click links in text for more info

Economy of Yemen

The economy of Yemen is one of the poorest and least-developed in the world. At the time of unification, South Yemen and North Yemen had vastly different but struggling underdeveloped economic systems. Since unification, the economy has been forced to sustain the consequences of Yemen's support for Iraq during the 1990–91 Persian Gulf War: Saudi Arabia expelled 1 million Yemeni workers, both Saudi Arabia and Kuwait reduced economic aid to Yemen; the 1994 civil war further drained Yemen's economy. As a consequence, for the past 24 years Yemen has relied on aid from multilateral agencies to sustain its economy. In return, it has pledged to implement significant economic reforms. In 1997 the International Monetary Fund approved two programs to increase Yemen's credit significantly: the enhanced structural adjustment facility and the extended funding facility. In the ensuing years, Yemen's government attempted to implement recommended reforms—reducing the civil service payroll, eliminating diesel and other subsidies, lowering defense spending, introducing a general sales tax, privatizing state-run industries.

However, limited progress led the IMF to suspend funding between 1999 and 2001. In late 2005, the World Bank, which had extended Yemen a four-year US$2.3 billion economic support package in October 2002 together with other bilateral and multilateral lenders, announced that as a consequence of Yemen's failure to implement significant reforms it would reduce financial aid by one-third over the period July 2005 through July 2008. A key component of the US$2.3 billion package—US$300 million in concessional financing—has been withheld pending renewal of Yemen's PRGF with the IMF, under negotiation. However, in May 2006 the World Bank adopted an assistance strategy for Yemen under which it will provide US$400 million in International Development Association credits over the period FY 2006 to FY 2009. In November 2006, at a meeting of Yemen's development partners, a total of US$4.7 billion in grants and concessional loans was pledged for the period 2007–10. At present, despite possessing significant oil and gas resources and a considerable amount of agriculturally productive land, Yemen remains one of the poorest of the world's low-income countries.

The influx of an average 1,000 Somali refugees per month into Yemen looking for work is an added drain on the economy, which must cope with a 20 to 40 percent rate of unemployment. Yemen remains under significant pressure to implement economic reforms or face the loss of badly needed international financial support. In the north, disruptions of civil war and frequent periods of drought had dealt severe blows to a prosperous agricultural sector. Coffee production the north's main export and principal form of foreign exchange, declined as the cultivation of khat increased. Low domestic industrial output and a lack of raw materials made the Yemeni Arab Republic dependent on a wide variety of imports; the Yemeni Civil War and air bombing campaign by the coalition during the Saudi-led intervention have devastated the Yemeni economy further. As a result of civil war, Yemen is suffering from inflation and devaluation of Yemeni rial, Yemen's economy contracted by 50% from the start of the civil war in 19 March 2015 to October 2018.

This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Yemen at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Yemeni Rials. For purchasing power parity comparisons, the US Dollar is exchanged at 150.11 Yemeni Rials only. Mean wages were $1.06 per man-hour in 2009. Remittances from Yemenis working abroad and foreign aid paid for perennial trade deficits. Substantial Yemeni communities exist in many countries of the world, including Yemen's immediate neighbors on the Arabian Peninsula, India, East Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States. Beginning in the mid-1950s, the Soviet Union and People's Republic of China provided large-scale assistance to the YAR; this aid included funding of substantial construction projects and considerable military assistance. In the south, pre-independence economic activity was overwhelmingly concentrated in the port city of Aden; the seaborne transit trade, which the port relied upon, collapsed with the closure of the Suez Canal and Britain's withdrawal from Aden in 1967.

Only extensive Soviet aid, remittances from south Yemenis working abroad, revenues from the Aden refinery kept the PDRY's centrally planned Marxist economy afloat. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union and a cessation of Soviet aid, the south's economy collapsed. Since unification, the government has worked to integrate two disparate economic systems. However, severe shocks, including the return in 1990 of 850,000 Yemenis from the Persian Gulf states, a subsequent major reduction of aid flows, internal political disputes culminating in the 1994 civil war, hampered economic growth. Agriculture is the mainstay of Yemen's economy, generating more than 20 percent of gross domestic product since 1990 and employing more than half of the working population. However, a U. S. government estimate suggests that the sector accounted for only 13.5 percent of GDP in 2005. Numerous environmental problems hamper growth in this sector—soil erosion, sand dune encroachment, deforestation—but the greatest problem by far is the scarcity of water.

