Serbia and Montenegro was a confederated union which existed between 2003 and 2006. The two republics formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992; the economy of Serbia and Montenegro entered a prolonged decline in 1989. Exacerbated by the economic embargo imposed during the Bosnian war, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia economy's downward spiral showed no real sign of recovery until 1995. GDP was nowhere near its 1990 level, but the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia of the basic infrastructure of the country and many factories, as well as a renewed embargo, caused a further huge drop in GDP in relation to the 1991 level; the first sign of an economic recovery occurred in 2001 after the overthrow of Slobodan Milošević on 5 October 2000. A vigorous team of economic reformers worked to tame inflation and rationalize the Serbia and Montenegro economy; as of January 2005, GDP has recovered to 55-60% of its 1990 level, due to GDP growth of 8.5% in 2004. The FRY's monetary unit, the dinar, remained volatile throughout Milošević's rule.
Alarmed FRY officials took several steps to tighten monetary policy in 1998, including ruling out a devaluation in the near term, increasing reserve requirements, issuing bonds. During this period, Montenegro rejected the dinar and adopted the Deutsche Mark as its official currency; as 1999 began, the damage control operation had succeeded in returning the exchange rate to reasonable levels. However, it was not until 2002, after intense macroeconomic reform measures, that the dinar became convertible—a first since the Bretton Woods Agreements laid out the post-World War II international exchange rate regime. Privatization efforts have not succeeded as well as macroeconomic reform; the process of privatization was not popular among workers of large owned companies, many citizens appeared to believe the tendering process was overly centralized and controlled from Belgrade. Furthermore, international investment was lagging in Serbia and Montenegro, as a result of both domestic and international investment climates.
Managers tended to blame the dearth of interest on the current negative business climate in Serbia and Montenegro. Purchasing power parity - $25.98 billion <, $27.5 Billion predicted for 2005 br> Real growth rate: 8.5%, 6.5% Real GDP Per capita - nominal: $2900, $3200 Composition by sector: Agriculture: 15.2% Industry: 28.2% Services: 56.6% Population below poverty line: 10% Inflation rate: 12-13% Labor force: 3,596,282 Budget: Revenues: $9.773 billion expenditures: $10.460 billion Industries: machine building. Total: $5.5 billion f.o.b. Commodities: manufactured goods and live animals, raw materials Partners: Bosnia and Herzegovina 19%, Italy 12%, Germany 12%, Republic of Macedonia 8%, Russia 4% Total: $11.5 billion f.o.b. Commodities: machinery and transport equipment and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals and live animals, raw materials Partners: Russia 13%, Germany 13%, Italy 9%, China 5%, USA 4% External: $12.6 billion -As a percentage of GDP: 55-60% Economic aid - recipient: $2 billion pledged in 2001 Serbian dinar.
Note - in Montenegro the euro is legal tender.
Douglas Donald Everett was a Canadian automobile dealer and retired Senator. Born in Vancouver, British Columbia, he attended the Royal Canadian Naval College in Royal Roads, British Columbia from 1943 to 1945 and served as a Sub-Lieutenant from 1943 to 1947. After his military service, he received a Bachelor of Laws degree from Osgoode Hall Law School in 1950 and from the University of Manitoba in 1951, he was called to Bar of Ontario in 1950 and the Bar of Manitoba in 1951. In 1966, he was appointed to the Senate representing the senatorial division of Fort Rouge, Manitoba. In 1969, he promoted a bill addressing the production and conservation of oil and gas in Canada's north, he sat as a Liberal until 1990 when he resigned from the Liberal Party over his support of the introduction of the GST. He sat as an Independent Liberal, he resigned from the Senate in 1994. Everett died in March 2018 at the age of 90. "Canadian Who's Who 1997 entry". Archived from the original on June 8, 2009. Retrieved February 26, 2006.
The Permaculture Association is a registered charity that promotes the theory and practice of permaculture in Britain and worldwide. The charity is based at offices in Kirkstall, England, but connects a diverse network of individuals and projects, with over 1,400 members and over 100 demonstration sites. There are regional networks: Paramaethu Cymru; the Permaculture Association was established as a charity on 8 February 1983 and is registered in England and Scotland. In Autumn 1982 a four day introduction to permaculture course was run in Blencarn, by Max Lindegger of Permaculture Nambour; the Permaculture Association offers its members a range of services including discounts for events, opportunities to network and support of projects and a telephone helpline. It "keeps a database listing hundreds of grassroots projects and educational organisations offering practical advice." It certifies Permaculture Design Courses in the UK and runs a diploma in Applied Permaculture DesignThe organisation was a partner in the Local Food consortium of the Big Lottery Fund's Changing Spaces programme.
