Arrowroot is a starch obtained from the rhizomes of several tropical plants, traditionally Maranta arundinacea, but Florida arrowroot from Zamia integrifolia, tapioca from cassava, labelled as arrowroot. Polynesian arrowroot or pia, Japanese arrowroot called kudzu, are used in similar ways. Archaeological studies in the Americas show evidence of arrowroot cultivation as early as 7,000 years ago; the name may come from aru-aru in the language of the Caribbean Arawak people, for whom the plant was a staple. It has been suggested that the name comes from arrowroot's use in treating poison-arrow wounds, as it draws out the poison when applied to the site of the injury. In the early days of carbonless copy paper, because of its fine grain-size, was a used ingredient. After an economical way of centrifugally separating wheat flour was devised, arrowroot lost its role in papermaking. Saint Vincent has a long history of arrowroot production; the industry started as the food and medicine of the Carib and Garifuna peoples, developed to the status of a major export of St. Vincent during the period 1900 to 1965.
It became an important commodity in colonial trade in the 1930s. As the sugar industry declined in the nineteenth century, cultivation of arrowroot was developed to fill the void. Since the area cultivated has declined as other crops bananas, have gained wider acceptance by farmers. Evidence of its former importance is indicated by the ruins of the various magnificent 19th-century factories located in valleys on the St. Vincent mainland. Arrowroot cultivation is now concentrated on farms located north of the Rabacca River in the Owia area; this is the area where the population of Carib descent is concentrated. In 1998/99, the industry produced 312,000 lb of about 3 % of the peak level in the 1960s. In the past, the St. Vincent arrowroot industry played an important role in the economy of the island, contributing close to 50% of the country's foreign export earnings, was the principal source of employment and income of the rural people from the 1930s to the 1960s; the plant is propagated from other rhizomes and cultivation takes place at elevations up to 300 metres on the eastern and windward facing side of the highlands of St. Vincent.
Cultivation covers an area of about 3,700 ha and some 80% of the crop is grown by small farmers. The arrowroot plant is hardy and not demanding in its requirements. St. Vincent the north-east coast, provides the ideal growing conditions for optimal yields; some farmers produce the crop by shifting cultivation on the cleared forested slopes. The harvesting season extends from October to May. On the larger estates, the harvesting of the rhizome proceeds from the base of a hill towards the top. Harvesting involves breaking off the rhizome from the shoot. Planting and harvesting are inter-related in that when the rhizomes are harvested the shoot is replanted at the same time. In St. Vincent, much use is made of rural unemployment and many women workers are involved in the various phases of operation. Mechanical harvesters have been introduced, allowing faster arrowroot harvesting. Six factories process the island's arrowroot and large processing plants are located at Belle Vue and at Owia. Arrowroot tubers contain about 23% starch.
They are first washed, cleaned of the paper-like scale. The scales must be removed before extracting the starch because they impart a disagreeable flavour. After removing the scale, the roots are washed again and reduced to a pulp by beating them in mortars or subjecting them to the action of a wheel rasp; the milky liquid thus obtained is passed through a coarse cloth or hair sieve and the pure starch, insoluble, is allowed to settle at the bottom. The wet starch is dried in a drying house; the result is a powder, the "arrowroot" of commerce, packed for market in air-tight cans, packages or cases. Arrowroot starch has in the past been quite extensively adulterated with potato starch and other similar substances. Pure arrowroot, like other pure starches, is a light, white powder, odourless when dry, but emitting a faint, peculiar odour when mixed with boiling water, swelling on cooking into a perfect jelly, which can be used to make a food, smooth in consistency—unlike adulterated articles, mixed with potato flour and other starches of lower value, which contain larger particles.
