Uttarakhand known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is referred to as the Devabhumi due to a large number of Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres found throughout the state. Uttarakhand is known for the natural environment of the Bhabhar and the Terai. On 9 November 2000, Uttarakhand became the 27th state of the Republic of India, being created from the Himalayan districts of Uttar Pradesh, it borders Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north. The state is divided into two divisions and Kumaon, with a total of 13 districts; the interim capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun, the largest city of the state, a railhead. The High Court of the state is located in Nainital. Archaeological evidence supports the existence of humans in the region since prehistoric times; the region formed a part of the Uttara Kuru Kingdom during the Vedic age of Ancient India. Among the first major dynasties of Kumaon were the Kunindas in the 2nd century BCE who practised an early form of Shaivism.
Ashokan edicts at Kalsi show the early presence of Buddhism in this region. During the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Kumaon Kingdom and Garhwal Kingdom. In 1816, most of modern Uttarakhand was ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli. Although the erstwhile hill kingdoms of Garhwal and Kumaon were traditional rivals, the proximity of different neighboring ethnic groups and the inseparable and complementary nature of their geography, culture and traditions created strong bonds between the two regions which further strengthened during the Uttarakhand movement for statehood in the 1990s; the natives of the state are called Uttarakhandi, or more either Garhwali or Kumaoni by their region of origin. According to the 2011 Census of India, Uttarakhand has a population of 10,086,292, making it the 20th most populous state in India. Uttarakhand's name is derived from the Sanskrit words uttara meaning'north', khaṇḍa meaning'land', altogether meaning'Northern Land'.
The name finds mention in early Hindu scriptures as the combined region of "Kedarkhand" and "Manaskhand". Uttarakhand was the ancient Puranic term for the central stretch of the Indian Himalayas. However, the region was given the name Uttaranchal by the Bharatiya Janata Party led central government and Uttar Pradesh state government when they started a new round of state reorganisation in 1998. Chosen for its less separatist connotations, the name change generated enormous controversy among many activists for a separate state who saw it as a political act; the name Uttarakhand remained popular in the region while Uttaranchal was promulgated through official usage. In August 2006, Union Cabinet of India assented to the demands of the Uttaranchal Legislative Assembly and leading members of the Uttarakhand statehood movement to rename Uttaranchal state as Uttarakhand. Legislation to that effect was passed by the Uttaranchal Legislative Assembly in October 2006, the Union Cabinet brought in the bill in the winter session of Parliament.
The bill was passed by Parliament and signed into law by President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam in December 2006, since January 1, 2007 the state has been known as Uttarakhand. Ancient rock paintings, rock shelters, paleolithic stone tools, megaliths provide evidence that the mountains of the region have been inhabited since prehistoric times. There are archaeological remains which show the existence of early Vedic practices in the area; the Pauravas, Mauryans, Kunindas, Gurjara-Pratihara, Raikas, Karkotas, Parmars or Panwars, the British have ruled Uttarakhand in turns. It is believed. Among the first major dynasties of Garhwal and Kumaon were the Kunindas in the 2nd century BCE who practised an early form of Shaivism and traded salt with Western Tibet, it is evident from the Ashokan edict at Kalsi in Western Garhwal that Buddhism made inroads in this region. Folk shamanic practices deviating from Hindu orthodoxy persisted here; however and Kumaon were restored to nominal Hindu rule due to the travels of Shankaracharya and the arrival of migrants from the plains.
Between the 4th and 14th centuries, the Katyuri dynasty dominated lands of varying extent from the Katyur valley in Kumaon. The significant temples at Jageshwar are believed to have been built by the Katyuris and remodelled by the Chands. Other peoples of the Tibeto-Burman group known as Kirata are thought to have settled in the northern highlands as well as in pockets throughout the region, are believed to be ancestors of the modern day Bhotiya, Raji and Tharu people. By the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Garhwal Kingdom in the west and the Kumaon Kingdom in the east. During this period and new forms of painting developed. Modern-day Garhwal was unified under the rule of Parmars who, along with many Brahmins and Rajputs arrived from the plains. In 1791, the expanding Gorkha Empire of Nepal overran the seat of the Kumaon Kingdom, it was annexed to Kingdom of Nepal by Amar Singh Thapa. In 1803, the Garhwal Kingdom fell to the Gurkhas. After the Anglo-Nepalese War, this region was ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli.