As a result of low levels of rainfall, agriculture in Yemen relies on the extraction o

Pittsburgh Line

The Pittsburgh Line is a rail line, located in state of the Pennsylvania and it is owned and operated by the Norfolk Southern Railway. The Pittsburgh Line is Norfolk Southern Railway's primary east–west artery in its Pittsburgh Division and Harrisburg Division across Pennsylvania and it is part of the Amtrak-Norfolk Southern combined rail corridor, the Keystone Corridor; the Pittsburgh Line is a former Pennsylvania Railroad property, beginning as two rail lines, the Middle Division Main Line and the Pittsburgh Division Main Line which were combined to the form the modern day Pittsburgh Line, eventually the combined Middle Division/Pittsburgh Division Main Line was combined with the PRR's Philadelphia main line to form the new Main Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The new PRR main line continued through the Penn Central years and was broken up by Conrail, the combined Middle Division/Pittsburgh Main Line and the Philadelphia main line were both reestablished and both respectfully received new names, the Pittsburgh Line and the Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line.

The Pittsburgh Line was passed from Conrail to Norfolk Southern Railway and the Philadelphia to Harrisburg Line was passed to Amtrak. Together, the Pittsburgh Line and the Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line both make up the current day Keystone Corridor which all of it was referred to as the Main Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad; the Pittsburgh Line spans 248 miles between the state capitol in Harrisburg and its namesake city of Pittsburgh, crossing the Allegheny Mountains through the Gallitzin Tunnels west of Altoona and the famous Horseshoe Curve in the process. Its east end is marked with the railroad's Harrisburg Line to Reading and Philadelphia, the Fort Wayne Line on its west end to Conway and points west in Ohio and Indiana; the Pittsburgh Line is arguably Norfolk Southern's busiest freight corridor, where 50 to 70 trains traverse the line daily. The Pittsburgh Line is owned by the Pennsylvania Railroad and it began as two rail lines, the Middle Division Main Line, part of the PRR Middle Division and the Pittsburgh Division Main Line, part of the PRR Pittsburgh Division.

The Pennsylvania Railroad combined the Middle Division Main Line and the Pittsburgh Division Main Line into one rail line, forming the Pittsburgh Line, though at the time, the Pittsburgh Line was not refer to by that name. At the same time the Middle Division and the Pittsburgh Division was combined together; the Pennsylvania Railroad combined the merged Middle Division/Pittsburgh Division Main Line with their main rail line to Philadelphia, forming the Main Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. This Main Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad served as the PRR's line Pennsylvania, the line continued its existence through the Penn Central years and through the early years of Conrail; the PRR Main Line was passed down to Conrail and Conrail broke the PRR Main Line into two rail lines again, reestablishing the Pittsburgh Line and the PRR Philadelphia main line which became known as the Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line, now under ownership of Amtrak. The Pittsburgh Line received its current name in the 1980s under Conrail.

The Pittsburgh Line was passed down to the Norfolk Southern Railway in 1999 during the breakup of Conrail between CSX Transportation. Today, the Pittsburgh Line is a valuable asset to Norfolk Southern; some most famous parts of the Pittsburgh Line is the Gallitzin Tunnels. The Pittsburgh Line is marked with three major freight terminals on both of its ends. On its east end, Harrisburg Terminal handles a bulk of the railroads intermodal traffic, with a handful intermodal trains originating and terminating there. Across the Susquehanna River in Enola is Norfolk Southern's major freight terminal in the Greater Harrisburg area. Many of the Pittsburgh Line's manifest freight trains originate or terminate here, with a few continuing south to Baltimore and points east, while others bypass Enola and cross the Rockville Bridge over the Susquehanna to Harrisburg bound for Allentown and points east. On its west end, the Pittsburgh Line becomes the Fort Wayne Line after crossing the Allegheny River bridge, where trains travel a short distance of 23 miles to reach Conway Yard.

Conway is the hub of activity in Western Pennsylvania, where many trains originate and terminate, with many of those trains being the same freight trains that originate and terminate at Enola Yard, respectively. Conway is the hub of operations for Norfolk Southern in the Greater Pittsburgh area, featuring a hump yard and a crew change point for all Pittsburgh and Fort Wayne Line trains. From Harrisburg/Enola, the railroad travels west following the path of the Susquehanna River parallel to U. S. Route 11/15, passing through the communities of Marysvile and Duncannon. At Duncannon, the Pittsburgh Line leaves the Susquehanna and follows the path of the smaller Juniata River, of which it will follow for much of its length to Altoona, unofficially dubbed the "Middle Division", after the Pittsburgh Line's predecessor, the Middle Division Main Line, part of the PRR Middle Division. U. S. Route 22 follows the route for much of its length here. Once at Altoona, the railroad arrives at the base of the Allegheny Mountain Front, of which it must climb over to reach Johnstown and Pittsburgh.