Microscopically the arrow root starch is oval with hilum at the proximal end. Arrowroot was popular in the Victorian era, Napoleon said the reason for the British love of arrowroot was to support the commerce of their colonies, it can be consumed in the form of biscuits, jellies, hot sauces, with beef tea, milk or veal broth. Kudzu arrowroot is used in noodles in Vietnamese cuisine. In the Victorian era it was used, boiled with a little flavouring added, as an digestible food for children and people with dietary restrictions. With today's greater understanding of its limited nutritional properties, it is no longer used in this way. In Burma, arrowroot tubers, which are called artarlut, are boiled or steamed and eaten with salt and oil. Arrowroot makes clear, shimmering fruit gels and prevents ice crystals from forming in homemade ice cream, it can be used as a thickener for acidic foods, such as Asian sweet and sour sauce. It is used in cooking to prod
The Windward Islands known as the Islands of Barlovento, are the southern larger islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies. They lie south of the Leeward Islands between latitudes 10° and 16° N and longitudes 60° and 62° W; as a group they start from Dominica and reach southward to the north of Trinidad and Tobago and west of Barbados. The Windward Islands are called such because they were more windward to sailing ships arriving to the New World than the Leeward Islands, given that the prevailing trade winds in the West Indies blow east to west; the trans-Atlantic currents and winds that provided the fastest route across the ocean brought these ships to the rough dividing line between the Windward and Leeward islands. Dominica is the dividing line between the Leeward islands. Guadeloupe and islands to the north became known as the "Leeward Islands". Vessels in the Atlantic slave trade departing from the British Gold Coast and Gulf of Guinea in Africa would first encounter the southeasternmost "Windward" islands of the Lesser Antilles in their west-northwesterly heading to final destinations in the Caribbean and North and Central America.
The chain of Windward Islands forms a part of the easternmost boundary of the Caribbean Sea. Most of the present "Windward Islands" were once colonial island territories of France known as the French West Indies; the Windward Islands are as follows: Dominica Martinique Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Grenada Trinidad and Tobago Leeward Islands Southern Caribbean Lesser Antilles topics Windward Islands topics Leeward Islands topics Windward Islands cricket team Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Windward Islands". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. P. 716
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers; the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy dependent on African slaves; the British emancipated all slaves in 1838, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations.
The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans have African ancestry, with significant European, Indian and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Jamaica is an upper-middle income country with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen, her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs". Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown", or "Ja", have derived from this. The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated around the area now known as Old Harbour; the Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/yamaye. Today, few Jamaican natives remain. Most notably among some Maroon communities as well as within some communities in Cornwall County, Jamaica Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494, his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy; the capital was moved to Spanish Town called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean; the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island; the name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía, alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area. In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 1,500 black. By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population; the colony was shaken and destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica earthquake.
The Irish in Jamaica formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in 1655; the majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition; some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World attracting those, expelled from Spain and Portugal.
An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Working as merchants and traders, the
Fishing industry in the Caribbean
Although the West Indies has limited resources in terms of developing a large-scale fishing industry, the value of fish and sea products as a source of food has long been recognized. All Caribbean territories therefore have fishing industries. Most Caribbean fishermen ply their trade from small boats; these small craft without protection from sun or rain, are forced to remain close to shore going more than 16 kilometers offshore. Several methods for catching fish are used: Fillet nets Trawling Line fishing Seining Fish pots and reels; the method of fishing depends on the size of the fish to be caught. Trawling is used to catch shrimp, carite and cavali; the main catches from seine and gill nets are king fish and carite. Fish pot catches are red jacks. Fishing is a year-round activity in the Caribbean and it directly employs thousands of people. A number of different methods of selling are used in the Caribbean. Most small-scale fishermen sell the rest at the beach. If there is a delay between catching the fish and eating it some form of processing has to take place.
