Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most applied to industrial design, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale; such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who sell them to end users and consumers. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product; the manufacturing process begins with the product design, materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors. In its earliest form, manufacturing was carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture. Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.
Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm. Manufacturing Engineering Agile manufacturing American system of manufacturing British factory system of manufacturing Craft or guild system Fabrication Flexible manufacturing Just-in-time manufacturing Lean manufacturing Mass customization – 3D printing, design-your-own web sites for sneakers, fast fashion Mass production Ownership Packaging and labeling Prefabrication Putting-out system Rapid manufacturing Reconfigurable manufacturing system Soviet collectivism in manufacturing History of numerical control Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant environmental costs; the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it.
Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, eliminating harmful chemicals; the negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing; these are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are lower than in "developed-world" economies.
Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth. In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development, they have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.
S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. Further, while U. S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U. S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U. S. manuf
The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s. The main objectives of the Progressive movement were eliminating problems caused by industrialization, urbanization and political corruption; the movement targeted political machines and their bosses. By taking down these corrupt representatives in office, a further means of direct democracy would be established, they sought regulation of monopolies and corporations through antitrust laws, which were seen as a way to promote equal competition for the advantage of legitimate competitors. Many progressives supported prohibition of alcoholic beverages, ostensibly to destroy the political power of local bosses based in saloons, but others out of a religious motivation. At the same time, women's suffrage was promoted to bring a "purer" female vote into the arena. A third theme was building an Efficiency Movement in every sector that could identify old ways that needed modernizing, bring to bear scientific and engineering solutions.
The middle class was in charge for helping reform the Progressive Era, they got stuck with all of the burdens of this reformation. In Michael McGerr's book A Fierce Discontent, Jane Addams stated that she believed in the necessity of "association" of stepping across the social boundaries of industrial America. Many activists joined efforts to reform local government, public education, finance, industry, railroads and many other areas. Progressives transformed and made "scientific" the social sciences history and political science. In academic fields the day of the amateur author gave way to the research professor who published in the new scholarly journals and presses; the national political leaders included Republicans Theodore Roosevelt, Robert M. La Follette Sr. and Charles Evans Hughes and Democrats William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow Wilson and Al Smith. Leaders of the movement existed far from presidential politics: Jane Addams, Grace Abbott, Edith Abbott and Sophonisba Breckinridge were among the most influential non-governmental Progressive Era reformers.
The movement operated chiefly at local level, but it expanded to state and national levels. Progressives drew support from the middle class, supporters included many lawyers, physicians and business people; some Progressives supported scientific methods as applied to economics, industry, medicine, theology and the family. They followed advances underway at the time in Western Europe and adopted numerous policies, such as a major transformation of the banking system by creating the Federal Reserve System in 1913 and the arrival of cooperative banking in the US with the founding of the first credit union in 1908. Reformers felt that old-fashioned ways meant waste and inefficiency, eagerly sought out the "one best system". Disturbed by the waste, stubbornness and injustices of the Gilded Age, the Progressives were committed to changing and reforming every aspect of the state and economy. Significant changes enacted at the national levels included the imposition of an income tax with the Sixteenth Amendment, direct election of Senators with the Seventeenth Amendment, Prohibition with the Eighteenth Amendment, election reforms to stop corruption and fraud, women's suffrage through the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.
S. Constitution. A main objective of the Progressive Era movement was to eliminate corruption within the government, they made it a point to focus on family and many other important aspects that still are enforced today. The most important political leaders during this time were Theodore Roosevelt, Robert M. La Follette Sr. Charles Evans Hughes, Herbert Hoover; some democratic leaders included William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow Wilson, Al Smith. This movement targeted the regulations of huge corporations; this was done through antitrust laws to promote equal competition amongst every business. This was done through the Sherman Act of 1890, the Clayton Act of 1914, the Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914. A hallmark group of the Progressive Era, the middle class became the driving force behind much of the thought and reform that took place in this time. With an increasing disdain for the upper class and aristocracy of the time, the middle class is characterized by their rejection of the individualistic philosophy of the upper ten.
They had a growing interest in the communication and role between classes, those of which are referred to as the upper class, working class and themselves, sought to define these terms. Along these lines, the founder off Hull-House, Jane Addams, coined the term "association" as a counter to Individualism, with association referring to the search for a relationship between the classes. Additionally, the middle class began to move away from prior Victorian era domestic values. Divorce rates increased as women preferred to seek freedom from the home. Victorianism was pushed aside in favor of the rise of the Progressives. Magazines experienced a boost in popularity in 1900, with some attaining circulations in the hundreds of thousands of subscribers. In the beginning of the age of Mass media the rapid expansion of national advertising led to the cover price of popular magazines falling to about 10 cents, lessening the financial barrier to consuming them. Another factor contributing to the dramatic upswing in magazine circulation was the prominent cover
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
North American Industry Classification System
The North American Industry Classification System or NAICS is an classification of business establishments by type of economic activity. It is used by government and business in Canada and the United States of America, it has replaced the older Standard Industrial Classification system, except in some government agencies, such as the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission. An establishment is a single physical location, though administratively distinct operations at a single location may be treated as distinct establishments; each establishment is classified to an industry according to the primary business activity taking place there. NAICS does not offer guidance on the classification of enterprises which are composed of multiple establishments; the NAICS numbering system employs six-digit code at the most detailed industry level. The first five digits are the same in all three countries; the first two digits designate the largest business sector, the third digit designates the subsector, the fourth digit designates the industry group, the fifth digit designates the NAICS industries, the sixth digit designates the national industries.
