The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association; the World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group. The World Bank's most recent stated goal is the reduction of poverty; as of November 2018, the largest recipients of world bank loans were India and China, through loans from IBRD. The World Bank is different from the World Bank Group, an extended family of five international organizations: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development International Development Association International Finance Corporation Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes The World Bank was created at the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference along with the International Monetary Fund; the president of the World Bank is, traditionally, an American. The World Bank and the IMF are both based in Washington, D.
C. and work with each other. Although many countries were represented at the Bretton Woods Conference, the United States and United Kingdom were the most powerful in attendance and dominated the negotiations; the intention behind the founding of the World Bank was to provide temporary loans to low-income countries which were unable to obtain loans commercially. The Bank may make loans and demand policy reforms from recipients. Before 1974, the reconstruction and development loans provided by the World Bank were small; the Bank's staff were aware of the need to instill confidence in the bank. Fiscal conservatism ruled, loan applications had to meet strict criteria; the first country to receive a World Bank loan was France. The Bank's president at the time, John McCloy, chose France over two other applicants and Chile; the loan was for US$250 million, half the amount requested, it came with strict conditions. France had to agree to produce a balanced budget and give priority of debt repayment to the World Bank over other governments.
World Bank staff monitored the use of the funds to ensure that the French government met the conditions. In addition, before the loan was approved, the United States State Department told the French government that its members associated with the Communist Party would first have to be removed; the French government complied and removed the Communist coalition government - the so-called tripartite. Within hours, the loan to France was approved; when the Marshall Plan went into effect in 1947, many European countries began receiving aid from other sources. Faced with this competition, the World Bank shifted its focus to non-European countries; until 1968, its loans were earmarked for the construction of infrastructure works, such as seaports, highway systems, power plants, that would generate enough income to enable a borrower country to repay the loan. In 1960, the International Development Association was formed, providing soft loans to developing countries. From 1974 to 1980 the bank concentrated on meeting the basic needs of people in the developing world.
The size and number of loans to borrowers was increased as loan targets expanded from infrastructure into social services and other sectors. These changes can be attributed to Robert McNamara, appointed to the presidency in 1968 by Lyndon B. Johnson. McNamara implored bank treasurer Eugene Rotberg to seek out new sources of capital outside of the northern banks, the primary sources of funding. Rotberg used the global bond market to increase the capital available to the bank. One consequence of the period of poverty alleviation lending was the rapid rise of third world debt. From 1976 to 1980 developing world debt rose at an average annual rate of 20%. In 1980 the World Bank Administrative Tribunal was established to decide on disputes between the World Bank Group and its staff where allegation of non-observance of contracts of employment or terms of appointment had not been honored. In 1980 McNamara was succeeded by Alden W. Clausen. Clausen crafted a different mission emphasis, his 1982 decision to replace the bank's Chief Economist, Hollis B.
Chenery, with Anne Krueger was an example of this new focus. Krueger was known for her criticism of development funding and for describing Third World governments as "rent-seeking states". During the 1980s the bank emphasized lending to service Third-World debt, structural adjustment policies designed to streamline the economies of developing nations. UNICEF reported in the late 1980s that the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank had been responsible for "reduced health and educational levels for tens of millions of children in Asia, Latin America, Africa". Beginning in 1989, in response to harsh criticism from many groups, the bank began including environmental groups and NGOs in its loans to mitigate the past effects of its development policies that had prompted the criticism, it formed an implementing agency, in accordance with the Montreal Protocols, to stop ozone-depletion damage to the Earth's atmosphere by phasing out the use of 95% of ozone-depleting chemicals, with a target date of 2015.
Since in accordance with its so-called "Six Strategic Themes", the bank has put various additional policies into effect to preserve the environment while promoting development. For example, in 1991 the bank announced that to protect against deforestation in the Amazon, it would not finance any commercial logging or infrastructure projects that harm the en
Djibouti–United States relations
Djibouti – United States relations are bilateral relations between Djibouti and the United States. In April 1977, the United States established a consulate general in Djibouti and, upon independence in June 1977, raised the status of its mission to an embassy; the first U. S. ambassador to the Republic of Djibouti arrived in October 1980. Over the past decade, the United States has been a principal provider of humanitarian assistance for famine relief and has sponsored health care, good governance and security assistance programs. Djibouti has allowed the U. S. military, as well as other nations' militaries, access to its airport facilities. The Djiboutian Government has been supportive of U. S. and Western interests during the Gulf crisis of 1990-91 and after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. In 2002, Djibouti agreed to host a U. S. military presence at Camp Lemonnier, a former French Foreign Legion base outside the capital that now houses four thousand personnel. U. S. service members provide humanitarian support and development as well as security and counterterrorism assistance to people and governments of the Horn of Africa and Yemen.