The Permaculture Association supports international projects such as the Permaculture Institute of El Salvador and the Himalayan Permaculture Institute. The Permaculture Association hosted the International Permaculture Convergence, London 2015. Research - Permaculture International Research Network, Information For Action on Climate Change, Research Digest. Events - The Permaculture Association will have a stall at the Oxford Real Farming Conference 2018; the national convergence will next take place in September 2018. The Permaculture Association organises a biennial national gathering of members, known as a convergence. Permaculture Scotland and Paramaethu Cymru have held gatherings of their own annually since 2014. Members typically organise regional and more local gatherings. Permaculture Transition Towns Plants for a Future Rob Hopkins Patrick Whitefield Official website Local Food Website Permanent Publications Website
Ward is a civil parish in Fingal, Ireland. It is part of the historical barony of Castleknock; the Ward River,the major tributary of the Broadmeadow River, flows through the area, gave the civil parish its name. The civil parish lies to the north-east of the civil parish of Mulhuddart, is bounded to the south-east by the civil parish of Finglas, its centre of population, situated on one of the chief roads to the north of Ireland, has now been by-passed by the M2 motorway. The River Ward separates Ward from the barony of Nethercross to the north-east. At the confluence of the Ward and the River Pinkeen to the north-west, the parish borders County Meath; the old N2 national road, now the R135 Regional road, runs through the parish from north to south. Only the townland of Newpark lies to the east of the R135. Ward is famous as the meeting place of the Ward Stag Hunt. After the Norman invasion of Ireland, the lands of la Garde, or the Ward, were possessed by the family of le Bank. Nicholas le Bank was granted extensive property in Ireland by King Henry II of England.
In the first half of the thirteenth century a right of turbary in his "tenement near Finglas" was conveyed by Sir Raymond le Bank to the canons of All Saints. During the first half of the sixteenth century the castle, round which the village sprang up, was occupied by Richard Delahide, a judge; the castle came into the possession of the barons of Howth. The Ward was a chapelry of the parish of Finglas; the parish contains seven townlands of Cherryhound, Killamonan, Spricklestown, Ward Lower and Ward Upper. The nearest Roman Catholic Church is located at St Margaret's, a Chapel of Ease of the parish of Finglas whose main church is St. Canice's. In the Church of Ireland, the nearest churches are St Canice's, Finglas or in Mulhuddart. McNally Crane Hire, Killamonan - Retrieved 2014-04-21 White House Hotel - Retrieved 2014-04-21
Usolye is a town and the administrative center of Usolsky District in Perm Krai, located on the right bank of the Kama River, opposite of the city of Berezniki and 190 kilometers north of Perm, the administrative center of the krai. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 5,694, it was founded in 1606 as a salt mining settlement of Novoye Usolye and grew into a major salt mining center by the beginning of the 19th century. Until the end of the 18th century, it remained the Stroganov family's main locality on the Kama River. In 1895, there were forty salt wells. In 1923, Usolye became the administrative center of Verkhnekamsky District of Ural Oblast. Between 1932 and 1940, it was a part of the town of Berezniki, it was granted town status in 1940. Due to the construction of Kama Reservoir, a portion of the town was flooded. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Usolye serves as the administrative center of Usolsky District, to which it is directly subordinated; as a municipal division, the town of Usolye, together with forty-eight rural localities, is incorporated within Usolsky Municipal District as Usolskoye Urban Settlement.
Some architectural monuments of note include the Savior Cathedral with a separate bell tower. There are several mansions near the town. Законодательное собрание Пермской области. Закон №416-67 от 28 февраля 1996 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пермского края», в ред. Закона №504-ПК от 9 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Пермской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пермского края"». Вступил в силу с момента опубликования. Опубликован: "Звезда", №38, 12 марта 1996 г.. Законодательное собрание Пермской области. Закон №1985-435 от 27 декабря 2004 г. «Об утверждении границ и о наделении статусом муниципальных образований Усольского района Пермского края», в ред. Закона №273-ПК от 14 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Пермской области, Коми-Пермяцкого автономного округа, Пермского края». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Бюллетень Законодательного Собрания и администрации Пермской области", №2, II часть, 28 февраля 2005 г..
History of Usolye
Vice Admiral Francisco Nef Jara was a Chilean naval officer and member of the Government Junta that ruled Chile between 1924 and 1925. Nef was born in Valparaiso. At the age of 16, on March 1, 1879, he joined the Military Academy, where he remained until 1881, when he transferred to the Naval Academy to finish his studies. By 1883, he was a second-class ensign and joined the crew of the ironclad Blanco, under the command of future president Jorge Montt. During the remainder of the War of the Pacific, he served in the O'Higgins, Abtao and Pilcomayo. In November 1884 he was part of the crew of the Blanco that took that ship back to England for a complete rehaul. In 1885 he was sent to France to join the crew of the Colbert. With that ship he visited most of the African ports of the time. By 1887, he was a second lieutenant, participated in the hydrographic reconnaissance of the north of Chile, specially the areas of Esmeralda, Carrizal Bajo, Arica. During his career, he served in all the ships of the Chilean Fleet.
During the 1891 Chilean Civil War, he fought for the congressional side against President José Manuel Balmaceda. After the war, he rose thought the ranks quickly. By 1896 he was Commander and in charge of the hydrographic charting of the extreme south of Chile. In 1901 he was named second commander of the Naval Academy. By 1910 he was made in 1919 a Vice-Admiral. On March 24, 1922, was named Director General of the Navy. During the conservative military coup of September 11, 1924 that ousted president Arturo Alessandri, he was first named minister of Finance, a member of the Government Junta, together with General Luis Altamirano and General Juan Pablo Bennett, he was forced to retire from active duty on October 9, 1924, died in Valparaiso in 1931. Official biography