The Garhwal Kingdom was re-established from a smaller region in Tehri. Af
Dehradun spelled Dehra Dun, is the interim capital of Uttarakhand, a state in India. Located in the Garhwal region, it lies 236 kilometres north of India's capital New Delhi and 168 kilometres from Chandigarh, it is one of the "Counter Magnets" of the National Capital Region being developed as an alternative centre of growth to help ease the migration and population explosion in the Delhi metropolitan area and to establish a smart city at Dehradun. During the days of British Raj, the official name of the town was Dehra. At present, Gairsain, a hill-town between Garhwal and Kumaon regions and centrally located in Uttarakhand, is being developed as permanent capital of the state. Dehradun is located in the Doon Valley on the foothills of the Himalayas nestled between the river Ganges on the east and the river Yamuna on the west; the city is famous for its picturesque landscape and milder climate and provides a gateway to the surrounding region. It is well connected and in proximity to Himalayan tourist destinations such as Mussoorie, Auli and the Hindu holy cities of Haridwar and Rishikesh along with the Himalayan pilgrimage circuit of Chota Char Dham.
Dehradun Municipal Corporation is locally known as Nagar Nigam Dehradun. Other urban entities involved in civic services and city governance and management include Mussoorie Dehradun Development Authority, Special Area Development Authority, Jal Sansthan, Jal Nigam among others. Dehradun is known for its Basmati rice and bakery products. Dehradun is made up of two words: Dehra is derived from the word Dera, meaning camp or temporary settlement. Dun or Doon in Garhwali language refers to a valley that lies between the middle Himalayas and the "Shivaliks". Other prominent Doon valleys are Patli Doon and Pinjore Doon; when Guru Ram Rai, son of Guru Har Rai, came to this region with his followers, he established a camp here for them. Around this time, the modern city of Dehradun started to develop; this is when the word Dehra was linked to Dun, thus the city was named Dehradun. In Skanda Purana, Dun is mentioned as a part of the region called Kedarkhand, the abode of Shiva. In ancient India during the Mahabharata epic era, Dronacharya the great teacher of Kauravas and Pandavas, lived here hence the name, "Dronanagari".
Some historians believe. The history of the city of Uttarakhand, Dehradun is linked to the story of Mahabharata, it is believed that after the battle between Ravana and Lord Rama, Lord Rama and his brother Lakshmana visited this site. Dronacharya known as ‘Dronanagari’ on the name of legendary Royal guru to the Kauravas and Pandavas in the epic Mahabharata, is believed to have been born and resided in Dehradun. Evidences such as ancient temples and idols have been found in the areas surrounding Dehradun which have been linked to the mythology of Ramayana and Mahabharata; these relics and ruins are believed to be around 2000 years old. Furthermore, the location, the local traditions and the literature reflect this region's links with the events of Mahabharata and Ramayana. After the battle of Mahabharata, the Pandavas had influence on this region as the rulers of Hastinapura with the descendants of Subahu ruled the region as subsidiaries. Rishikesh is mentioned in the pages of history when Lord Vishnu answered the prayers of the saints, slaughtered the demons and handed the land to the saints.
The adjoining place called. In the seventh century this area was known as Sudhanagara and was described by the Chinese traveller Huen Tsang. Sudhanagara came to be recognised as the name of Kalsi. Edicts of Ashoka have been found in the region along the banks of river Yamuna in Kalsi indicating the wealth and importance of the region in ancient India. In the neighbouring region of Haripur, ruins were discovered from the time of King Rasala which reflect the region's prosperity. Before the name of Dehradun was used, the place is shown on old maps as Gooroodwara. Gerard's map names the place as "Dehra or Gooroodwara". Surrounding this original Sikh temple were many small villages that are now the names of parts of the modern city. Dehradun itself derives its name from the historical fact that Ram Rai, the eldest son of the Seventh Sikh Guru Har Rai, set up his "Dera" in "dun" in 1676. This'Dera Dun' on became Dehradun; the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb was impressed by the miraculous powers of charismatic Ram Rai.