Altoona is the site of Norfolk Southern's Juniata Shops, the largest locomotive repair facility on the NS system. Constructed by the PRR in 1850, this large complex of shops is what gave the city of Altoona its worth and structure. Leaving Altoona, the railro

Gay Divorce

Gay Divorce is a musical with music and lyrics by Cole Porter and book by Dwight Taylor, adapted by Kenneth Webb and Samuel Hoffenstein. It was Fred Astaire's last Broadway show and featured the hit song "Night and Day" in which Astaire danced with co-star Claire Luce, it was made into a musical film by RKO Radio Pictures in 1934, starring Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers, renamed The Gay Divorcee. Guy Holden, an American writer traveling in England, falls madly in love with a woman named Mimi, who disappears after their first encounter. To take his mind off his lost love, his friend Teddy Egbert, a British attorney, takes him to Brighton Beach, where Egbert has arranged for a "paid co-respondent" to assist his client in obtaining a divorce from her boring, geologist husband Robert. What Holden does not know is that the client is none other than Mimi, who in turn mistakes him — because he is too ashamed of his occupation to say what it is, namely pseudonymously writing cheap "bodice ripper" romance novels — for the paid co-respondent.

At the end, when her husband appears, he is unconvinced by the faked adultery—but is unwittingly revealed, by the waiter at the resort, to have been genuinely adulterous himself. ‡new song for the London production, ‡‡for London production Astaire's sister Adele retired from showbusiness and married Lord Charles Cavendish after her last show with Fred, The Band Wagon. When the producers of Gay Divorce asked Fred to star in the show, he deferred an answer until he could spend the summer of 1932 wooing his future wife, Phyllis, in London, he agreed, rehearsals began in September 1932. The show was both Astaire's last Broadway musical and his only stage musical without Adele. In the cast were Erik Rhodes and Eric Blore who soon became famous in the early 1930s RKO comedies. Gay Divorce opened in pre-Broadway tryouts at the Wilbur Theatre, Boston on November 7, 1932 and moved to the Shubert Theatre, New Haven on November 21, 1932, it opened on Broadway at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre on November 29, 1932 and transferred to the Shubert Theatre on January 16, 1933 and closed on July 1, 1933 for a total run of 248 performances.

Directed by Howard Lindsay with choreography by Barbara Newberry and Carl Randall, set design by Jo Mielziner, the cast featured Fred Astaire as Guy Holden, Claire Luce as Mimi, Luella Gear as Hortense, G. P. Huntley Jr as Teddy, Betty Starbuck as Barbara Wray, Erik Rhodes as Tonetti, Eric Blore as Waiter, Roland Bottomley as Pratt; the show opened in the West End at the Palace Theatre on November 2, 1933 and ran for 180 performances. It was directed by Felix Edwardes with Astaire, Luce and Blore reprising their roles, they were joined by Olive Blakeney as Gertrude Howard, Claud Allister as Teddy, Joan Gardner as Barbara Wray and Fred Hearne as Octavius Mann. In 2000, Lost Musicals, aka The Lost Musicals Charitable Trust, presented at London's Palace Theatre Gay Divorce with the BBC. Ian Marshall Fisher directed, Kevin Amos Music, Director; the cast included Janie Dee, Thelma Ruby, Tim Flavin and Julie Wilson appearing along with the BBC orchestra. This was the second and only appearance of this show and playing in the same theatre where the original London production played.

The book is dated, professional modern productions are rare. Goodspeed Opera House staged the show in 1983 and an adapted version was seen off-Broadway in New York in 1987. A concert version was presented at Carnegie Hall in New York City in June 1993 and featured Robert Westenberg as Guy, Rebecca Luker as Mimi, Judy Kaye as Hortense, Kurt Ollmann as Tonetti. A "Musicals Tonight!" Concert production ran in March 2004. The regional company 42nd Street Moon produced the piece in San Francisco, California from April 12 - May 6, 2007. Gay Divorce at the Internet Broadway Database'Gay Divorce at


In mathematics, Felix Klein's j-invariant or j function, regarded as a function of a complex variable τ, is a modular function of weight zero for SL defined on the upper half-plane of complex numbers. It is the unique such function, holomorphic away from a simple pole at the cusp such that j = 0, j = 1728 = 12 3. Rational functions of j are modular, in fact give all modular functions. Classically, the j-invariant was studied as a parameterization of elliptic curves over C, but it has surprising connections to the symmetries of the Monster group; the j-invariant can be defined as a function on the upper half-plane H =, j = 1728 g 2 3 g 2 3 − 27 g 3 2 = 1728 g 2 3 Δ where: g 2 = 60 ∑ ≠ − 4 g 3 = 140 ∑ ≠ − 6 Δ = g 2 3 − 27 g 3 2 This can be motivated by viewing each τ as representing an isomorphism class of elliptic curves. Every elliptic curve E over C is a complex torus, thus can be identified with a rank 2 lattice; this lattice can be rotated and scaled, so that it is generated by 1 and τ ∈ H.

