Technology is the collection of techniques, skills and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems; the simplest form of technology is the use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact on a global scale. Technology has many effects, it has allowed the rise of a leisure class.
Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; the use of the term "technology" has changed over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, it was used either to refer to the description or study of the useful arts or to allude to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the term "technology" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution.
The term's meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into "technology." In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie, absent in English, which translates both terms as "technology." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not only to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves. In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that "technology includes all tools, utensils, instruments, clothing and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them." Bain's definition remains common among scholars today social scientists. Scientists and engineers prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use. More scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self.
Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the use of science in industry, etc. to invent useful things or to solve problems" and "a machine, piece of equipment, etc., created by technology." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life," and as "organized inorganic matter."Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems, it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator.
Tools and machines need not be material. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as "a means to fulfill a human purpose."The word "technology" can be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; when combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology," it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field. Technology can be viewed as an activity that changes culture. Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, an
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed with minimal human assistance. Automation or automatic control is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks and stabilization of ships and other applications and vehicles with minimal or reduced human intervention; some processes have been automated, while others are semi-automated. Automation covers applications ranging from a household thermostat controlling a boiler, to a large industrial control system with tens of thousands of input measurements and output control signals. In control complexity it can range from simple on-off control to multi-variable high level algorithms. In the simplest type of an automatic control loop, a controller compares a measured value of a process with a desired set value, processes the resulting error signal to change some input to the process, in such a way that the process stays at its set point despite disturbances.
This closed-loop control is an application of negative feedback to a system. The mathematical basis of control theory was begun in the 18th century, advanced in the 20th. Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, pneumatic, electronic devices and computers in combination. Complicated systems, such as modern factories and ships use all these combined techniques; the benefit of automation include labor savings, savings in electricity costs, savings in material costs, improvements to quality and precision. The World Bank's World Development Report 2019 shows evidence that the new industries and jobs in the technological sector outweigh the economic effects of workers being displaced by automation; the term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic, was not used before 1947, when Ford established an automation department. It was during this time that industry was adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in the 1930s. Fundamentally, there are two types of control loop.
In open loop control the control action from the controller is independent of the "process output". A good example of this is a central heating boiler controlled only by a timer, so that heat is applied for a constant time, regardless of the temperature of the building.. In closed loop control, the control action from the controller is dependent on the process output. In the case of the boiler analogy this would include a thermostat to monitor the building temperature, thereby feed back a signal to ensure the controller maintains the building at the temperature set on the thermostat. A closed loop controller therefore has a feedback loop which ensures the controller exerts a control action to give a process output the same as the "Reference input" or "set point". For this reason, closed loop controllers are called feedback controllers; the definition of a closed loop control system according to the British Standard Institution is'a control system possessing monitoring feedback, the deviation signal formed as a result of this feedback being used to control the action of a final control element in such a way as to tend to reduce the deviation to zero.'
A Feedback Control System is a system which tends to maintain a prescribed relationship of one system variable to another by comparing functions of these variables and using the difference as a means of control. The advanced type of automation that revolutionized manufacturing, aircraft and other industries, is feedback control, continuous and involves taking measurements using a sensor and making calculated adjustments to keep the measured variable within a set range; the theoretical basis of closed loop automation is control theory. One of the simplest types of control is on-off control. An example is the thermostat used on household appliances which either opens or closes an electrical contact. Sequence control, in which a programmed sequence of discrete operations is performed based on system logic that involves system states. An elevator control system is an example of sequence control. A proportional–integral–derivative controller is a control loop feedback mechanism used in industrial control systems.
In a PID loop, the controller continuously calculates an error value e as the difference between a desired setpoint and a measured process variable and applies a correction based on proportional and derivative terms which give their name to the controller type. The theoretical understanding and application dates from the 1920s, they are implemented in nearly all analogue control systems. Sequential control may be either to a fixed sequence or to a logical one that will perform different actions depending on various system states. An example of an adjustable but otherwise fixed sequence is a timer on a lawn sprinkler. States refer to the various conditions that can occur in a sequence scenario of the system. An example is an elevator, which uses logic based on the system state to perform certain actions in response to its state and operator input. For example, if th
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known
A call centre or call center is a centralised office used for receiving or transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone. An inbound call centre is operated by a company to administer incoming product support or information enquiries from consumers. Outbound call centres are operated for telemarketing, solicitation of charitable or political donations, debt collection and market research. A contact centre is a location for centralised handling of individual communications, including letters, live support software, social media, instant message, e-mail. A call centre has an open workspace for call centre agents, with work stations that include a computer for each agent, a telephone set/headset connected to a telecom switch, one or more supervisor stations, it can be independently operated or networked with additional centres linked to a corporate computer network, including mainframes, microcomputers and LANs. The voice and data pathways into the centre are linked through a set of new technologies called computer telephony integration.