He asked the contemporary Maharaja of Garhwal. A Gurudwara was built in Dhamawala; the construction of the present building of Darbar Shri Guru Ram Rai Ji Maharaj was completed in 1707. There are portraits of gods, saints and religious stories on the walls. There are pictures of flowers and leaves and birds, similar faces with pointed noses and big eyes on the arches which are the symbol of the colour scheme of Kangra-Guler art and Mughal art. High minarets and round pinnacles are the models of the Muslim architecture; the huge pond in the front measuring 230 x 80 feet had dried up for want of water over the years. People had been dumping rubbish. Dehradun was invaded by Mahmud of Ghazni during his campaigns into India followed by Timur in 1368, Rohilla chief Najib ad-Dawlah in 1757 and Ghulam Qadir in 1785. In 1806 Nepalese King Prithvi Narayan Shah united many of the Indian territories that now fell under places such as Almora, Kumaon, Sirmur, Shimla and Dehradun. On the western front Ga
Economy of India
The economy of India is a developing mixed economy. It is the world's seventh-largest economy by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity; the country ranks 139th in per capita GDP with $2,134 and 122nd in per capita GDP with $7,783 as of 2018. After the 1991 economic liberalisation, India achieved 6-7% average GDP growth annually. Since 2014 with the exception of 2017, India's economy has been the world's fastest growing major economy, surpassing China; the long-term growth prospective of the Indian economy is positive due to its young population, English proficiency, corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, increasing integration into the global economy. India topped the World Bank's growth outlook for the first time in fiscal year 2015–16, during which the economy grew 7.6%. Despite previous reforms, economic growth is still slowed by bureaucracy, poor infrastructure, inflexible labor laws. India has one of the fastest growing service sectors in the world with an annual growth rate above 9% since 2001, which contributed to 57% of GDP in 2012–13.
India has become a major exporter of IT services, Business Process Outsourcing services, software services with $154 billion revenue in FY 2017. This is the fastest-growing part of the economy; the IT industry continues to be the largest private-sector employer in India. India is the second-largest start-up hub in the world with over 3,100 technology start-ups in 2018–19; the agricultural sector is the largest employer in India's economy but contributes to a declining share of its GDP. India ranks second worldwide in farm output; the industry sector has held a steady share of its economic contribution. The Indian automobile industry is one of the largest in the world with an annual production of 21.48 million vehicles in 2013–14. India had $600 billion worth of retail market in 2015 and one of world's fastest growing e-commerce markets; the combination of protectionist, import-substitution, Fabian socialism, social democratic-inspired policies governed India for sometime after the end of British rule.
The economy was characterised by extensive regulation, public ownership of large monopolies, pervasive corruption and slow growth. Since 1991, continuing economic liberalisation has moved the country towards a market-based economy. By 2008, India had established itself as one of the world's faster-growing economies; the citizens of the Indus Valley Civilisation, a permanent settlement that flourished between 2800 BC and 1800 BC, practised agriculture, domesticated animals, used uniform weights and measures, made tools and weapons, traded with other cities. Evidence of well-planned streets, a drainage system and water supply reveals their knowledge of urban planning, which included the first-known urban sanitation systems and the existence of a form of municipal government. For a continuous duration of nearly 1700 years from the year 1 AD, India is the top most economy constituting 35 to 40% of world GDP. Maritime trade was carried out extensively between South India and Southeast and West Asia from early times until around the fourteenth century AD.