This lattice corresponds to the elliptic curve y 2 = 4 x 3 − g 2 x − g 3. Note that j is defined everywhere in H as the modular discriminant is non-zero; this is due to the corresponding cubic polynomial having distinct roots. It can be shown that Δ is a modular form of weight twelve, g2 one of weight four, so that its third power is of weight twelve, thus their quotient, therefore j, is a modular function of weight zero, in particular a holomorphic function H → C invariant under the action of SL. Quotienting out by its centre yields the modular group, which we may identify with the projective special linear group PSL. By a suitable choice of transformation belonging to this group, τ ↦ a τ + b c τ + d, a d − b c = 1, we may reduce τ to a value giving the same value for j, lying in the fundamental region for j, which consists of values for τ satisfying the conditions | τ | ≥ 1 − 1 2 < R ≤ 1 2 − 1 2 < R < 0 ⇒ | τ | > 1 The function j when restricted to this region still takes on every value in the complex numbers C once.

In other words, for every c in C, there is a unique τ in the fundamental region such. Thus, j has the property of mapping the fundamental region to the entire comple

Pokémon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea

Pokémon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea released in Japan as Pocket Monsters Advanced Generation the Movie: Pokémon Ranger and the Prince of the Sea: Manaphy, is a 2006 Japanese animated fantasy film, the ninth in the Pokémon film series, the fourth and last to be set in the Advanced Generation series. Directed by Kunihiko Yuyama and written by Hideki Sonoda, the story follows the Pokémon trainer Ash Ketchum, his Pikachu, his friends May and Brock as they help a Pokémon Ranger named Jack Walker deliver the Mythical Pokémon Manaphy to an undersea palace called Samiya while evading mercenaries led by Phantom the Pirate, it was released on July 16, 2006 in Japan, aired on Cartoon Network in North America on March 23, 2007. It is the first Pokémon movie to be dubbed in English by TPCi; the events of the film take place during the ninth season of Pokémon. An egg belonging to the Mythical Pokémon Manaphy is found floating in the sea by mercenary Phantom the Pirate, but it is subsequently stolen from him by Jack "Jackie" Walker, a Pokémon Ranger disguised as one of Phantom's crew members.

Walker escapes Phantom's ship and joins the Marina Group, a traveling circus family that specializes in Water-type Pokémon, to deliver the Manaphy egg to Samiya, an undersea palace built by the People of the Water, whom the Marina Group are descendants of. Pokémon Trainer Ash Ketchum, his Pikachu, their friends Brock and Max become lost on their journey and encounter the Marina Group in their search for water, inadvertently becoming involved with Walker's mission; when Phantom leads an assault after the Egg, Manaphy hatches in May's arms, who presumes she is its mother. The group escapes Phantom by running into a network of ruins belonging to the People of the Water, where Ash and his friends learn about Samiya. Walker declines Ash and his friends' further involvement with his mission and departs in a boat with the Marina Group toward Samiya. However, Manaphy shows discomfort and starts crying without May's presence, forcing Ash and his friends along anyway. Manaphy's natural instincts lead the boat toward Samiya, to Walker's dismay and Manaphy bond closer.

Walker warns May of Manaphy's destiny to become Samiya's leader and that she will need to part ways with it. May is distraught nonetheless. Lizabeth, the Marina Group's daughter, comforts May and gives her a bracelet known as the People of the Water's Mark as a memento of her time with Manaphy. One day, May loses her bandanna Manaphy embarks far into the ocean to retrieve it. Ash and his friends, board a submarine operated by Lizabeth to search for Manaphy finding it along with Samiya during the expected lunar eclipse. Unbeknownst to them, Phantom had been in pursuit the whole time. While exploring Samiya, the group encounters Phantom, able to open the chamber to the Sea Crown, the temple's central artifact consisting of numerous large crystals. Phantom begins causing Samiya to flood and sink deeper into the ocean; the group escapes to the submarine while Walker confronts Phantom, reconnecting most of the crystals to the crown before he, one of the crystals are washed away by the flood. Determined to save its home, Manaphy returns to the Crown's chamber with Ash and May in tow, while Lizabeth and Max are forced to depart in the submarine.

