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Economy of Wallis and Futuna

This page is an overview of the economy of Wallis and Futuna. The GDP of Wallis and Futuna in 2005 was 188 million US dollars at market exchange rates; the GDP per capita was 12,640 US dollars in 2005, lower than in New Caledonia, French Polynesia, all the other French overseas departments and territories, but higher than in all the small insular independent states of Oceania. Along with the French territories of New Caledonia and French Polynesia, the territory uses the CFP Franc, fixed vs. the euro, at the rate of 1,000 XPF = 8.38 euro. In 1991, BNP Nouvelle-Calédonie, a subsidiary of BNP Paribas, established a subsidiary, Banque de Wallis et Futuna, the only bank in the territory. Two years earlier Banque Indosuez had closed the branch at Mata-Utu that it had opened in 1977, leaving the territory without any bank; the territory's economy is limited to traditional subsistence agriculture, with about 80% of the labor force earning its livelihood from agriculture and fishing. Agricultural products include breadfruit, taro, bananas and goats.

Industries include copra, handicrafts and lumber. In 2007, US$63 million worth of commodities were imported from France, Singapore and New Zealand, there were no exports. About 4% of the population is employed in government. Revenues come from French government subsidies, licensing of fishing rights to Japan and South Korea, import taxes, remittances from expatriate workers in New Caledonia, French Polynesia and France. Economy of France in: French Guiana, French Polynesia, Martinique, New Caledonia, Réunion, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and Futuna Taxation in France Economic history of France Poverty in France

Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

Mahshad University of Medical Sciences is a medical school in Iran. Located in Razavi Khorasan province in the city of Mashhad, it was established in 1949 with Ferdowsi University of Mashad and separated in 1986 from its parent institution by national legislation; the university is ranked as one of the best in the Middle East. In 2001, its department of Medicine was ranked first among the Iranian universities; the latest rankings put Mashhad University in 3rd place nationally. MUMS has 8 faculties, operates 32 hospitals plus 179 rural and 147 urban health care centers, its faculty include 600 teaching staff, 1700 physicians, 140 dentists, 130 pharmacists, 25,402 staff employees. In 2001, 7,000 students were enrolled full-time. Mashhad Faculty of Medicine was opened on November 23, 1949 by Dr Zanganeh, the minister of culture; the school started out with one associate professor and seven tutors. In 1956, when the School of Arts opened, the two schools merged to form the University of Mashhad. In 1965 Badri Teymourtash and Esmael Sondoozi founded the University’s School of Dentistry.

In 1989, the faculties offering Medical Sciences' degrees across the country separated from the Ministry of Culture and Higher Education. New emerging medical universities have gone under management of Ministry of Health and Medical Education, thus the original University of Mashhad was divided into two independent universities: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad University of Medical Sciences now operates with 8 faculties, 32 hospitals, 179 rural and 147 urban health centers, it covers an enormous area stretching from the northeast to the central parts of the country, which makes it the largest university of medical sciences providing health care and treatment services. With 597 teaching staff, 1645 MDs with different specialties, 138 dentists, 123 pharmacists and 25, 402 employees, the university provides health care and medical services to the area's large population, as well as to over 25 million tourists a year. Mashhad University of Medical Sciences is the main responsible of health of the Khorasan community.

Its fundamental purpose is to improve the health of all people of Khorasan. School of Medicine School of Dentistry School of Health School of Nursery and Midwifery School of Paramedical School of Traditional Medicine School of Pharmacy Dr Sheikh Pediatric Hospital Ebn-e-Sina Psychiatry Hospital Dr Shariati Hospital Emam Reza Hospital Ghaem Hospital Hashemi Nezhad Hospital Khatam-al-Anbia Ophthalmology Hospital Montaserieh Transplant Center Ommul Banin Women Hospital Omid Cancer Center Shahid Kamyab Trauma Hospital Taleghani Trauma Hospital Allergy Buali Research Institute Biotechnology Center Cancer Research Center Cardiovascular Dental Research Center Dental Material Center Endocrinology and Metabolism Endoscopic Surgery ENT Research Center Eye Research Center Immunology Lung Research Center Medical Physics Medical Toxicology Microbiology and Virology M. R. C. C. for Infertility Nano Medicine Neonatal Research Center Neuroscience Research Center Nuclear Medicine Oral & Maxillofacial diseases Orthopedic Patient Safety & Health Quality Pharmaceutical Pharmacological of M.