Both the Malabar and Coromandel Coasts were the sites of important trading centres from as early as the first century BC, used for import and export as well as transit points between the Mediterranean region and southeast Asia. Over time, traders organised themselves into associations. Historians Tapan Raychaudhuri and Irfan Habib claim this state patronage for overseas trade came to an end by the thirteenth century AD, when it was taken over by the local Parsi, Syrian Christian and Muslim communities on the Malabar and subsequently on the Coromandel coast. Other scholars suggest trading from India to West Asia and Eastern Europe was active between the 14th and 18th centuries. During this period, Indian traders settled in a suburb of greater Baku, Azerbaijan; these traders built a Hindu temple, which suggests commerce was active and prosperous for Indians by the 17th century. Further north, the Saurashtra and Bengal coasts played an important role in maritime trade, the Gangetic plains and the Indus valley housed several centres of river-borne commerce.
Most overland trade was carried out via the Khyber Pass connecting the Punjab region with Afghanistan and onward to the Middle East and Central Asia. Although many kingdoms and rulers issued coins, barter was prevalent. Villages paid a portion of their agricultural produce as revenue to the rulers, while their craftsmen received a part of the crops at harvest time for their services; the Indian economy was prosperous under the Mughal Empire, up until the 18th century. Sean Harkin estimates China and India may have accounted for 60 to 70 percent of world GDP in the 17th century; the Mughal economy functioned on an elaborate system of land revenue and trade. Gold and copper coins were issued by the royal mints which functioned on the basis of free coinage; the political stability and uniform revenue policy resulting from a centralised administration under the Mughals, coupled with a well-developed internal trade network, ensured that India–before the arrival of the British–was to a large extent economically unified, despite having a traditional agrarian economy characterised by a predominance of subsistence agriculture, with 64% of the workforce in the primary sector, but with 36% of the workforce in the secondary and tertiary sectors, higher than in Europe, where 65–90% of its workforce were in agriculture in 1700 and 65–75% were in ag
Sitarganj is a city and a municipal board in Udham Singh Nagar district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Now it is home to the Integrated Industrial Estate Sitarganj being developed by State Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand. Sitarganj is located at 28.93°N 79.70°E / 28.93. It has an average elevation of 298 metres; the City is located between three major water reservoirs naming:- Baigul Fish Reservoir, Dhora Reservoir and Nanak Sagar Reservoir which are used for fisheries. Baigul or Sukhi is a small tributary originating from the foothills of Kumaon Himalayas, harnessed in 1967 for irrigation and flood control purpose. Baigul has an area of 2695 ha with an elevation of 211 m from the sea-level; the drainage area of 305 km² is fed from southwest monsoon and local catchment of wooded forest. The Plankton species in Baigul is rich comprising 17 genera of green algae, 4 genera of blue-green algae, 10 genera of desmids and 14 genera of diatoms. Nanak Sagar Dam has been constructed on river Saryu or deoha at Nanak Matta forming Nanak Sagar which adds up to the beauty of Nanakmatta, a nearby town to sitarganj.
Length of the Dam is 19700 m and Volume of the dam is 3833 * 10³ m³. Irrigation potential of This dam is 39200 hectares, built with an estimated cost of 36.3 million Rs. Dhora Dam is located near dineshpur constructed on river dhora, Length of the Dam is 9700 m and Volume of the dam is 50.700 * 10³ m³. Irrigation potential of This dam is 14600 hectares, built with an estimated cost of 11.1 million Rs. Sitarganj comes under the Terai Agro Climatic zone of Uttarakhand, its regional connectivity to major towns and cities: Rudrapur, Moradabad, Rampur and across states to U. P, Haryana, H. P It is near to Indo-Nepalese border. Sitarganj is closer to Nanak Matta gurudwara temple, a famous shrine and big nanak sagar dam. Coca-Cola will set up a bottling plant in Sitarganj in 70 acres of land that will be provided by the Uttarakhand government; as of 2001 India census, Sitarganj Tehsil had a population of 148266 in which 21893 population lives in main city.. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%.
The SC and ST population is 14.3% and 13.1% respectively. In Sitarganj, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age; as of 2001 India census, Sitarganj has a low proportion of primary and secondary schools than the district aggregate, but still Sitarganj has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: with male literacy of 79%, female literacy being 66%. Education has always been an integral part of Sitarganj's success. One of the best Schools standing tall are G. S Convent and Shelley School, it has made a huge difference in the lives of the residents there. Both of these schools has produced many nation builders from IITians, Dentists, Badminton players to some social activists; the small city has been continuously revolutionizing the quality of education by improvising on the subject matter, content and physical building of the students living in and in the surrounding of Sitarganj. The public schools hold their own association known as'Public School Association Sitarganj', headed by the chairman Mr. B.
