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Economy of the Federated States of Micronesia

The economic activity of the Federated States of Micronesia consists of subsistence agriculture and fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting, except for high-grade phosphate; the potential for a tourist industry exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack of adequate facilities hinder development. Financial assistance from the US is the primary source of revenue, with the US pledged to spend $1.3 billion in the islands in 1986–2001. Geographical isolation and a poorly developed infrastructure are major impediments to long-term growth. Under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the United States provided FSM with around $2 billion in grants and services from 1986 to 2001; the Compact's financial terms are being renegotiated for an extension period. In 2001 the U. S. provided more than $84 million in Compact grants—an amount equivalent to over one-third of FSM's GDP—plus more than $20 million through other federal programs. Total official development assistance from all sources was more than $100 million in 2001, with nearly 90% of that total coming from the U.

S. The FSM public sector plays a central role in the economy as the administrator of the Compact money; the national and state-level governments employ over one-half of the country's workers and provide services accounting for more than 40%of GDP. Faced with the potential decrease or cessation of some of the assistance programs upon the Compact's financial provisions' expiry in 2001, the Government of the FSM in 1996 began to implement a program of economic reforms designed to reduce the role of the public sector in the economy. In addition, the advent of music startups domain names has provided a new stream of revenue to the government. The fishing industry is important. Foreign commercial fishing fleets pay over $20 million annually for the right to operate in FSM territorial waters; these licensing fees account for nearly 30% of domestic budgetary revenue. Additionally, exports of marine products reexports of fish to Japan, account for nearly 85% of export revenue; the tourist industry has been hampered by a lack of infrastructure.

Visitor attractions include scuba diving in each state, World War II battle sites, the ancient ruined city of Nan Madol on Pohnpei. Some 15,000 tourists visit the islands each year; the Asian Development Bank has identified tourism as one of FSM's highest potential growth industries. Farming is subsistence, its importance is declining; the principal crops are coconuts, betel nuts and sweet potatoes. Less than 10% of the formal labor force and less than 7% of export revenue come from the agriculture sector. Manufacturing activity is modest, consisting of a garment factory in Yap and production of buttons from trochus shells; the large inflow of official assistance to FSM allows it to run a substantial trade deficit and to have a much lighter tax burden than other states in the region. The government borrowed against future Compact disbursements in the early 1990s, yielding an external debt of $111 million in 1997. There are no patent laws in Micronesia. GDP: purchasing power parity - $277 million note: GDP is supplemented by grant aid, averaging $100 million annually GDP - real growth rate: 1% GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3 900 GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 47% industry: 10% services: 43% Population below poverty line: 22.3% Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate: 2% Labor force: 37,410 Labor force - by occupation: two-thirds are government employees Unemployment rate: 15% Budget: revenues: $157.5 million ($74 million less grants expenditures: $134 million.

Imports - commodities: food, manufactured goods and equipment, beverages Imports - partners: US, Japan Debt - external: $44 million Economic aid - recipient: $64 million. CIA World Factbook - Micronesia, Federated States of

De Natura Deorum

De Natura Deorum is a philosophical dialogue by Roman orator Cicero written in 45 BC. It is laid out in three books, each of which discusses the theology of different Roman and Greek philosophers; the dialogue uses a discussion of Epicurean and Academic Skeptic theories to examine fundamental questions of theology. De Natura Deorum belongs to the group of philosophical works which Cicero wrote in the two years preceding his death in 43 BC, he states near the beginning of Dē Nātūra Deōrum that he wrote them both as a relief from the political inactivity to which he was reduced by the supremacy of Julius Caesar, as a distraction from the grief caused by the death of his daughter Tullia. The dialogue is supposed to take place in Rome at the house of Gaius Aurelius Cotta. In the dialogue he appears as pontiff, but not as consul, he was made pontiff soon after 82 BC, consul in 75 BC, as Cicero, present at the dialogue as a listener, did not return from Athens till 77 BC, its fictional date can be set between the years 77 and 75 BC, when Cicero was about thirty years of age, Cotta about forty-eight.

The book contains various obscurities and inconsistencies which demonstrate that it was never revised by Cicero, nor published until after his death. For the content, Cicero borrowed from earlier Greek sources. However, the hasty arrangement by Cicero of authorities who themselves wrote independently of one another means that the work lacks cohesion, points raised by one speaker are sometimes not countered by subsequent speakers; the dialogue is on the whole narrated by Cicero himself, though he does not play an active part in the discussion. Gaius Velleius represents the Epicurean school, Quintus Lucilius Balbus argues for the Stoics, Gaius Cotta speaks for Cicero's own Academic skepticism; the first book of the dialogue contains Cicero's introduction, Velleius' case for the Epicurean theology and Cotta's criticism of Epicureanism. Book II focuses on Balbus' defense of Stoic theology. Book III lays out Cotta's criticism of Balbus' claims. Cicero's conclusions are ambivalent and muted, "a strategy of civilized openness".