The contact centre is a central point. Through contact centres, valuable information about company are routed to appropriate people, contacts to be tracked and data to be gathered, it is a part of company's customer relationship management. The majority of large companies use contact centres as a means of managing their customer interaction; these centres can be operated by either an in house department responsible or outsourcing customer interaction to a third party agency. The origins of call centres dates back to the 1960s with the UK-based Birmingham Press and Mail, which installed Private Automated Business Exchanges to have rows of agents handling customer contacts. By 1973, call centres received mainstream attention after Rockwell International patented its Galaxy Automatic Call Distributor for a telephone booking system as well as the popularization of telephone headsets as seen on televised NASA Mission Control Center events. During the late 1970s, call centre technology expanded to include telephone sales, airline reservations and banking systems.
The term "call centre" was first published and recognized by the Oxford English Dictionary in 1983. The 1980s experienced the development of toll-free telephone numbers to increase the efficiency of agents and overall call volume. Call centres increased with the deregulation of long distance calling and growth in information dependent industries; as call centres expanded, unionisation occurred in North America to gain members including the Communications Workers of America and the United Steelworkers. In Australia, the National Union of Workers represents unionised workers. In Europe, Uni Global Union of Switzerland is involved in assisting unionisation in this realm and in Germany Vereinte Dienstleistungsgewerkschaft represents call centre workers. During the 1990s, call centres expanded internationally and developed into two additional subsets of communication, contact centres and outsourced bureau centres. A contact centre is defined as a coordinated system of people, processes and strategies that provides access to information and expertise, through appropriate channels of communication, enabling interactions that create value for the customer and organisation.
In contrast to in-house management, outsourced bureau contact centres are a model of contact centre that provide services on a "pay per use" model. The overheads of the contact centre are shared by many clients, thereby supporting a cost effective model for low volumes of calls; the modern contact center has developed more complex systems, which require skilled operational and management staff that can use multichannel online and offline tools to improve customer interaction. Call centre technologies include speech recognition software to allow computers to handle first level of customer support, text mining and natural language processing to allow better customer handling, agent training by automatic mining of best practices from past interactions, support automation and many other technologies to improve agent productivity and customer satisfaction. Automatic lead selection or lead steering is intended to improve efficiencies, both for inbound and outbound campaigns; this allows inbound calls to be directly routed to the appropriate agent for the task, whilst minimising wait times and long lists of irrelevant options for people calling in.
For outbound calls, lead selection allows management to designate what type of leads go to which agent based on factors including skill, socioeconomic factors and past performance and percentage likelihood of closing a sale per lead. The universal queue standardises the processing of communications across multiple technologies such as fax and email; the virtual queue provides callers with an alternative to waiting on hold when no agents are available to handle inbound call demand. Call centres have been built on Private branch exchange equipment, owned and maintained by the call centre operator themselves; the PBX can provide functions such as automatic call distribution, interactive voice response, skills-based routing. In virtual call centre model, the call centre operator pays a monthly or annual fee to a vendor that hosts the call centre telephony equipment in their own data centre. In this model, the operator does not own, operate or host the equipment that the call centre runs on. Agents connect to the vendor's equipment through traditional PSTN telephone lines, or over voice over IP.