Ash and May reconnect the remaining crystals but notice one is missing. While escaping the flood, Ash finds the last crystal in a fountain, he puts Pikachu and Manaphy in an air capsule that used to be part of Phantom's submarine before diving into the flooded crown chamber and reconnecting the crystal, causing Samiya to rise to the ocean's surface. While May and Pikachu mourn Ash's apparent sacrifice, Phantom kidnaps Manaphy. Ash, surrounded by a glowing aura from the newly rebuilt Sea Crown, pursues Phantom and retrieves Manaphy. Phantom returns with his ship, but Manaphy leads an assault with several wild Water-type Pokémon to destroy the ship and subdue Phantom in its rubble. With Phantom arrested, Walker is able to deliver Manaphy safely to Samiya. May and Manaphy share a heartfelt farewell before the group watches Samiya return to depths of the ocean. Ash and his friends continue on their journey. Note: Pokemon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea is the first film in the series to be released since Pokémon USA's acquisition of US distribution from 4Kids Entertainment, which resulted in a new English voice cast produced by TAJ Productions.

On December 9, 2005, the title for the ninth Pokémon feature film was revealed to be Pokémon Ranger and the Prince of the Sea in the Japanese children's program Oha Suta on TV Tokyo. This is the last Pokémon film to use traditional cel animation. Setting designs were inspired by cities and ruins in Italy in Rome and Capri. Shinji Miyazaki, the composer for the Pokémon television series composed the score for Pokémon Ranger; the film's soundtrack was released on July 26, 2006. Track listing All music is composed except where noted. Pokémon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea was released in Japan on July 15, 2006 with a 105 minute running time; the film was distributed by Toho in Japan. In North America, Pokémon Ranger aired on Cartoon Network on March 23, 2007; the original Japanese version of the film was released on DVD on December 22, 2006. The English dub was first released in North America on April 3, 2007, it was released in Australia nearly a year on February 6, 2008. The American set included the Pikachu short Pikachu's Island Adventure (ピカチュウのわんぱくアイランド, Pikachū no Wanpaku Airand

Barry Seabourne

Barry Seabourne is an English former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1960s and 1970s, coached in the 1980s and 1990s. He played at representative level for Great Britain and England, at club level for Leeds, Bradford Northern, as a scrum-half, i.e. number 7, coached at club level for Bradford Northern and Huddersfield. Seabourne' s birth was registered in West Riding of Yorkshire, England. Barry Seabourne won caps for England while at Leeds in 1970 against Wales, France, won a cap for Great Britain while at Leeds in 1970 against New Zealand. Barry Seabourne played scrum-half in Leeds' 11-10 victory over Wakefield Trinity in the 1968 Challenge Cup "Watersplash" Final during the 1967-68 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 11 May 1968, played scrum-half in the 7-21 defeat by Leigh in the 1971 Challenge Cup Final during the 1970–71 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 15 May 1971, in front of a crowd of 85,514, played scrum-half in Bradford Northern's 14-33 defeat by Featherstone Rovers in the 1973 Challenge Cup Final during the 1972–73 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 12 May 1973, in front of a crowd of 72,395.

Barry Seabourne played scrum-half in Leeds' 2-18 defeat by Wakefield Trinity in the 1964 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1964–65 season at Fartown Ground, Huddersfield on Saturday 31 October 1964, played scrum-half, was man of the match winning the White Rose Trophy in the 22-11 victory over Castleford in the 1968 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1968–69 season at Belle Vue, Wakefield on Saturday 19 October 1968. Barry Seabourne played scrum-half, was man of the match in Bradford Northern's 3-2 victory over Widnes in the 1974–75 Player's No.6 Trophy Final during the 1974–75 season at Wilderspool Stadium, Warrington on Saturday 25 January 1975. Barry Seabourne was the coach in Bradford Northern's 11-2 victory over Castleford in the 1987 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1987–88 season at Elland Road, Leeds on Saturday 31 October 1987. Profile at Photograph "Barry Seabourne gets theball out" at Photograph "Blacker gets the ball away" at Photograph "Daylight training" at Photograph "Barry Seaborne - The Schemer" at Photograph "1987/88 Team Photo" at Photograph "Seabourne leads his men" at Photograph "Seabourne touches down" at Photograph "Barry Seabourne, architect" at Photograph "Joe Phillips memorial trophy team 1975" at Photograph "The National Anthem" at Photograph "The teams take to the field" at Photograph "Barry Seabourne about to pass" at Photograph "Seabourne passes" at Photograph "Barry and Peter Seabourne" at Rugby Cup Final 1968