C. Bhatt. Amongst the many Greenwood, Saraswati Vidya Mandir, Shelley School are among the oldest schools in town. Number of Senior Secondary schools in Sitarganj is 10, which are as follows:- Mohinder Singh Memorial Public School G. S. Convent Shelley School Sarswati Vidya Mandir S. M. Public School Genie public school Greenwood Public School Guru Nanak Public School. Government inter college Sarbodya Inter College. Government Inter CollegeNow Sitarganj has Two Degree colleges 1. Dr. Shushela Tiwari Degree College 2. Sitarganj Degree College Sitarganj has been a home of IITians, civil servants and most of the teens are studying in foreign colleges around the globe. Built on a 1200 acres of land Eldeco Sidcul Industrial Park, Sitarganj is developed jointly by Eldeco Infrastructure & Properties Limited and State Industrial Development Corporation of Uttranchal Limited; the site is about 300 km from Delhi and the nearest large town is Moradabad, at a distance of about 100 km. The earmarked site for the Integrated Industrial Estate lies 15 km north of Sitarganj town.
The nearest major rail head is Lalkuan railway station, about 15 km west of the site, is on the main line connecting Kathgodam with New Delhi, Howrah and Lucknow. The other nearest railhead is at Kathgodam Amenities: Houses, Hospitals, Recreation Common Facilities: Administration Core, Transport Hub Utilities: Power, Energy, Convergence Development: Levelling, Sewerage, Internal Roads Connectivity: Road, Air Land: Identified, Delineated Catalyst: Incentives, Concessions, PrivilegesAvailability of Industrial Plots in ESIP, Sitarganj Plot size up to 1 acre More than 1 acre and up to 4 acre More than 4 acre and up to 10 acres More than 10 acres 1 Acre = 4047 m2. or 4840 sq. yards. Envisaged Activities 01. Entry to the ESIP 02. Built to suite Mix Industrial Plots 03. Truck Terminal 04. Commercial Hub with temporary kiosks/ rest area 05. Central Green Zone Management 06. Core Share Facility 07. Residential 08. Utility zone 09. Knowledge Corridor 10. 75m wide mian Spine Road Connectivity to national Highway 11.
Intermediately Green Nodes 12. CETP & Waste Management System 13. Administration Block (Adm
Kotdwar is a tehsil in Pauri Garhwal district in Indian state of Uttarakhand. Its old name was Khohdwar, which means the gateway of the river Khoh: as Kotdwar is located on the bank of river Khoh so it was named Kotdwar, it is situated in the south-western part of state and is one of the main entrance points in the state of Uttarakhand. Kotdwar Railway station, established in 1890 by the Britishers is one of the oldest railway stations of the country. Being the gateway of Himalayan Region, Kotdwar rail route was used for timber transportation from Himalayan Region. First Passenger train ran in the year 1901. Kotdwar is famous for its most known and holy Siddhabali Temple, situated at a distance of 2 km from Kotdwar. Siddhbali Temple is dedicated to Lord Hanuman and is visited by hundreds of believers all round the year; the climate of Kotdwar is temperate, although it varies from tropical. The nearby hilly regions get snowfall during winter but the temperature in Kotdwar is not known to fall below freezing.
Summer temperatures can reach 43 °C whereas winter temperatures are between 4 and 20 °C. During the monsoon season, there is heavy and protracted rainfall. Kotdwar and other plains areas of Uttarakhand see as much rainfall as Coastal Maharashtra; the weather is considered to be good during winter in the hilly regions. Agriculture benefits from fertile alluvial soil, adequate plentiful rain; as of 2011 India census, Kotdwar had a population of 33,035. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Kotdwar has an average literacy rate of 79.63% - higher than the national average of 64.83% - Male literacy is 88%, female literacy is 70%. In Kotdwar, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. Kotdwar has two major industrial areas, SIDCUL and BEL. Among the industries, the most prominent ones are Simpex Pharma, Reliance Medi Pharma, Polestar polymers, Sidhbali steels, Del Monte, Indica Chemicals, etc; the Garhwal Rifles has its base in Lansdowne 37 km from Kotdwar. Kotdwar has a cantonment area called Gabbar Singh Camp and a combined ECHS polyclinic & CSD complex.
