown in much cooler conditions than other yams. It is grown in Korea and Japan, it was introduced to Europe in the 19th century, when the potato crop there was falling victim to disease, is still grown in France for the Asian food market. The tubers are harvested after about 6 months of growth; some are eaten right after harvesting and some are used as ingredients for other dishes, including noodles, for traditional medicines. D. bulbifera, the air