As a victim of past international terrorist attacks, President Guelleh continues to take a proactive position against terrorism. "The fact that we welcome the U. S. forces in our country show our support for international peace and for peace in our region as well," Said Guelleh. "We do that all for peace in the world and for peace in Africa." In 2014, the U. S. reached a long term agreement with the government of Djibouti to continue utilizing Camp Lemonnier. The U. S. military uses airstrips in more remote parts of the country for drone operations. Outside of the base agreement, President Barack Obama pledged to increase financial aid to Djibouti, including helping to expand skills training and foreign aid. Principal U. S. officials include: Ambassador – Larry André Jr. Foreign relations of the United States Foreign relations of Djibouti History of Djibouti - U. S. relations Embassy of U. S. A. - Djibouti This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm
Ecuador–Japan relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Ecuador and Japan. Both nations are members of the Forum of East Asia–Latin America Cooperation. In the early part of the twentieth century, unlike other South American nations few Japanese people immigrated to Ecuador though the Japanese government at the time did promote it; the first official contact between Ecuador and Japan took place on 26 August 1918 in Washington, D. C. when both nations signed a Treaty of Friendship and Navigation which established diplomatic relations between both nations. That same year, Ecuador opened a consulate in Yokohama. In 1934, Japan opened a diplomatic legation in Ecuador. A few years Ecuador appointed author Jorge Carrera Andrade as consul to Japan. During World War II, Ecuador remained neutral, after the Attack on Pearl Harbor Ecuador changed its position to reflect that of other Latin American nations and severed diplomatic relations with the Axis powers in January 1942. Furthermore, following other Latin American countries lead, Ecuador deported several Japanese migrants and Ecuadorians of Japanese descent to the United States where they were placed in internment camps.
Diplomatic relations between Ecuador and Japan were re-established in 1954. In 1961, both nations upgraded their resident diplomatic legations to embassies. In 1979, the Japanese Association in Quito and the Japanese International School were established in Ecuador. In 1990, the Japan International Cooperation Agency established a presence in Ecuador. Since the re-establishment of diplomatic relations between both nations, there have been several high-level visits between leaders of both nations. In September 2018, Ecuadorian President Lenín Moreno paid an official visit to Japan and met with Emperor Akihito and Prime Minister Shinzō Abe; the visit comes after both nations have signed several bilateral agreements and to celebrate 100 years of diplomatic relations between both nations. Presidential visits from Ecuador to Japan President Gustavo Noboa President Rafael Correa President Lenín Moreno High-level visits from Japan to Ecuador Foreign Vice-Minister Shigeo Uetake Foreign Vice-Minister Katsuhito Asano Foreign Vice-Minister Ryuji Yamane Foreign Minister Tarō Kōno Both nations have signed a few bilateral agreements, such as a Treaty of Friendship and Navigation.
In 2017, trade between Ecuador to Japan totaled $800 million USD. Ecuador's main exports to Japan include: cacao, bananas and minerals. Japan's main exports to Ecuador include: parts. Between 2011–2015 Japan invested over $1.3 million USD in Ecuador. Ecuador has an embassy in Tokyo. Japan has an embassy in Quito
Luis Gallegos Chiriboga, is an Ecuadorian diplomat who served as the Permanent Representative of Ecuador to the United Nations in Geneva between November 2011 and June 2014 and since 2018. He was a member of the UN Committee against Torture, Chairman of the Global UN Partnership for Inclusive Information and Communication Technologies, President of the International Rehabilitation Foundation. In addition, Gallegos was a board member for the Special Olympics. Gallegos was succeed in October the same year by María Fernanda Espinosa. Prior to his appointment to the United Nations, Gallegos served as Ecuador's Ambassador to the United States from 2005 to 2011. In April 2011, after the Ecuadorian government declared the U. S. Ambassador in Quito as a persona non grata, the U. S. State Department expelled Gallegos in retaliation, his post remained vacant until January 2012 with the appointment of Nathalie Cely Suárez as the new ambassador to the United States. Over the course of his career, Gallegos served as Ecuador's Head of Mission to Bulgaria from 1985 to 1989.