Transport options include: By Air::Jolly Grant Airport is the nearest Airport to Kotdwar situated at a distance of 110 km. Taxis are available from Jolly Grant Airport to Kotdwar. Railways::Kotdwar is well connected by railways with major cities of India as the gateway to hills of the Garhwal region. One of the oldest Railway Station of India is situated at Kotdwar. By Road::Kotdwar is well connected with motorable roads with major destination of Uttarakhand state. Buses to Kotdwar from Delhi is available. Kotdwar is well connected with National Highway 119. Adarsh Vidya Niketan kotdwar BAL Bharati School Baluni Public School Motadhag Kotdwara Blooming Vale Public School Cradle Play Public School Kotdwara Daffodils Public School D A V Public School Kotdwar Gyan Bharti Public School Happy Home School Heritage Academy MKVN Maharishi vidya mandir public school Navyug Public School R. C. D. Public School. Shivrajpur SHRI GURU RAM RAI PUBLIC SCHOOL Shanti International Academy T. C. G Public School Gyanvriksh St. Josephs' Convent School Mother Land Academy Dr. D.
C. Budakoti Vidyatri Public School Arya Kanya Inter College Government Girls Inter CollegeGGIC Ghamandpur Government Inter college Government Inter college, Padampur Sukhron Janata Inter College, Motadhak Saraswati Vidya Mandir Inter College, Jankinagar Shanti Vallabh Memorial Inter College, Manpur Meharban Singh Kandari Saraswati Vidya Mandir Vidya Niketan Inter College, Padampur Sukhron Malini Valley College of Education Bhavar Degree college, Kotdwar Dr. Pitamber Datt Barthwal Himalaya Govt. P. G. Degree College, Kotdwar Hope Institute of Hospitality Management Institute of Hospitality Management Sciences, B. E. L Road Kotdwar Chandrawati Tiwari Law College Government Polytechnic College, Kotdwar Bhagwant Global University Jim Corbett National Park is one of the oldest national parks of India, covering 1318 km2. Bengal Tigers, Deer, Bear can be seen in the park. On 27 November 2017, Chief Minister Trivendra Singh Rawat inaugurated the Jim Corbett National Park entry from Kotdwar. Ecotourism and operation of safari vehicles will help attract lots of tourists to Kotdwar and other Garhwal regions.
Kanvashram is an important place both culturally and archaeologically in the history of India. It is located on the bank of river Malini about 14 km from Kotdwar, it is believed that Indra, the king of Gods, was scared by Sage Vishwamitra's meditation, sent a beautiful heavenly damsel named Menaka to the earth to disrupt his meditation. She succeeded in disturbing Vishwamitra's meditation. With their union she gave birth to a girl child. Menka having succeeded in her purpose left the child on the bank of river Malini and went back to her heavenly abode; this child was brought up in his ashram called Kanvashram. She was named Shakuntala by the sage, she married the King of this region named Dushyanta. She gave birth to a boy child, called Bharata, the prince after whom India was named as Bharatavarsha. About 10,000 pupils used to get education in the ashram of Kanva Rishi in ancient time and since the valley or ghati is known as Kanvaghati. Lansdowne is popular since British came to India. Lansdowne is unlike other hill stations as it is well connected with motorable roads but remote in its own way.
