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Economy of Tuvalu

Tuvalu is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia, with a population of 11,192 per the 2017 census. The economy of Tuvalu is constrained by its lack of economies of scale. Government revenues come from fishing licences; the lease of its Top Level Domain contributes revenue. The sale of stamps since the independence of Tuvalu in 1976 has been an important source of revenue for the country and government. However, such revenue has declined in recent years. Tuvalu has hardly any tourism, it has tour operators or organised activities and no cruise ships visit. The Tuvalu Trust Fund was established in 1987 by the United Kingdom and New Zealand to help supplement national deficits, underpin economic development, help the nation achieve greater financial autonomy; the Fund has contributed A$79 million, 15% of the annual government budget each year since 1990. With a capital value of about 2.5 times GDP, the Trust Fund provides an important cushion for Tuvalu's volatile income sources from fishing and royalties from the sale of domain.

World Bank Statistics outline that in 2010 Tuvalu produced a bottom-tier ranking Gross Domestic Product of $31,350,804 and Gross National Income of $4,760, compared to other Pacific SIDS states such as Kiribati at $2,010 and the Marshall Islands at $3,640. Fishing licensing agreements with Taiwan, South Korea, New Zealand and the United States generated an income of A$9 million in 2009. In 2013 revenue from fishing licenses doubled to more than 45% of GDP. A large proportion of national income comes from the employment of 15% of adult male Tuvaluans overseas in the maritime industry; the value of these remittances was valued at A$4 million and on average accounts for 10% of GDP. A UN Report makes reference to the fact that these revenue streams are vulnerable to macroeconomic change while the national budget remains subsidised through international aid and funding schemes such as the Tuvalu Trust Fund with a strong reliance on the importation of food, estimated at $15.5 million 2007. Tuvalu joined the International Monetary Fund on 24 June 2010.

On 5 August 2012, the Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund concluded the Article IV consultation with Tuvalu, assessed the economy of Tuvalu: “A slow recovery is underway in Tuvalu, but there are important risks. GDP grew in 2011 for the first time since the global financial crisis, led by the private retail sector and education spending. We expect growth to rise slowly”; the IMF Article IV consultation with Tuvalu, completed in August 2014, concluded that: “Large revenues from fishing licenses, together with substantial foreign aid, facilitated a sizable budget surplus in the past two years but an expansionary budget in 2014. The large increase in budget spending is set to cause some inflationary pressure. More the difficulties in unwinding the budget expansion and potential liabilities arising from weaknesses in state-owned banks and public enterprises make fiscal sustainability a major concern over the medium to long run.”In 2018, the IMF Article IV consultation with Tuvalu concluded that growth is projected to accelerate to 4.3% on higher fiscal expenditure and infrastructure projects and the fiscal balance is projected to weaken in the medium term following a surplus of 6% of GDP in 2018 due to higher fishing revenue.

Agriculture in Tuvalu is focused on coconut trees and growing pulaka in large pits of composted soil below the water table. Subsistence farming of coconut palms to produce copra and fishing remain the primary economic activities off the capital island of Funafuti. There is no apparent large income disparity among the residents, although the only jobs in the islands that pay a steady wage or salary are with the government, which make up about two-thirds of those in formal employment. About 15% of adult males work as seamen on foreign-flagged merchant ships. Population growth on the outer islands, the limits as to available land and the lack of employment opportunities, results in a flow of people from the outer islands to the capital in Funafuti with further pressure to migrate to Australia or New Zealand. There is few new jobs being created. Given the absence of natural resources, the constrains imposed on the Tuvaluan economy by its remoteness and lack of economies of scale, practical policies are needed for improvements to the livelihoods of the growing numbers of young Tuvaluans who aspire to a more affluent lifestyle than older generations.