Calls to and from prospects or contacts originate from or terminate at the vendor's data centre, rather than at
Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet
Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet is an industrial museum in the south of the City of Sheffield, England. The museum forms part of a former steel-working site on the River Sheaf, with a history going back to at least the 13th century, it consists of a number of dwellings and workshops that were the Abbeydale Works—a scythe-making plant, in operation until the 1930s—and is a remarkably complete example of a 19th-century works. The works are atypical in. A more typical example of water-powered works in the area can be found at Shepherd Wheel; the site is a scheduled ancient monument, the works are Grade I listed and the workers' cottages, counting house, manager's house are Grade II* listed. The site was used for iron forging for 500 years, although there is evidence of other metal working prior to 1200 AD, its early history is intimately tied with the nearby Beauchief Abbey, which operated a smithy in the vicinity as well as number of mills along the River Sheaf. A 1725 map shows that the fields, subsequently flooded to provide the dam at the site, had been called "Sinder Hills", the cinders referring to the waste resulting from prior lead smelting activities in the area in the 16th and early 17th centuries.
However, the "Abbey Dale Works" as such, the buildings of which now form the Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet, are first formally recorded in 1714. Development of the site continued with: 1777 enlargement of the dam 1785 construction of the tilt hammer 1793 construction of the workmen's cottages 1817 construction of the grinding hull 1838 construction of the manager's house 1840 construction of the coach house and stabling 1876 construction of the first storey warehouse. From the 17th century onwards, the site operated as a scythe works until, in 1933, it was closed by Tyzak Sons and Turner. In 1935 it was bought by the Alderman J. G. Graves Trust; the works was reopened during the Second World War to aid in Britain's war effort. The Council for the Conservation of Sheffield Antiquities explored and initiated the restoration of Abbeydale Works in 1964, they discovered the remains of 6 buildings in addition to those still standing. These were identified from a 1924 map of the site as: a "disused hardening shop" a "disused open furnace shed" a "lime and coke shed" a "boiler house and chimney" the "housing for the steam engine" a "store for clay and anvils"Following the complete restoration the works were opened as a museum in 1970.
Sheffield City Council closed the museum in 1997 as a cost-cutting measure. It was leased to the Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust who reopened the museum in 1998. Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet is run as a working museum, with works and buildings dating from between 1714 and 1876; the museum demonstrates the process making blister steel from iron and coke refining this steel using techniques that originated with Benjamin Huntsman's invention of the crucible steel process. The river provides water power via a water wheel. There are several wheels on the site for driving a tilt hammer, for the initial forging of the scythe blades; the blades were hand forged for finishing. The museum is open Sunday to Thursday, entry is £4 for adults, £3 for concessions and free for accompanied children 16 and under. Kelham Island Museum Shepherd Wheel Official website
A quarry is a type of open-pit mine in which dimension stone, construction aggregate, sand, gravel, or slate is excavated from the ground. The word quarry can include the underground quarrying for stone, such as Bath stone. Types of rock extracted from quarries include: Chalk China clay Cinder Clay Coal Construction aggregate Coquina Diabase Gabbro Granite Gritstone Gypsum Limestone Marble Ores Phosphate rock Quartz Sandstone Slate Many quarry stones such as marble, granite and sandstone are cut into larger slabs and removed from the quarry; the surfaces finished with varying degrees of sheen or luster. Polished slabs are cut into tiles or countertops and installed in many kinds of residential and commercial properties. Natural stone quarried from the earth is considered a luxury and tends to be a durable surface, thus desirable. Quarries in level areas with shallow groundwater or which are located close to surface water have engineering problems with drainage; the water is removed by pumping while the quarry is operational, but for high inflows more complex approaches may be required.
For example, the Coquina quarry is excavated to more than 60 feet below sea level. To reduce surface leakage, a moat lined with clay was constructed around the entire quarry. Ground water entering the pit is pumped up into the moat; as a quarry becomes deeper, water inflows increase and it becomes more expensive to lift the water higher during removal. Some water-filled quarries are worked by dredging. Many people and municipalities consider quarries to be eyesores and require various abatement methods to address problems with noise and appearance. One of the more effective and famous examples of successful quarry restoration is Butchart Gardens in Victoria, BC, Canada. A further problem is pollution of roads from trucks leaving the quarries. To control and restrain the pollution of public roads, wheel washing systems are becoming more common. Many quarries fill with water after abandonment and become lakes. Others are made into landfills. Water-filled quarries can be deep 50 ft or more, cold, so swimming in quarry lakes is not recommended.