It is situated at an altitude of 1,700 m above sea level surrounded with thick oak and blue pine forests in the Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand state. Lansdowne got its name from Lord Lansdowne, the Vicero
Economy of Bihar
The economy of Bihar is service-oriented, but it has a significant agricultural base. The state has a small industrial sector; as of 2016, agriculture accounts for 23%, industry 17% and service 60% of the economy of the state For the period 2002-2007, average growth rate of Manufacturing in the state was 0.38%, against the national average of 7.8%. Bihar has the lowest GDP per capita in India, but there are pockets of higher per capita income like the southern half of the state and its capital city, had per capita income greater than that of Bangalore or Hyderabad in 2008; the GSDP stands at 368,337 Crores Rupees as per 2013-2014. In actual terms, as of 2012-2013, Bihar state GDP is ranked 13 out of 29 states. Corruption is an important hurdle for the government to overcome according to Transparency International India, which the government has acknowledged. Since November 2005, a new government led by Nitish Kumar has implemented a number of economic and social reforms. A consequence has been a positive improvement in the economy of the state and of Patna.
For example, in June 2009, the World Bank reported that Patna was the second best city in India to start a business, after Delhi. Between 1999 and 2008, state GDP grew by 5.1% a year, below the Indian average of 7.3%. However, in January 2010, the Indian government's Central Statistics Organisation reported that in the five-year period between 2004–2005 and 2008–09, Bihar's GDP grew by 11.03%, which made Bihar the second fastest growing economy in India during that 5-year period, just behind Gujarat's growth of 11.05%. Another survey conducted by Central Statistical Organisation and National Sample Survey Organisation, under MOSPI, said that Bihar saw 14.80 percent growth in factory output in 2007-08, less than the Indian rate of 15.24 percent. The Magadha economy, under Mauryan royal government, depended on agriculture and the state owned large farm lands for cultivation; the other income of the state came from the taxes levied on agriculture, land and industrial products such as handicrafts.
Mauryan agriculture had two type of landholdings, one were the Rashtra type of holdings which were the direct descendants of the holdings of the former tribal oligarchies, subjugated in pre-Mauryan times. The Rashtra landholdings were independent of the state machinery in their internal functioning and administration, their only obligation was the regular payment of the Rashtra taxes to the state. The second major type of landholdings were the Sita landholdings; these were formed by clearing forest lands with the help of the tribesmen whose tribal way of life had been systematically and annihilated by the Mauryan statecraft. Rice, Coarse grains, Pepper, Pulses, mustard and fruits of various kinds and sugarcane were grown; the state owned these were cultivated by slaves and farm labourers. Water Reservoir and dam were built during this period and they were measured and distributed; the chief industries were mining, jewellery, pot making, textile. The trade was regulated by the state. Artisans and the craftsmen were specially protected by the state and any offences against them were punished.
Guilds were powerful institutions during this period and they provided economic and judicial powers to craftsmen. The chief of the guild was called Jesthaka. A few guilds issued their own coins; these guilds made donations to learned brahmans and to the destitute. The Mauryan empire supplied western countries with Indigo and other medicinal substances, silk. Trade was carried out in both sea. Godowns, Warehouses were built and special provisions were made to protect the trade routes; the state controlled the measures. In the 1540s Sher Shah, the ruler of Bihar and northern India, introduced measures that included laws to ensure that peasants were not cheated and that all were treated irrespective of religion and class. Sher Shah built the Grand Trunk Road stretching from Bengal to Peshawar, in use today, he introduced a coin named rupia, to which the modern Indian Rupee system can be traced and introduced the levy of custom duties. The empire stretched from Bengal in the east to Indus in the west.
Sher Shah divided his empire into 47 sarkars which were further subdivided into parganas for ease of administration. The reforms were an indication of the economic sophistication of the Bihar region during Muslim government. During colonial period the rural as well as the urban economy of Bihar saw a gradual change and challenge for its sustainability; the villages here were never just an agri-based model, rather a holistic and integrated system which gave all its people a respectable job and sufficient income out of it. These small-scale industries were directly processing the agricultural output and helping the villages to be self-sustainable and providing the product, services to the cities as well; the famous cities of Bihar such as Magadh, Sitamarhi, Bhagalpur, Ara acted as a prime places for the development of the state economy. But with the advent of the external traders and successive invasions as well as the internal weaknesses, the village economy started to degrade; the cheaply available British finished products such as clothes made the rural economy to deteriorate.
