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Economy of the United States Virgin Islands

The economy of the United States Virgin Islands is dependent upon tourism and other services, accounting for nearly 60% of the Virgin Island's GDP and about half of total civilian employment. Close to two million tourists per year visit the islands; the government is the single largest employer. The agriculture sector is small, with most food being imported; the manufacturing sector consists of rum distilling, electronics and watch assembly. Rum production is significant. Shipments during a six-month period of fiscal year 2016 totaled 8,136.6 million proof gallons. In mid February 2017, the USVI was facing a financial crisis due to a high debt level of $2 billion and a structural budget deficit of $110 million; the government introduced a "sin tax" bill that would introduce or increase taxes on rum, tobacco products and sugary drinks, as well as internet purchases and timeshare unit owners. Governor Kenneth Mapp issued an order that restricted the use of government-owned vehicles, put a freeze on non-essential hiring, suspended wage negotiations, froze non-essential travel paid for by the GVI.

He suspended negotiated wage increases, including those ordered by the U. S. Appeals Court; this US territory uses its fiscal year is 1 October - 30 September. During the slave days of what was the Danish West Indies, the islands cultivated cash crops to earn money. On July 3, 1848, after a rebellion the previous day, the governor Peter von Scholten granted the slaves emancipation, against the wishes of Danish Crown. Although some plantation owners refused to accept the abolition, some 5,000 blacks were freed while another 17,000 remained enslaved. In that era, slaves labored on sugar plantations. Other crops included indigo. Over the following years, strict labor laws were implemented several times, leading planters to abandon their estates, causing a significant drop in population and the overall economy. In the late 1800, numerous natural disasters added to worsen the situation. After the US purchased the islands from Denmark in 1917, the situation began to improve, though slowly. By 1970, the economy had been boosted due to manufacturing.

Tourism started to increase more in the 1990s. New hotels and shops began to be built; the HOVENSA oil refinery stopped exporting petroleum products in 2014. In the final year of full refinery operations, the value of exported petroleum products was $12.7 billion. The islands receive cover-over revenues, which generated $100 million for the Virgin Islands in 2008. Federal excise taxes collected on rum and other distilled spirits are rebated, or covered over, to the government of the Virgin Islands. In 2013, federal programs and grants of $241.4 million contributed 19.7% of the territory’s total revenues. Major banks have branches on St. John and St. Croix; these include Citibank, Banco Popular de Puerto Rico, The Bank of Nova Scotia, First Bank and Virgin Islands Community Bank. Major airlines travel to and from St. Croix; the tourism industry is the main industry, generating a substantial portion of the GDP and much of the islands' employment. Nearly 3 million tourists per year visit, most arriving on cruise ships.

Some 93 percent of tourists are from other areas of the US. An industry publication indicates. According to this report, Travel & Tourism generated 5,000 jobs directly in 2014, being 10.8% of total employment and 11.3 percent of the GDP. The total contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP was 12,000 jobs in 2014; these figures on employment are lower than the estimated by some other agencies' for the tourism industry based on their own research. For example, Euromonitor indicates that over 50 percent of the workforce is employed in some tourism-related work; the latest data from the islands' Bureau of Economic Research indicates that there were 37,613 non-agricultural wage and salary jobs in the islands. This report states that hospitality sector" employed an average of 7,333 people. However, the retail trade sector, which serves many tourists, averaged another 5,913 jobs. Other categories which include some tourism jobs include Arts and Entertainment, Accommodation & Food, Food Services & Drink.

When those are totaled, it is clear that a large percentage of the 37,613 non-farm workers are employed in dealing with tourists. According to the CIA's research, the service sector - tourism and other services - were the primary economic activities, accounting for most the Virgin Island's GDP and about 80 percent of the employment in 2003; the primary industries in 2013 were tourism, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction and electronics. The local workforce totaled 50,580; the last watch assembly facilities, closed in 2015. The report from the VI Bureau of Economic Research calculates that the labor force totaled 48,278 in the first half of 2016, with 42,752 persons classified as civilians; the unemp