Tuvalu comprises four reef islands and five true atolls that result in a contiguous zone: 24 nmi exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi territorial sea: 12 nmi Its nearest neighbours are Kiribati, Nauru and Fiji. Tuvalu has worked with Secretariat of the Pacific Community and the European Union and enacted the Seabed Minerals Act 2014; the SPC-EU Pacific Deep Sea Minerals Project involves cooperation between the Cook Islands, Fiji and Tuvalu with the object of those countries making informed decisions about future deep seabed mineral activities. The population at the 2012 census was 10,460, which makes Tuvalu the third-least populous sovereign state in the world. In terms of physical land size, at just 26

Alma (river) (Crimea)

The Alma is a small river in Crimea that flows from the Crimean Mountains in a broadly west-north-west direction to the Black Sea. Its mouth lies just halfway between Yevpatoria and Sevastopol. Alma is the Crimean Tatar word for an "apple"; the Alma, formed by the confluence of the Sary-su, the Savlykh-su and the Babuganka rivers, flows through the mountains. The Alminskoye and Partizanskoye storage reservoirs are located along its course. During the Crimean War of 1853 -1856, in the Battle of Alma near the lower reaches of the Alma river, the allied British and Ottoman armies defeated the Russians under Prince Aleksandr Sergeevich Menshikov on 20 September 1854

1911 Michigan Wolverines football team

The 1911 Michigan Wolverines football team represented the University of Michigan in the 1911 college football season. The team's head coach was Fielding H. Yost in his 11th season at Michigan; the Wolverines compiled a record of 5–1–2 and outscored their opponents 90 to 38. After beginning the season with four consecutive wins, the team was stricken with multiple injuries and won only one of its final four games, an 11–9 victory over Penn in the annual rivalry game with the Quakers; the team's sole loss was to Cornell in a game in which halfback Jimmy Craig, quarterback Shorty McMillan, lineman Miller Pontius were all sidelined with injuries. As the injuries mounted, the Detroit Free Press quipped in late November 1911 that Michigan could claim the world championship of injuries, having had more injuries in 1911 than before in the program's history. Only one Michigan player received All-American honors in 1911. Stanfield Wells, who played three games at right end and three at right halfback, was selected as a first-team All-American by The New York Globe and Henry L. Williams.

Two other players on the 1911 team and Craig, received All-American honors in 1912 or 1913. Four Michigan players were recognized as first-team All-Western players, they were Wells, team captain Frederick L. Conklin and punter George "Bottles" Thomson, Craig. Thomson was the team's high scorer with seven touchdowns in seven games for a total of 35 points; the 1911 team featured several players, starters on the undefeated 1910 Michigan Wolverines football team, including team captain Frederick L. Conklin, Thomas A. Bogle, Jr. Stanfield Wells, Shorty McMillan, George C. Thomson; the team included a promising group of sophomores who had played on the freshman team in 1910, including Jimmy Craig, Miller Pontius, George C. Paterson. However, with games against Ohio State, Cornell and Nebraska, the team faced "one of the hardest schedules arranged for the Wolverines."The team conducted its preliminary training camp at Whitmore Lake, beginning on August 19, 1911. Letters were sent inviting 23 prospects to Whitmore Lake.

Pre-season training resumed at Whitmore Lake on September 19 and continued through September 29. Before the season began, several press reports noted that, with five veteran players returning from the 1910 championship team, head coach Fielding H. Yost was optimistic; the Michigan Alumnus wrote:"The famous Yost smile is broader this season than before. The famous'Hurry Up,' in all his years of coaching experience, has never been so optimistic over Michigan's chances for a victorious season as he is this year -- at least, not since 1905." Much of the pre-season had been spent focusing on the development of a quarterback to replace Shorty McMillan, who had announced in late July that he intended to give up college and accept a position in his father's business. However, Coach Yost persuaded McMillan to return to Michigan, he joined the team on October 10, 1911—shortly after the first game of the season; the team lost the services of Arthur Cornwell, selected by Yost as the All-Western center in 1910, due to academic ineligibility.

On October 7, 1911, Michigan opened its season at Ferry Field with a 24–0 victory over the team from Cleveland's Case Scientific School. The game was the 15th meeting between the two programs, Michigan had won 13 of the 14 prior games; the teams had played to a tie in 1910. Michigan kicked four extra points in the game. Fullback George C. "Bottles" Thomson scored all four touchdowns for Michigan, including two touchdowns in the fourth quarter on runs of three and 25 yards. Team captain and left tackle. On defense, Michigan held Case to one first down. Sophomore Jimmy Craig started at the quarterback position; the Detroit Free Press called a 20-yard punt return by Craig "the prettiest play of the game" and opined that Craig "showed real ability at the art of dodging and straight-arming eluding no less than five would-be tacklers before anyone could down him." No serious injuries were sustained in the Case game, the Free Press noted that the team was showing "remarkable early season speed."The game was played in 10-minute quarters.