The three processing methods that are common in the Caribbean are: Salting: The fish is washed, salted dried in the sun, or in a special electrical drying unit. Among fish salted are salt are salmon, shark and carite. Smoking: The fish is washed, gutted. A little salt is added it is cooked over a smoking fire. Herrings and jacks are preserved by this method. Fresh fish: The fish is washed, passed through a machine which coats it with a film of ice, it is wrapped in foil
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a high aluminium content. It is the world's main source of aluminium. Bauxite consists of the aluminium minerals gibbsite and diaspore, mixed with the two iron oxides goethite and haematite, the aluminium clay mineral kaolinite and small amounts of anatase and ilmenite. In 1821 the French geologist Pierre Berthier discovered bauxite near the village of Les Baux in Provence, southern France. Numerous classification schemes have been proposed for bauxite but, as of 1982, there was no consensus. Vadász distinguished lateritic bauxites from karst bauxite ores: The carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks, where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clay layers – dispersed clays which were concentrated as the enclosing limestones dissolved during chemical weathering; the lateritic bauxites are found in the countries of the tropics. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite, basalt and shale.
In comparison with the iron-rich laterites, the formation of bauxites depends more on intense weathering conditions in a location with good drainage. This enables the precipitation of the gibbsite. Zones with highest aluminium content are located below a ferruginous surface layer; the aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is exclusively gibbsite. In the case of Jamaica, recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium, suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ash deposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. Australia is the largest producer of bauxite, followed by China. In 2017, China was the top producer of aluminium with half of the world's production, followed by Russia and India. Although aluminium demand is increasing, known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many centuries. Increased aluminium recycling, which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium, will extend the world's bauxite reserves.
In November 2010, Nguyen Tan Dung, the prime minister of Vietnam, announced that Vietnam's bauxite reserves might total 11,000 Mt. Bauxite is strip mined because it is always found near the surface of the terrain, with little or no overburden; as of 2010 70% to 80% of the world's dry bauxite production is processed first into alumina and into aluminium by electrolysis. Bauxite rocks are classified according to their intended commercial application: metallurgical, cement and refractory. Bauxite ore is heated in a pressure vessel along with a sodium hydroxide solution at a temperature of 150 to 200 °C. At these temperatures, the aluminium is dissolved as sodium aluminate; the aluminium compounds in the bauxite may be present as boehmite or diaspore. The undissolved waste, bauxite tailings, after the aluminium compounds are extracted contains iron oxides, calcia and some un-reacted alumina. After separation of the residue by filtering, pure gibbsite is precipitated when the liquid is cooled, seeded with fine-grained aluminium hydroxide.
The gibbsite is converted into aluminium oxide, Al2O3, by heating in rotary kilns or fluid flash calciners to a temperature in excess of 1,000 °C. This aluminium oxide is dissolved at a temperature of about 960 °C in molten cryolite. Next, this molten substance can yield metallic aluminium by passing an electric current through it in the process of electrolysis, called the Hall–Héroult process, named after its American and French discoverers. Prior to the invention of this process, prior to the Deville process, aluminium ore was refined by heating ore along with elemental sodium or potassium in a vacuum; the method was consumed materials that were themselves expensive at that time. This made early elemental aluminium more expensive than gold. Bauxite is the main source of the rare metal gallium. During the processing of bauxite to alumina in the Bayer process, gallium accumulates in the sodium hydroxide liquor. From this it can be extracted by a variety of methods; the most recent is the use of ion-exchange resin.
Achievable extraction efficiencies critically depend on the original concentration in the feed bauxite. At a typical feed concentration of 50 ppm, about 15 percent of the contained gallium is extractable; the remainder reports to the red mud and aluminium hydroxide streams. Bauxite, Arkansas Rio Tinto Alcan United Company RUSAL MS Bulk Jupiter Bárdossy, G.: Karst Bauxites: Bauxite deposits on carbonate rocks. Elsevier Sci. Publ. 441 p. Bárdossy, G. and Aleva, G. J. J.: Lateritic Bauxites. Developments in Economic Geology 27, Elsevier Sci. Publ. 624 p. ISBN 0-444-98811-4 Grant, C.. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry p. 385–388 Vol.266, No.3 Hanilçi, N.. Geological and geochemical evolution of the Bolkardaği bauxite deposits, Turkey: Transformation from shale to bauxite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration USGS Minerals Information: Bauxite Mineral Information Institute "Bauxite". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal, that belongs to group 8 of the periodic table, it is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Pure iron is rare on the Earth's crust being limited to meteorites. Iron ores are quite abundant, but extracting usable metal from them requires kilns or furnaces capable of reaching 1500 °C or higher, about 500 °C higher than what is enough to smelt copper. Humans started to dominate that process in Eurasia only about 2000 BCE, iron began to displace copper alloys for tools and weapons, in some regions, only around 1200 BCE; that event is considered the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. Iron alloys, such as steel and special steels are now by far the most common industrial metals, because of their mechanical properties and their low cost. Pristine and smooth pure iron surfaces are mirror-like silvery-gray. However, iron reacts with oxygen and water to give brown to black hydrated iron oxides known as rust.