Lachesis muta

Common names: Southern American bushmaster, Atlantic bushmasterLachesis muta is a venomous pit viper species found in South America. Two subspecies are recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here. Adults grow to an average of 2 to 2.5 m. The largest recorded specimen was 3.65 m long, making this the largest of all vipers and the longest venomous snake in the western hemisphere. Lachesis muta is the third longest venomous snake in the world. Weight in this species is estimated at an average of 3 to 5 kg, somewhat less than the heaviest rattlesnakes or Bitis vipers, such as gaboon viper, rhinoceros vipers; the head is distinct from the narrow neck. The snout is broadly rounded. There is no canthus. A pair of small internasals is separated by small scales; the supraoculars are narrow. Other parts of the crown are covered with small scales. Laterally, the second supralabial forms the anterior border of the loreal pit, while the third is large; the eye is separated from the supralabials by 4-5 rows of small scales.

The body is cylindrical and moderately stout. Midbody there are 31-37 nonoblique rows of dorsal scales which are keeled with bulbous tubercles and feebly imbricate. There are 200-230 ventral scales; the tail is short with 32-50 paired subcaudals, followed by 13-17 rows of small spines and a terminal spine. Like most New World pit vipers, Lachesis muta exhibits defensive tail vibration behavior in response to potential predatory threatsThe color pattern consists of a yellowish, reddish or grey-brown ground color, overlaid with a series of dark brown or black dorsal blotches that form lateral inverted triangles of the same color; the lateral pattern may be or indistinctly defined pale at the center. Known as the mapepire zanana or mapepire grande in Trinidad, surucucú in the Amazon Basin, shushúpe in Peru, pucarara in northern Bolivia. In Venezuela the species is known as cuaima piña. In Colombia it is known as verrugosa or verrugoso due to the warty look of its scales, in Suriname as makasneki and makkaslang.

It is known as the Atlantic bushmaster. Lachesis is one of the three Fates in Greek mythology and was supposed to assign to man his term of life—something this species is capable of doing; the species is similar in appearance to rattlesnakes and vibrates its tail vigorously when alarmed, but has no rattle and was therefore called mutus, Latin for dumb or mute. However, when in the undergrowth, the tail makes quite a loud rustling noise. Found in South America in the equatorial forests east of the Andes: Colombia, eastern Ecuador, northern Bolivia and southern Venezuela, the island of Trinidad in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Costa Rica Surinam, French Guiana and much of Brazil; the type locality is "Surinami". It occurs in secondary forests. In Trinidad it tends to prefer mountainous regions; some reports suggest that this species produces a large amount of venom, weak compared to some other vipers. Others, suggest that such conclusions are not accurate; these animals are badly affected by stress and live long in captivity.

This makes it difficult to obtain good condition for study purposes. For example, Bolaños observed that venom yield from his specimens fell from 233 mg to 64 mg while they remained in his care; as the stress of being milked has this effect on venom yield, it is reasoned that it may affect venom toxicity. This may explain the disparity described by Hardy and Haad between the low laboratory toxicity of the venom and the high mortality rate of bite victims. Brown gives the following LD50 values for mice: 1.5 mg/kg IV, 1.6–6.2 mg/kg IP, 6.0 mg/kg SC. He notes a venom yield of 200–411 mg. Bushmasters prey on rats and mice. Two additional subspecies, L. m. melanocephala and L. m. stenophrys, had earlier been recognized. However, both were elevated to species level by Zamudio and Green in 1997. List of crotaline species and subspecies Crotalinae by common name Crotalinae by taxonomic synonyms Snakebite Lachesis muta at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 12 December 2007. Ripa Ecologica. Accessed 26 October 2006

Kerry-Anne Tomlinson

Kerry-Anne Tomlinson is a New Zealand cricketer. Tomlinson lives in Hamilton, she has played in four women's One Day International matches for the Netherlands women's national cricket team. Batting in the middle order, she played all her matches in the 2011 Women's Cricket World Cup Qualifier. In November 2016, Tomlinson became the first woman to be awarded the New Zealand Māori Cricket Scholarship; the scholarship which recognises Māori talent was awarded to Tomlinson for launching Northern Māori Women, the first women's Māori domestic cricket team in New Zealand's history. Tomlinson is of Ngāti Porou/Te Whānau-ā-Apanui descent. Kerry-Anne Tomlinson at ESPNcricinfo