NAICS is a collaborative effort by Mexico's Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, Statistics Canada, the United States Office of Management and Budget, through its Economic Classification Policy Committee, staffed by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Census Bureau. The system is designed to be compatible with the United Nations Statistical Office's International Standard Industrial Classification system. NAICS versions are released every five years. With the first version, released in 1997, NAICS offered enhanced coverage of the service sector, relative to SIC; the 2002 revision accommodated significant changes in the Information Sector. The 2012 revision reduced the number of industries and modified six sectors. International Standard Industrial Classification Standard Industrial Classification North American Product Classification System Global Industry Classification Standard Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community Thomson Reuters Business Classification North American Industry Classification System: Executive Office of the President Office of Management and Budget.
The Confederation Period was the era of United States history in the 1780s after the American Revolution and prior to the ratification of the United States Constitution. In 1781, the United States ratified the Articles of Confederation and prevailed in the Battle of Yorktown, the last major land battle between British and American forces in the American Revolutionary War. American independence was confirmed with the 1783 signing of the Treaty of Paris; the fledgling United States faced several challenges, many of which stemmed from the lack of a strong national government and unified political culture. The period ended in 1789 following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which established a new, more powerful, national government; the Articles of Confederation established a loose confederation of states with a weak federal government. An assembly of delegates acted on behalf of the states; this unicameral body referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, had little authority, could not accomplish anything independent of the states.
It had no chief executive, no court system. Congress lacked the power to levy taxes, regulate foreign or interstate commerce, or negotiate with foreign powers; the weakness of Congress proved self-reinforcing, as the leading political figures of the day served in state governments or foreign posts. The failure of the national government to handle the challenges facing the United States led to calls for reform and frequent talk of secession; the Treaty of Paris left the United States with a vast territory spanning from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River. Settlement of the trans-Appalachian territories proved difficult, in part due to the resistance of Native Americans and the neighboring foreign powers of Great Britain and Spain; the British refused to evacuate American territory, while the Spanish used their control of the Mississippi River to stymie Western settlement. In 1787, Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance, which set an important precedent by establishing the first organized territory under the control of the national government.
After Congressional efforts to amend the Articles failed, numerous national leaders met in Philadelphia in 1787 to establish a new constitution. The new constitution was ratified in 1788, the new Federal government of the United States began meeting in 1789, marking the end of the Critical Period; some historians believe that the 1780s were a bleak, terrible time for Americans, while others have argued that the period was stable and prosperous. The American Revolutionary War broke out against British rule in April 1775 with the Battles of Lexington and Concord; the Second Continental Congress met in May 1775, established an army funded by Congress and under the leadership of George Washington, a Virginian who had fought in the French and Indian War. On July 4, 1776, as the war continued, Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. At the same time that Congress declared independence, it created a committee to craft a constitution for the new nation. Though some in Congress hoped for a strong centralized state, most Americans wanted legislative power to rest with the states and saw the central government as a mere wartime necessity.
The resulting constitution, which came to be known as the Articles of Confederation, provided for a weak national government with little power to coerce the state governments. The first article of the new constitution established a name for the new confederacy – the United States of America; the first draft of the Articles of Confederation, written by John Dickinson, was presented to Congress on July 12, 1776, but Congress did not send the proposed constitution to the states until November 1777. Three major constitutional issues divided Congress: state borders, including claims to lands west of the Appalachian Mountains, state representation in the new Congress, whether tax levies on states should take slaves into account. Congress decided that each state would have one vote in Congress and that slaves would not affect state levies. By 1780, as the war continued, every state but Maryland had ratified the Articles; the success of Britain's Southern strategy, along with pressure from America's French allies, convinced Virginia to cede its claims north of the Ohio River, Maryland ratified the Articles in January 1781.
The new constitution took effect in March 1781 and the Congress of the Confederation technically replaced the Second Continental Congress as the national government, but in practice the structure and personnel of the new Congress was quite similar to that of the old Congress. After the American victory at the Battle of Yorktown in September 1781 and the collapse of British Prime Minister North's ministry in March 1782, both sides sought a peace agreement; the American Revolutionary War ended with the signing of the 1783 Treaty of Paris. The treaty granted the United States independence, as well as control of a vast region south of the Great Lakes and extending from the Appalachian Mountains west to the Mississippi River. Although the British Parliament had attached this trans-Appalachian region to Quebec in 1774 as part of the Quebec Act, several states had land claims in region based on royal charters and proclamations that defined their boundaries as stretching "from sea to sea."Many in the United States hoped the treaty would provide for the acquisition of Florida, but that territory was restored to Spain, which had joined the U.