Unlike the oxides of some other metals, that form passivating layers, rust occupies more volume than the metal and thus flakes off, exposing fresh surfaces for corrosion. The body of an adult human contains about 3 to 5 grams of elemental iron in hemoglobin and myoglobin; these two proteins play essential roles in vertebrate metabolism oxygen transport by blood and oxygen storage in muscles. To maintain the necessary levels, human iron metabolism requires a minimum of iron in the diet. Iron is the metal at the active site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and reduction in plants and animals. Chemically, the most common oxidation states of iron are +2 and +3. Iron shares many properties of other transition metals, including the other group 8 elements and osmium. Iron forms compounds in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7. Iron forms many coordination compounds. At least four allotropes of iron are known, conventionally denoted α, γ, δ, ε; the first three forms are observed at ordinary pressures.
As molten iron cools past its freezing point of 1538 °C, it crystallizes into its δ allotrope, which has a body-centered cubic crystal structure. As it cools further to 1394 °C, it changes to its γ-iron allotrope, a face-centered cubic crystal structure, or austenite. At 912 °C and below, the crystal structure again becomes the bcc α-iron allotrope; the physical properties of iron at high pressures and temperatures have been studied extensively, because of their relevance to theories about the cores of the Earth and other planets. Above 10 GPa and temperatures of a few hundred kelvin or less, α-iron changes into another hexagonal close-packed structure, known as ε-iron; the higher-temperature γ-phase changes into ε-iron, but does so at higher pressure. Some controversial experimental evidence exists for a stable β phase at pressures above 50 GPa and temperatures of at least 1500 K, it is supposed to have a double hcp structure. The inner core of the Earth is presumed to consist of an iron-nickel alloy with ε structure.
The melting and boiling points of iron, along with its enthalpy of atomization, are lower than those of the earlier 3d elements from scandium to chromium, showing the lessened contribution of the 3d electrons to metallic bonding as they are attracted more and more into the inert core by the nucleus. This same trend appears for ruthenium but not osmium; the melting point of iron is experimentally well defined for pressures less than 50 GPa. For greater pressures, published data still varies by tens of gigapascals and over a thousand kelvin. Below its Curie point of 770 °C, α-iron changes from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic: the spins of the two unpaired electrons in each atom align with the spins of its neighbors, creating an overall magnetic field; this happens because the orbitals of those two electrons do not point toward neighboring atoms in the lattice, therefore are not involved in metallic bonding. In the absence of an external source of magnetic field, the atoms get spontaneously partitioned into magnetic domains, about 10 micrometres across, such that the atoms in each domain have parallel spins, but different domains have other orientations.