In Book 1 Cicero visits the house of Cotta the Pontifex Maximus, where he finds Cotta with Velleius – a Senator and Epicurean, Balbus supporter of the Stoics. Cotta himself is an Academic Skeptic, he informs Cicero that they were discoursing on the nature of the gods. Velleius had been stating the sentiments of Epicurus upon the subject. Velleius is requested to go on with his arguments after recapitulating what he had said; the discourse of Velleius consists of three parts: a general attack on Platonist and Stoic cosmology. Velleius raises the difficulty of supposing the creation of the universe to have taken place at a particular period of time, questions the possible motive of a God in undertaking the work; the historical section, is full of inaccuracies and mis-statements, of which it is that Cicero himself was ignorant, since he has Cotta praise this account. The purpose however is for Velleius to show that the Epicurean idea of God as a happy, eternal being, possessed of reason, in human form, is the only tenable one, the other differing opinions is regarded as proof of their worthlessness.

In the remainder of the book, Cotta attacks the positions of Velleius with regard to the form of the gods, their exemption from creation and providence. In Book 2, Balbus gives the Stoics' position on the subject of the gods, he alludes to the magnificence of the world, the prevalence of belief, refers to the frequent appearance of the gods themselves in history. After referring to the practice of divination, Balbus proceeds to the "four causes" of Cleanthes as to how the idea of the gods is implanted in the minds of people: a pre-knowledge of future events. Balbus further contends that the world, or universe itself, its parts, are possessed of reason and wisdom, he discusses the creation of the world, the providence of the gods, denies "that a world, so beautifully adorned, could be formed by chance, or by a fortuitous concourse of atoms." The problem of how to account for the presence of misery and disaster in a world providentially governed is only hurriedly touched upon at the end of the book.

In book 3 Cotta refutes the doctrines of Balbus. A large portion of this book more than one third, has been lost. Cotta represents the appearances of gods as idle tales. There follows a gap following which Cotta attacks the four causes of Cleanthes. Cotta refutes the Stoic ideas on reason attributed to its parts. Ten chapters are devoted to a disproportionately lengthy discussion of mythology, with examples multiplied to an inordinate extent. There follows another major gap in the text, at the end of which Cotta is seen attacking the doctrine of providential care for humans. Cicero states "The conversation ended here, we parted. Velleius judged that the arguments of Cotta were the truest, but those of Balbus seemed to me to have the greater probability." The Christian writers Tertullian, Minucius Felix and Augustine were acquainted with De Natura Deorum. This work, alongside De Officiis and De Divinatione, was influential on the philosophes of the 18th century. David Hume was familiar with the work and used it to style his own Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion.

Voltaire d

Media scrum

A media scrum is an impromptu press conference held outside an event such as a legislative session or meeting. Scrums play a central role in Canadian politics and occur in the United Kingdom and New Zealand; the same term is now used for similar gatherings of journalists in the United States. A scrum in rugby is a procedure to restart the game. From the outside, it may seem to involve players from both teams clustering around the ball competing for possession. Analogously, in a media scrum reporters cluster around a public figure competing for his or her attention. In Canada, the scrum is a daily ritual in the hallway outside the House of Commons. Members of the Parliamentary Press Gallery surround politicians; the disorganization and pressure of the scrum makes it notorious for drawing remarks that are unplanned or controversial. Liberal MP Carolyn Parrish remarked, "damn Americans, I hate those bastards" during a scrum in the run-up to the Iraq War; because of these concerns, politicians have sometimes tried to avoid the scrum in favour of more formal venues.

Canadian Alliance leader Stockwell Day declined instead holding a daily press conference. Brian Mulroney restricted scrums during his time as Prime Minister of Canada by positioning himself on the stairway up to his office; this allowed him to tower over the media on the steps below him. The media so resented this practice that when Jean Chrétien held a "staircase scrum" soon after assuming office, their reaction was so negative that he promised never to do it again. By contrast, although Pierre Trudeau's relationship with the press was rocky, he was famously quick-witted and enjoyed deflecting — or returning — barbs from reporters. Many of his famous quotations, including "there's no place for the state in the bedrooms of the nation" and "just watch me", were made during scrums