1947 - 1979 The sugar and vegetable oil industries were flourishing sectors of undivided Bihar. Until the mid fifties, 25% of India's sugar output was from Bihar, 50% of horticulture products was from here. Rice and wheat was around 29% and Bihar was an agriculture power house in the days after independence. Dalmianagar was a large agro - industrial town. There have been a
Reserve Bank of India
The Reserve Bank of India is India's central banking institution, which controls the issuance and supply of the Indian rupee. Until the Monetary Policy Committee was established in 2016, it controlled monetary policy in India, it commenced its operations on 1 April 1935 in accordance with the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. The original share capital was divided into shares of 100 each paid, which were owned by private shareholders. Following India's independence on 15 August 1947, the RBI was nationalised on 1 January 1949; the RBI plays an important part in the Development Strategy of the Government of India. It is a member bank of the Asian Clearing Union; the general superintendence and direction of the RBI is entrusted with the 21-member central board of directors: the governor. Each of these local boards consists of five members who represent regional interests, the interests of co-operative and indigenous banks; the central bank was an independent apex monetary authority which regulates banks and provides important financial services like storing of foreign exchange reserves, control of inflation, monetary policy report till August 2016.
A central bank is known by different names in different countries. The functions of a central bank vary from country to country and are autonomous or quasi-autonomous body and perform or through another agency vital monetary functions in the country. A central bank is a vital financial apex institution of an economy and the key objects of central banks may differ from country to country still they perform activities and functions with the goal of maintaining economic stability and growth of an economy; the bank is active in promoting financial inclusion policy and is a leading member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion. The bank is referred to by the name Mint Street. RBI is known as banker's bank; the preamble of the Reserve Bank of India describes the basic functions of the reserve bank as: "to regulate the issue of Bank notes and keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in India and to operate the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage. The Reserve Bank of India was established following the Reserve Bank of India Act of 1934.
Though owned it was nationalised in 1949 and since fully owned by Government of India. The Reserve Bank of India was founded on 1 April 1935 to respond to economic troubles after the First World War; the Reserve Bank of India was conceptualized based on the guidelines presented by the Central Legislative Assembly which passed these guidelines as the RBI Act 1934. RBI was conceptualized as per the guidelines, working style and outlook presented by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar in his book titled “The Problem of the Rupee – Its origin and its solution” and presented to the Hilton Young Commission; the bank was set up based on the recommendations of the 1926 Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance known as the Hilton–Young Commission. The original choice for the seal of RBI was The East India Company Double Mohur, with the sketch of the Lion and Palm Tree. However, it was decided to replace the lion with the national animal of India; the Preamble of the RBI describes its basic functions to regulate the issue of bank notes, keep reserves to secure monetary stability in India, to operate the currency and credit system in the best interests of the country.
The Central Office of the RBI was established in Calcutta but was moved to Bombay in 1937. The RBI acted as Burma's central bank until April 1947 though Burma seceded from the Indian Union in 1937. After the Partition of India in August 1947, the bank served as the central bank for Pakistan until June 1948 when the State Bank of Pakistan commenced operations. Though set up as a shareholders’ bank, the RBI has been owned by the Government of India since its nationalization in 1949. RBI has monopoly of note issue. In the 1950s, the Indian government, under its first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, developed a centrally planned economic policy that focused on the agricultural sector; the administration nationalized commercial banks and established, based on the Banking Companies Act, 1949, a central bank regulation as part of the RBI. Furthermore, the central bank was ordered to support economic plan with loans; as a result of bank crashes, the RBI was requested to establish and monitor a deposit insurance system.
Meant to restore the trust in the national bank system, it was initialized on 7 December 1961. The Indian government founded funds to promote the economy, used the slogan "Developing Banking"; the government of India nationalized a lot of institutes. As a result, the RBI had to play the central part in controlling and supporting this public banking sector. In 1969, the Indira Gandhi-headed government nationalized 14 major commercial banks. Upon Indira Gandhi's return to power in 1980, a further six banks were nationalized; the regulation of the economy and the financial sector was reinforced by the Government of India in the 1970s and 1980s. The central bank became the central p