Thus a macroscopic piece of iron will have a nearly zero overall magnetic field. Application of an external magnetic field causes the domains that are magnetized in the same general direction to grow at the expense of adjacent ones that point in other directions, reinforcing the external field; this effect is exploited in devices that needs to channel magnetic fields, such as electrical transformers, magnetic recording heads, electric motors. Impurities, lattice defects, or grain and particle boundaries can "pin" the domains in the new positions, so that the effect persists after the external field is removed -- thus turning the iron object into a magnet. Similar behavior is exhibited by some iron compounds, such as the fer
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa. In some countries, bananas used for cooking may be called "plantains", distinguishing them from dessert bananas; the fruit is variable in size and firmness, but is elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind, which may be green, red, purple, or brown when ripe. The fruits grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant. All modern edible seedless bananas come from two wild species – Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana; the scientific names of most cultivated bananas are Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana, Musa × paradisiaca for the hybrid Musa acuminata × M. balbisiana, depending on their genomic constitution. The old scientific name for this hybrid, Musa sapientum, is no longer used. Musa species are native to tropical Indomalaya and Australia, are to have been first domesticated in Papua New Guinea, they are grown in 135 countries for their fruit, to a lesser extent to make fiber, banana wine, banana beer and as ornamental plants.
The world's largest producers of bananas in 2017 were India and China, which together accounted for 38% of total production. Worldwide, there is no sharp distinction between "bananas" and "plantains". In the Americas and Europe, "banana" refers to soft, dessert bananas those of the Cavendish group, which are the main exports from banana-growing countries. By contrast, Musa cultivars with firmer, starchier fruit are called "plantains". In other regions, such as Southeast Asia, many more kinds of banana are grown and eaten, so the binary distinction is not useful and is not made in local languages; the term "banana" is used as the common name for the plants that produce the fruit. This can extend to other members of the genus Musa, such as the scarlet banana, the pink banana, the Fe'i bananas, it can refer to members of the genus Ensete, such as the snow banana and the economically important false banana. Both genera are in Musaceae; the banana plant is the largest herbaceous flowering plant. All the above-ground parts of a banana plant grow from a structure called a "corm".
Plants are tall and sturdy, are mistaken for trees, but what appears to be a trunk is a "false stem" or pseudostem. Bananas grow in a wide variety of soils, as long as the soil is at least 60 cm deep, has good drainage and is not compacted; the leaves of banana plants are composed of a blade. The base of the petiole widens to form a sheath; the edges of the sheath meet. As new growth occurs in the centre of the pseudostem the edges are forced apart. Cultivated banana plants vary in height depending on growing conditions. Most are around 5 m tall, with a range from'Dwarf Cavendish' plants at around 3 m to'Gros Michel' at 7 m or more. Leaves may grow 2.7 metres long and 60 cm wide. They are torn by the wind, resulting in the familiar frond look; when a banana plant is mature, the corm stops producing new leaves and begins to form a flower spike or inflorescence. A stem develops which grows up inside the pseudostem, carrying the immature inflorescence until it emerges at the top; each pseudostem produces a single inflorescence known as the "banana heart".
After fruiting, the pseudostem dies, but offshoots will have developed from the base, so that the plant as a whole is perennial. In the plantation system of cultivation, only one of the offshoots will be allowed to develop in order to maintain spacing; the inflorescence contains many bracts between rows of flowers. The female flowers appear in rows further up the stem from the rows of male flowers; the ovary is inferior, meaning that the tiny petals and other flower parts appear at the tip of the ovary. The banana fruits develop from the banana heart, in a large hanging cluster, made up of tiers, with up to 20 fruit to a tier; the hanging cluster is known as a bunch, comprising 3–20 tiers, or commercially as a "banana stem", can weigh 30–50 kilograms. Individual banana fruits average 125 grams, of which 75% is water and 25% dry matter; the fruit has been described as a "leathery berry". There is a protective outer layer with numerous long, thin strings, which run lengthwise between the skin and the edible inner portion.
The inner part of the common yellow dessert variety can be split lengthwise into three sections that correspond to the inner portions of the three carpels by manually deforming the unopened fruit. In cultivated varieties, the seeds are diminished nearly to non-existence. Bananas are slightly radioactive, more so than most other fruits, because of their potassium content and the small amounts of the isotope potassium-40 found in occurring potassium; the banana equivalent dose of radiation is sometimes used in nuclear communication to compare radiation levels and exposures. The word banana is thought to be of West African origin from the Wolof word banaana, passed