P. Psychiatry and Behavioral R. C. Skin Disease Surgical Oncology Center Targeted Drug Delivery Vascular and Endovascular Women's Health To fulfill its international standing and obligations, MUMS admits students from different countries. Students thinking of higher education in the field of medicine or other branches of medical sciences, or of advancing your future career, can apply. In addition to a variety of BSc programs related to medical sciences, one can directly apply for professional doctoral programs in Medicine and Pharmacy to get a degree from one of the best medical sciences universities. Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, 2012: International Rank: 1459, National Rank: 5. Higher Education in Iran Official website

1981 Cambodian general election

General elections were held in Cambodia on 1 May 1981 and marked the establishment of the new, Vietnamese-backed, state of the People's Republic of Kampuchea. The Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party was the only party to contest the election, won all 117 seats. Voter turnout was reported to be 90%. Pen Sovan, the General Secretary of the KPRP, became Prime Minister on 27 June 1981 but was removed from office on 5 December and replaced by Chan Sy. In December 1978, the Vietnamese, along with the help of the Pol Pot opposition movement, the Kampuchean National United Front for National Salvation, invaded Kampuchea; the Vietnamese known as the "elder brothers", took over Phnom Penh on 7 January 1979. 10 January 1979 marked the establishment of the People’s Republic of Kampuchea government. By the beginning of 1980, the Vietnamese had forced the defeated Democratic Kampuchean Army into their mountain fortifications. In 1980, the Vietnamese seemed like the lesser evil; the greater fear lied in the potential revival of a coalition between the Democratic Kampuchea with the Chinese and Western backing.

Furthermore, Cambodians perceived the Vietnamese as their liberators, many Khmer now saw them as opportunists who wished to subjugate the country. This was the general drive for many Vietnamese-opposing groups such as the KPNLF. Prior to the political return of Prince Sihanouk, Cambodia’s King who ruled from 1941 to 1955 and had been living in exile in Beijing, in January 1981, the leader of the KPNLF Son Sann, met with the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea, Khieu Samphan. Prince Sihanouk returned to the political life on 8 February 1981, with the intention of heading “a government and a United Front against Vietnamese colonialism in Kampuchea.” In March 1981, Sihanouk’s resistance movement called FUNCINPEC joined with the small resistance army known as the Armée Nationale Sihanoukiste, the Khmer Rouge, Son Sann's KPNLF to discuss anti-Vietnamese and PAVN prospects. This only prompted the Vietnamese to act quickly; the Vietnamese’ effort to start a Khmer state and nation began in Spring 1981.

On 10 March 1981, Radio Phnom Penh announced a draft constitution, which caused villagers to elect their local committees in a narrow time frame due to the pressure of growing anti-Vietnamese organizations. The 1981 elections are known for its close resemblance to the Vietnamese model, they were applied in 20 MMCs. The law stated; the electoral laws were the same except for Article 4 in the new Cambodian constitution. This one explained that “Citizens of the PRK have the obligation to take part in the general elections to elect members of the National Assembly who, loyal to the fatherland, agree to follow the political line of the KNUFNS and work tirelessly in the service of the people.” A law nowhere to be found in the initial constitution. The district magnitude ranged from 2 to 13 seats with an average size of 5.9. There were open lists and multiple votes, with the voting process consisting of voters choosing their candidates by crossing off the names of those they did not wish to vote for.

Candidates would be nominated jointly by the Front Central Committee, the Central mass organizations, the Front Committees and mass organizations at the lower levels. The deputies were directly elected for five-year terms, the Assembly would meet around twice a year. 148 candidates, who were all approved by the electoral committee of the National United Front for the Salvation of Kampuchea, contested 117 seats in the National Assembly. No constituency had less than 2 seats to fill in the National Assembly; the elections occurred in a hasty manner due to the growth of anti-Vietnamese forces through Khmer resistance meetings and the Vietnamese’ fear of potential coalescence between them. Other issues with this election were found in the Constitution. An original draft had been printed and distributed 10,000 times in 1980, yet the 1981 Constitution more emphasized Indo-Chinese solidarity and bore the stamp of the 1980 Vietnamese Constitution. There were several other minor problems with the system, such as the regime’s violation of its own decree of 18 March 1981.

Rather than announcing candidates 15 days prior to the election, as was appropriate, the PRK only announced them 10 days in advance. Another issue was spotted in the official results of 27 June 1981, when it was revealed that Sim Ka, who at the time was the Chairman of the Committee to Control State Affairs, had no seat in the Assembly and therefore no constituency; the official results were broadcast on 1 May 1981 by Radio Phnom Penh, remaining in conformity with the Communist practice. They announced the proclamation of the People’s Republic of Kampuchea which lead to Kampuchean People’s Revolutionary Party control of power. Considering its sole opponent was the isolated group of Khmer Rouge, the PRK claimed the majority of support; the results only asserted President Heng Samrin and Vice President Pen Sovan’s leaderships as they secured 99.75% and 99.63% of the Phnom Penh constituency votes. On 29 May 1981, the Kampuchean People’s Revolutionary Party held a four-day congress in Phnom Peng.

Lê Duẩn, the first secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, along with ten other foreign representatives attended the meeting. The Fourth Party Congress announced Pen Sovan as General secretary of the elected politburo and Central Committee of the Revolutionary Party of the People of Kampuchea. However, on 4 December 1981, the Vietnamese replaced Pen Sovan with Heng Samrin as Secretary General, because of Sovan's pro-Moscow sentiments. A list of foreign communist parties that supported the newly estab