Michigan's lineup against Case was Garrels, Bogle, Paterson and Quinn, Wells and Picard, Torbet and Herrington, Huebel and Roblee, Thomson. In the second week of the season, Michigan defeated Michigan Agricultural College by a 15–3 score in front of 5,000 spectators at College Field in East Lansing, Michigan, it was the sixth game in the Michigan - Michigan State football rivalry, Michigan had a record of 4-0-1 in the five prior meetings, outscoring the Aggies by a combined total of 210 to 0. The 1911 game was the first loss by M. A. C. on their home field. Michigan threatened to score in the first quarter, but one drive was stopped when the Aggies' intercepted a pass at their own 10-yard line. On the next drive, Michigan took the ball to the Aggies' 15-yard line, but a field goal attempt by Frederick L. Conklin was unsuccessful. In the second quarter, another Michigan drive took the ball to the M. A. C. Three-yard line, but Michigan was unable to score, the Aggies took over on downs. Walter Eckersall was the umpire and covered the game for the Chicago Daily Tribune.

Eckersall wrote: "That Michigan met a Tartar in a team which held Yost's eleven to a 0 to 0 score in the first two periods and was the first to register

2010 Tour of Chongming Island World Cup

The 2010 Tour of Chongming Island World Cup was the first road race world cup running on the Tour of Chongming Island. It was held on 9 May 2010 over a distance of 138.6 kilometres and was the fifth race of the 2010 UCI Women's Road World Cup season. The race finished in Chengqiao, China. 98 elite female cyclists took part in the race and 80 of them finished. HTC-Columbia's Ina-Yoko Teutenberg lived-up to pre-race expectation as she capped a successful week in China; the German national champion finished fastest in a sprint finish, which saw Kirsten Wild finish second and Rochelle Gilmore third. In addition to strong crosswinds, the peloton faced torrential rain throughout the 138 kilometre race. Despite the conditions, a 20-rider group was able to break free of the peloton halfway through the event. HTC-Columbia's strong representation with 6 riders in the group meant the onus was placed on other teams to chase. Cervelo were able to shut down the impromptu escape 150 metres from the finish. Despite the German team's effort, Teutenberg was able to come around at the last minute to take the sprint from Wild and Gilmore.

The lead-out for Teutenberg, Ellen van Dijk had with her sixth place a top-10 finish. Results from Official website

Forum Holitorium

The Forum Holitorium was the site of a commercial marketplace for vegetables and oil in ancient Rome. It was "oddly located" outside the Porta Carmentalis in the Campus Martius, crowded between the Forum Boarium and buildings located in the Circus Flaminius. Four Republican temples were part of the market complex; the two earliest were built during the First Punic War, the first a Temple of Janus vowed by Gaius Duilius following his victory in a naval battle at Mylae with the Carthaginians in 260 BC. A Temple of Spes was built soon after by Aulus Atilius Calatinus. A Temple of Juno Sospita was vowed by Gaius Cornelius Cethegus in 197 BC for his victory over the Insubrian Gauls, dedicated two years later; the Temple of Pietas, dedicated in 181 was removed and relocated by Julius Caesar to begin construction on the Theater of Marcellus. Under the present church of San Nicola in Carcere are the ruins of three temples, standing side by side with the same orientation and facing the forum Holitorium.

Besides some of marble of the restorations, the architectural fragments are republican period work in travertine and peperino. The central and largest of these temples is Ionic, is that of Spes; the northernmost temple is next in size and Ionic, is assumed to be the temple of Janus, mentioned in the written sources, is dated to about 90 BC. It is hexastyle, peripteral except at the back, six of its columns, 0.70 meters in diameter, are still standing, built into the wall of the church. The southernmost temple is the smallest and Doric, that of Juno Sospita; these ruins are lie beneath the church. Remains of other temples lie around the Church of Sant ` Omobono. Forum Holitorium

Ba Zaw

Ba Zaw was an early Burmese artist born in Thayet and raised in Mandalay who mastered Western painting. He and his student, Saya Saung, are responsible for creating the foundations and identity of a Western-style painting circle within the Mandalay School; the Mandalay School, when examined as a whole, included diverse artists—painters who devoted themselves to Western-style painting as well as professional Traditional Burmese painters whose specialty and livelihood came from painting Buddhist works for temples and other religious buildings. All the Traditional painters dabbled in or experimented in Western-style painting from time to time. Ba Zaw was born to a well-known silversmith by the name of U Kyin, awarded a gold medal by a British viceroy of Burma, he attended St. Peter's High School in Mandalay and entered Judson College in Rangoon in about 1911 or 1912. Judson College merged with University College to become Rangoon University in 1920. Ba Zaw's skills as an artist were noticed by influential persons by the time he attended Judson College or during that time.