Gallegos earned his bachelor's degree in Social and Political Science, a master of arts degree in political science from Tufts University's Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. In addition, he holds a Doctor of Law degree from the Central University of Ecuador, he speaks English and Spanish, has two children with his wife Fabiola Jaramillo Almeida de Gallegos
Politics of Ecuador
The politics of Ecuador are multi-party. The central government polity is a four-yearly elected presidential, unicameral representative democracy; the President of Ecuador is head of state and head of government on a multi-party system, leading a cabinet with further executive power. Legislative power is not limited to the National Assembly as it may to a lesser degree be exercised by the executive which consists of the President convening an appointed executive cabinet. Subsequent acts of the National Assembly are supreme over Executive Orders where sufficient votes have been cast by the legislators; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. There is constitutional republic The constitution of Ecuador provides for a four-year term of office for the President, Vice President, members of the National Assembly with concurrent elections. Presidents and legislators may be re-elected immediately. Citizens must be at least 16 years of age to vote: suffrage is universal and compulsory for literate persons aged 18 to 65 and optional for 16 and 17 years of age and other eligible voters.
The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Ecuador as "hybrid regime" in 2016. Ecuador's political parties have been small, loose organizations that depended more on populist charismatic, leaders to retain support than on programs or ideology. Frequent internal splits have produced extreme factionalism. However, a pattern has emerged in which administrations from the center-left alternate with those from the center-right. Although Ecuador's political elite is factionalized along regional and personal lines, a strong desire for consensus on major issues leads to compromise. Opposition forces in Congress are loosely organized, but they unite to block the administration's initiatives and to remove cabinet ministers. Constitutional changes enacted by a specially elected National Constitutional Assembly in 1998 took effect on August 10, 1998; the new constitution strengthens the executive branch by eliminating mid-term congressional elections and by circumscribing Congress' power to challenge cabinet ministers.
Party discipline is traditionally weak, many deputies switch allegiance during each Congress. However, after the new Constitution took effect, the Congress passed a Code of Ethics which imposes penalties on members who defy their party leadership on key votes. Beginning with the 1996 election, the more indigenous, less Spanish-rooted, ethnic groups abandoned their traditional policy of shunning the official political system and participated actively; the indigenous population has established itself as a significant force in Ecuadorian politics, as shown by the selection of indigenous representative Nina Pacari, who led the indigenous political party, Pachakutik, as second vice president of the 1998 Congress. A presidential election was held on October 15 and November 26, 2006. Rafael Correa defeated second and final round. Correa won with 56.8% of the vote. There was an attempted coup against President Rafael Correa in 2010. Correa became the first president in decades to complete multiple full terms.
He enjoyed a long period of sustained high approval ratings and stability before plummeting oil prices, proposed tax increases, accusations of authoritarian behavior sparked protests and eroded his popularity in the final two years of his presidency. New justices of the Supreme Court are elected by the sitting members of the court. A bare majority of Congress, acting in a special session called by former President Lucio Gutiérrez in December 2004, ousted 27 of the 31 justices and replaced them with new members chosen by Congress, notwithstanding the lack of any provisions permitting impeachment of Supreme Court justices by Congress and the specific provisions giving the Court the power to select new members. Earlier, in November 2004, Congress replaced the majority of judges on the country's Electoral Court and Constitutional Court by a similar process. After the adoption of a new Constitution in 2008, the judicial branch of the country was renewed. Now it has a cooperative leadership having a judicial and an administrative head.
First you have the National Court of Justice. They are elected by the Judiciary Council based on a merits contest held by that office, they are the final stage of any judicial process serving as a Court of Cassation and create binding precedent based on Triple Reiterative Rulings from the Chambers of the Court. The President of the Court is elected amongst the members of the Court for a Period of 3 years where he will represent the Judicial Branch before the State; the current president of the National Court of Justice is Dr. Carlos Ruiz. Second, you have the administrative branch of the Judicial Power, which consists of The Judiciary Council; the Council is formed by 9 Vocals who are elected by the Branch of Transparency and Social Control, formed by the Control Authorities of the State. The Vocals are elected by a merits contest and it shall be formed by six experts in law and 3 experts in management and other related areas. However, after the National Referendum that took place on May 5, 2011, the proposition impulsed by the government of Mr. Correa won and now the Judiciary Council change its formation making a constitutional amendment.