Unexpectedly cold water can cause a swimmer's muscles to weaken. Though quarry water is very clear, submerged quarry stones and abandoned equipment make diving into these quarries dangerous. Several people drown in quarries each year. However, many inactive quarries are converted into safe swimming sites; such lakes lakes within active quarries, can provide important habitat for animals. Clay pit Coal mining Collecting fossils Gravel pit List of minerals List of rock types List of stones Miner Mountaintop removal mining Opencast mining Quarry lake Quarries
Lord mayor is a title of a mayor of what is a major city in the United Kingdom or Commonwealth realm, with special recognition bestowed by the sovereign. However, the title or an equivalent is present in countries outside such realms, including forms such as "high mayor". In Australia, lord mayor is a special status granted by the monarch to mayors of major cities the capitals of Australian states and territories. Australian cities with lord mayors are: Adelaide, Darwin, Melbourne, Parramatta, Perth and Wollongong. See list of cities in Australia. In Canada, the only town with a lord mayor in the traditional sense is Niagara-on-the-Lake, as recognition of its role as the first capital of Upper Canada. Unusually, the council of Brantford, Ontario has taken upon itself to appoint an honorary Lord Mayor Walter Gretzky in addition to the elected mayor; this is the only example of a council granting the cachet itself, rather than the cachet being granted by a higher authority, such as the Crown or national government.
In England and Northern Ireland, it is a purely ceremonial post conferred by letters patent. See List of lord mayoralties and lord provostships in the United Kingdom. Most famously it refers to the Lord Mayor of London, who only has jurisdiction over the City of London, as opposed to the modern title of Mayor of London governing Greater London. In Uganda, the only jurisdiction with a lord mayor is Kampala, in recognition of its status as the capital city of the country. In Ireland, the posts of Lord Mayor of Dublin and Lord Mayor of Cork still exist, are symbolic titles as in the UK. Annapolis, the only city in the thirteen colonies to receive a royal charter, used the title Lord Mayor prior to the American Revolution. In Denmark, as the translation of Danish Overborgmester, it is the title of the highest mayor of Denmark's capital city, Copenhagen. In Germany, it is sometimes used to translate German Oberbürgermeister, the title of the mayors of large county-free cities. In large cities that consist of subunits governed by mayors, the title Oberbürgermeister is used to distinguish the head executive of the entire city from those of the subunits.
As in Austria, Germany's mayors serve as the actual executive leaders of their cities and are elected officials. However, the post of mayor in the three German city-states is equivalent to that of a Ministerpräsident and the respective post is referred to as Regierender Bürgermeister in Berlin, Erster Bürgermeister in Hamburg and Bürgermeister in Bremen. In Finland, the head city manager of the capital, Helsinki, is customarily given by the country's President the title ylipormestari, a tradition that resembles the lord mayoralties in other countries. In Romania and Moldova, the mayors of the capitals are named Primar General which means General Mayor; the name is ceremonial and it has no higher powers than mayors of other cities. In Hungary, the mayor of the capital Budapest is called főpolgármester which means chief mayor or grand mayor. Only the capital has a főpolgármester. Between 1873 and 1945, the Lord Mayor of Budapest was representative of the Hungarian government at the capital's municipal authority.
In ancient China, jīng zhào yĭn was the title given to the mayor of capital city. Today, on the other hand, city mayor and party-appointed secretary of the four direct-controlled municipalities, Tianjin and Chongqing, though without special titles, share the rank of provincial governor and party-appointed secretary. In Estonia, the mayor of the capital, was named Lord Mayor from 1938 to 1940. In Czech Republic, the mayor of the capital Prague and so-called statutory cities is called Primátor. In Sweden, the titles of mayor and lord mayor have no direct equivalent since the 1970s; the executive leader of Swedish municipalities is one of sometimes several Kommunalråd in the function of Chair of the Municipal Board. In the capital Stockholm the chief executive is traditionally called Finansborgarråd —"council" in this context referring to the executive rather than the legislative branch of local government; the Welsh translation of Lord Mayor is Arglwydd Faer. The Irish translation of Lord Mayor is Ard-Mhéara, which means "Chief Mayor".
The style of address for the office of the Lord Mayors of Belfast, the City of London, York is The Right Honourable. All other Lord Mayors are The Right Worshipful; this refers only to the post, rather than the person. The title Sir can be used for salutations. Lord Provost, the similar post in Scotland