S. and France in the war against Britain. Some Americans were disappointed by that the treaty did not grant the United States control of either present-day Sou
United States territorial acquisitions
This is a list of United States territorial acquisitions and conquests, beginning with American independence. Note that this list concerns land the United States of America acquired from other nation-states. Early American expansion was tied to a national concept of manifest destiny; the 1783 Treaty of Paris with Great Britain defined the original borders of the United States. It stretched from the Eastern Seaboard to the Mississippi River in the west. There were ambiguities in the treaty regarding the exact border with Canada to the north that led to disputes that were resolved by the Webster–Ashburton Treaty in 1842. Beginning in the late 18th century, the new nation organized areas west of the Original thirteen states into several United States territories, setting a template for future expansion; the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, was negotiated with Napoleon during Thomas Jefferson's presidency. The territory was acquired from France for $15 million. A small portion of this land was ceded to Britain in 1818 in exchange for the Red River Basin.
More of this land was ceded to Spain in 1819 with the Florida Purchase, but was reacquired through the Texas Annexation and Mexican Cession. West Florida was declared to be a U. S. possession in 1810 by President James Madison after the territory had declared its independence from Spain. Madison ordered the U. S. Army to take control. Six weeks the army entered and occupied the capital, St. Francisville, putting an end to the republic after 74 days of independence. Spain did not relinquish its claim to sovereignty until ratification of the Adams–Onís Treaty. General Andrew Jackson accepted the delivery of West Florida from its Spanish governor on July 17, 1821; the parts of Rupert's Land and the Red River Colony south of the 49th parallel in the basin of the Red River of the North were acquired in 1818 from Britain under the Anglo-American Convention of 1818. The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 with Spain resulted in Spain's cession of East Florida and the Sabine Free State and Spain's surrender of any claims to the Oregon Country.
Article III of the treaty, when properly surveyed, resulted in the acquisition of a small part of central Colorado. Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 with Britain split the disputed territory in Maine and New Brunswick and finalized the border with Canada, including the disputed Indian Stream territory. In 1850 Britain ceded to the U. S. less than one acre of underwater rock in Lake Erie near Buffalo for a lighthouse. Texas Annexation of 1845: The independent Republic of Texas long sought to join the U. S. despite Mexican claims and the warning by Mexican leader Antonio López de Santa Anna that this would be "equivalent to a declaration of war against the Mexican Republic." Congress approved the annexation of Texas on February 28, 1845. On December 29, 1845, Texas became the 28th state. Texas had claimed New Mexico east of the Rio Grande but had only made one unsuccessful attempt to occupy it. S. Army in August 1846 and administered separately from Texas. Mexico acknowledged the loss of territory in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848.
Oregon Country, the territory of North America west of the Rockies to the Pacific, was jointly controlled by the U. S. and Britain following the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 until June 15, 1846 when the Oregon Treaty divided the territory at the 49th parallel. The San Juan Islands were claimed and jointly occupied by the U. S. and the U. K. from 1846–72 due to ambiguities in the treaty. Arbitration led to the sole U. S. possession of the San Juan Islands since 1872. Mexican Cession lands were captured in the Mexican–American War in 1846–48, ceded by Mexico in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, where Mexico agreed to the present Mexico–United States border except for the Gadsden Purchase; the United States paid $15 million and agreed to pay claims made by American citizens against Mexico which amounted to more than $3 million. In the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, the United States purchased a strip of land along the Mexico–United States border for $10 million, now in New Mexico and Arizona; the territory was bought as Americans were passing through the land west to California.
After the American Mexican War, over the dispute of border claims, American bought the land to prevent future conflict. Few historians would argue. Alaska Purchase from the Russian Empire for $7.2 million on March 30, 1867, as a vital refueling station for ships trading with Asia. The land went through several administrative changes before becoming an organized territory on May 11, 1912, the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The Kingdom of Hawaii was linked by missionary work and trade to the U. S. by the 1880s. In 1893 business leaders sought annexation. President Grover Cleveland disapproved, so Hawaii set up an independent republic, the Republic of Hawaii. Southern Democrats in Congress opposed a non-white addition. President William McKinley, a Republican, secured a Congressional resolution in 1898, the small republic joined the U. S. All its citizens became full U. S. citizens. One factor was the need for advanced naval bases to fend off Japanese ambitions; the Hawaiian Islands became an incorporated territory of the U.
S. in 1900. Following 94% voter approval of the Admission of Hawaii Act, on August 21, 1959 t