Around the year 1912, while working on his B. A. at Judson, two British academics in Rangoon took interest in Ba Zaw's artistic career—a Mr. A. R. Morris, headmaster of Insein Engineering School, Martin Ward, a university physics professor who became the first chairman of the Burma Art Club; the two drafted a plan to send Ba Zaw to Bombay to study art, but Ba Zaw wanted to complete his B. A. first, the project was postponed. The start of World War I scuttled these plans entirely. Ba Zaw's health was frail, he subsequently fell ill, quit his university studies, took a job as an art instructor at St. Paul's High School in Rangoon; the history of Ba Zaw's early training as a painter is a patchwork of contradictory claims. For example, Ludu Daw Amar and Ko Ko Naing describe Ba Zaw as self-taught and maintain that he learned painting by studying from books. Min Naing, on the other hand, mentions that the doyen of Traditional painting in Burma at the turn of the century, Saya Chone, was an instructor of Ba Zaw while Ba Zaw taught at St. Paul's High School and offers convincing details about their interaction.

Nyan Shein claims that Ba Ohn was one of Ba Zaw's teachers, Ko Ko Naing acknowledges the influence that the three early British chairmen and teachers of the Burma Art Club —Martin Ward, Martin Jones, E. G. N. Kinch—had on Ba Zaw, certainly true; the BAC was informally organized in 1913 as a venue where amateur British colonial painters in Burma might meet and exchange skills, became more established in 1918. Toward the date, the BAC began to train Burmese painters. Ba Zaw was one of the earliest Burmese members of the club, he picked up much from its lectures. Ko Ko Naing and Amar's claim that Ba Zaw was self-taught is accurate in the sense that Ba Zaw was self-taught to a degree, he won scholarships or painting competitions when he was a youngster before he encountered Ba Ohn, Saya Chone or British painters. Daw Amar nudges up to Ba Zaw's connection to both Saya Ba Ohn, she states that Ba Zaw was good at painting Traditional Burmese arabesque, one of the skills which Min Naing claims he learned from Saya Chone.

She mentions that Ba Ohn was the first Burmese painter to illustrate school textbooks, that when Ba Ohn's illustrations became outdated, Ba Zaw was hired by Macmillan to illustrate “Burmese Peacock” readers, but she stoutly emphasizes that Ba Zaw accomplished these illustrations on his own, without instruction. She goes on to say, that Ba Ohn learned painting techniques from B. H. Wiles and adds that Ba Zaw was friendly with Wiles. One must wonder if these three painters sometimes kept company, if Ba Zaw not only learned something from Ba Ohn but Wiles. Despite Ba Zaw's training with Saya Chone, as Min Naing contends, Ba Zaw did not take this training far. On the contrary, he became a somewhat obsessive and dogmatic follower of Western-style British painting transparent watercolor painting, his specialty. G. Hla Maung quotes Ba Zaw as telling Saya Saung, his student, that good painters “never use many colors” and other writers state, that he was afraid of the colors green and violet, but passionate about orange and red.

In Burmese Painting: A Linear and Lateral History, Ranard claims that Ba Zaw's "strict canon" regarding color derived from British sources, directly or obliquely, through exposure to the work of J. J. Hilder, from his British teachers at the Burma Art Club, or in England where Ba Zaw studied at the Royal College of Art in the late 1920s; as Ranard puts it, "...his British patrons might well have said such things, the distaste for gaudy over-use of color being so common to the British." Ba Zaw came in contact with the work of the Australian painter Jesee Jewhurst Hilder some time after Hilder's death in 1916. After Hilder's death, two books containing images of his watercolor paintings appeared, J. J. Hilder, Watercolorist, a catalog in 1916, The Art of J. J. Hilder in 1918. One of these books fell into Ba Zaw's hands the latter, left a deep impact on him; the book came into the possession of Saya Saung, Ba Zaw's Mandalay student, richly influenced Saya Saung as well. There is some uncertainty about which painter encountered Hilder's work first and the date at which the encounter