A Tri-Party Commission is serving as a Transitional Council with delegates from the Legislative and Transparency Branch, to reform the broken judicial system of the Country. It is wise to say that there exist a Constitutional Court; however it does not exercise legal revision, but rather constitutional control of situations where constitutional ri
Embassy of Ecuador, London
The Embassy of Ecuador in London is the diplomatic mission of Ecuador in the United Kingdom. It is headed by the ambassador of Ecuador to the United Kingdom, it is located in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. It is in an apartment building which houses the Embassy of Colombia as well as a number of residential apartments, near Harrods, Hyde Park, Hans Place, at 3 Hans Crescent at the intersection with Basil Street, it is close to Knightsbridge Underground station. For seven years the embassy was famously home to the Australian activist and journalist Julian Assange, who entered on 19 June 2012 claiming diplomatic asylum, granted by the Ecuadorian government on 16 August 2012, he had absconded in breach of bail after dismissal of his appeal by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The embassy is charged with representing the interests of the president and government of Ecuador, improving diplomatic relations between Ecuador and the accredited countries and improving the image and standing of Ecuador in the accredited nations, promoting the culture of Ecuador and facilitating tourism to and from Ecuador, ensuring the safety of Ecuadorians abroad.
The structure that houses the embassy is a white stucco-fronted red-brick building on Hans Crescent in the Knightsbridge area of London. The embassy is a suite of rooms occupying part of the ground floor of the building, an apartment block. Ecuador maintains a consulate at 144-146 Kings Cross Road, London WC1X 9DU and an Office of the Naval Assistant and Permanent Representative to the International Maritime Organization at 61 Wimbledon Hill Road, London; the co-founder of WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, was a resident of the embassy for seven years after entering it on 19 June 2012 to claim diplomatic asylum after being wanted by Swedish authorities for questioning over four alleged sexual offences. Assange's asylum request was granted by the Ecuadorian government in August 2012; the Swedish prosecutors dropped their investigation in May 2017, claiming they could not expect the Ecuadorian Embassy to communicate reliably with Assange with respect to the case. The British government had suggested it could use its discretionary powers under the Diplomatic and Consular Premises Act 1987 to enter the embassy and arrest Assange after giving the embassy due notice.
However, it retracted the suggestion, following condemnation from Ecuador's Foreign Minister Ricardo Patiño and President Rafael Correa. Patiño described the British government's statement as "a clear breach of international law and the protocols set out in the Vienna Convention." On 16 August 2012, police and protesters gathered outside the embassy, with reports of minor scuffles between the two groups and arrests of some of the protesters. On 19 August 2012, Assange made a speech from a low balcony of the embassy. Assange's remarks were prefaced by a statement from Baltasar Garzón, heading his legal team; this was followed by protests in Ecuador outside the British embassy in Quito, as well as support for Correa's approval of the asylum request. On 22 August 2012, the Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa stated that Assange would be allowed to stay in the embassy indefinitely, but that Ecuador would be open to negotiations with the British government if it withdrew its threats to storm the embassy.
In August 2014, Assange called a press conference and announced he would be leaving the embassy "soon". Press photographs taken outside the embassy were reported to have shown police notes stating that Assange was to be arrested "under all circumstances"; the policing of the embassy during the first two years of Assange's stay cost £6.5 million. Before the police guard was lifted in February 2015, costs of policing Assange had reached £10 million. Although the American political fixer Paul Manafort had not logged into the Ecuadoran embassy in London, Secretaría Nacional de Inteligencia had records of his visits in 2013, 2015 and March 2016, which SENAIN had recorded him as "Paul Manaford ", along with Russians. Julian Assange, the founder of WikiLeaks, was residing in the embassy at the time. However, according to the Le Monde diplomatique, "Fidel Narváez Ecuadorian consul in London, formally denied that Manafort's three visits had happened. WikiLeaks initiated legal proceedings against the Guardian, Manafort published a categorical denial.
There is no trace of his name in the Ecuadorian embassy's visitors' book and there are no pictures of him entering or leaving one of the most surveilled and filmed buildings on the planet."The Guardian revealed in May 2018 that Ecuador had employed an international security company for more than five years to monitor Assange's visitors. On 3 April 2019, WikiLeaks claimed that the Ecuadorian embassy would expel Assange within a few hours or days but Jose Valencia, Foreign Minister of Ecuador called it a rumour. Two days the statements of Assange's departure came after the Ecuadorian President Lenin Moreno accused Assange of violating the terms of asylum. On 11 April 2019, Assange was arrested by British authorities who were invited into the embassy by the Ecuadorian government. Embassy of Colombia, London Assange seeks asylum in Ecuadorian embassy at Wikinews Embassy's official website