Mehdya Mehdia or Mehedya, is a town in Kénitra Province, Rabat-Salé-Kénitra, Morocco. Called al-Ma'mura, it was known as São João da Mamora under 16th century Portuguese occupation, or as La Mamora under 17th century Spanish occupation. According to the 2004 census, the town has a population of 16,262, it is located on Sebou River. Mehdya was called Al-Ma'mura or La Mamora in Europe, was a harbour on the coast of Morocco. Per an ancient account, a colony was founded at the site in the 5th century BCE by the Carthaginians, who called it Thymiaterium, it was captured by the Portuguese in 1515, renamed São João da Mamora. Altogether, the Portuguese are documented to have seized 6 Moroccan towns, built 6 stand-alone fortresses on the Moroccan Atlantic coast, between the river Loukos in the north and the river of Sous in the south. Four of the stand-alone fortresses only had a short duration: Graciosa, Forte de São João de Mamora, Castelo Real of Mogador and Aguz. Two of them were to become permanent urban settlements: Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué, Mazagan founded in 1514-17.
The Portuguese had to abandon most of their settlements between 1541 and 1550, although they were able to keep Ceuta and Mazagan. Mehdya, known as La Mamora, was under Spanish rule between 1614 and 1681. After capturing Larache in 1610, the Spanish captured Al-Ma'mura during the reign of Mulay Zidan in August 1614, due to the period of anarchy that followed the death of Mulay al-Mansur in 1603. After negotiations with Mulay Zidan, they left a strong garrison of 1,500 men, called the harbour San Miguel de Ultramar; the warlord Sidi al-Ayachi led a counter-offensive against Spain, privateering against its shipping, obtaining the help of the Moriscos and the English. About 1627, he managed to temporarily capture Al-Ma'mura, add it to his Republic of Salé; the Spanish retained the city for 67 years, when it was conquered by the Alaouite ruler Moulay Ismaïl. According to tradition, the Bishop of Cadiz had commissioned a statue of Jesus Christ for the church at La Mamora, in his diocese; when the Moroccans reoccupied the town in 1681 they took the statue as loot, received a ransom from the Spanish for the return of the statue, taken to Madrid where it is nowadays venerated under the name of Cristo de Medinaceli.
The new Sultan Mulay Ismail took the city by storm in 1681, renamed the city al-Mahdiya.. The iconic Kasbah Mahdiyya was expanded during this period. In 1795, Mulay Slimane closed the harbour of Mehdya to avoid foreign incursions; the French occupied Mehdya in 1911. About 9,000 Allied troops, carried by 19 warships, were landed in Mehdya during Operation Torch in 1942
The Spanish Empire known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World and the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies", it included territories in Europe and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description given to the Portuguese Empire, it was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire was the first empire to be called "the empire on which the sun never sets". Castile became the dominant kingdom in Iberia because of its jurisdiction over the overseas empire in the Americas and the Philippines; the structure of empire was established under the Spanish Hapsburgs and under the Spanish Bourbon monarchs, the empire was brought under greater crown control and increased its revenues from the Indies.
The crown's authority in The Indies was enlarged by the papal grant of powers of patronage, giving it power in the religious sphere. An important element in the formation of Spain's empire was the dynastic union between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, known as the Catholic Monarchs, which initiated political and social cohesion but not political unification. Iberian kingdoms retained their political identities, with particular administration and juridical configurations. Although the power of the Spanish sovereign as monarch varied from one territory to another, the monarch acted as such in a unitary manner over all the ruler's territories through a system of councils: the unity did not mean uniformity. In 1580, when Philip II of Spain succeeded to the throne of Portugal, he established the Council of Portugal, which oversaw Portugal and its empire and "preserv its own laws and monetary system, united only in sharing a common sovereign." The Iberian Union remained in place until in 1640, when Portugal overthrew Hapsburg rule and reestablished independence under the House of Braganza.
Under Philip II, rather than the Hapsburg empire, was identified as the most powerful nation in the world eclipsing France and England. Furthermore, despite attacks from other European states, Spain retained its position of dominance with apparent ease; the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis confirmed the inheritance of Philip II in Italy. Spain's claims to Naples and Sicily in southern Italy dated back to the Aragonese presence in the 15th century. Following the peace reached in 1559, there would be no Neapolitan revolts against Spanish rule until 1647; the Duchy of Milan formally remained part of the Holy Roman Empire but the title of Duke of Milan was given to the King of Spain. The death of the Ottoman emperor Suleiman the Magnificent in 1566 and the naval victory over the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 gave Spain a claim to be the greatest power not just in Europe but in the world; the Spanish Empire in the Americas was formed after conquering large stretches of land, beginning with Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean Islands.
In the early 16th century, it conquered and incorporated the Aztec and Inca Empires, retaining indigenous elites loyal to the Spanish crown and converts to Christianity as intermediaries between their communities and royal government. After a short period of delegation of authority by the crown in the Americas, the crown asserted control over those territories and established the Council of the Indies to oversee rule there; some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest as marking the most egregious case of genocide in the history of mankind. The death toll may have reached some 70 million indigenous people in this period. However, other scholars believe the vast majority of indigenous deaths were due to the low immunological capacity of native populations to resist exogenous diseases. Many native tribes and their cultures were wiped out by the Spanish conquest and disease epidemics; the structure of governance of its overseas empire was reformed in the late 18th century by the Bourbon monarchs.
Although the crown attempted to keep its empire a closed economic system under Hapsburg rule, Spain was unable to supply the Indies with sufficient consumer goods to meet demand, so that foreign merchants from Genoa, England and The Netherlands dominated the trade, with silver from the mines of Peru and Mexico flowing to other parts of Europe. The merchant guild of Seville served as middlemen in the trade; the crown's trade monopoly was broken early in the seventeenth century, with the crown colluding with the merchant guild for fiscal reasons in circumventing the closed system. Spain was unable to defend the territories it claimed in the Americas, with the Dutch, the English, the French taking Caribbean islands, using them to engage in contraband trade with the Spanish populace in the Indies. In the seventeenth century, the diversion of silver revenue to pay for European consumer goods and the rising costs of defense of its empire meant that "tangible benefits of America to Spain were dwindling...at a moment when the costs of empire were climbing sharply."The Bourbon monarchy attempted to expand the possibilities for trade within the empire, by allowing commerce between all ports in the empire, took other measures to revive economic activity to the benefit of Spain.
The Bourbons had inherited "an empire invaded by
Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
Siege of Tripoli (1551)
The Siege of Tripoli occurred in 1551 when the Ottomans besieged and vanquished the Knights of Malta in the fortress of Tripoli, modern Libya. The Spanish had established a fort in Tripoli in 1510, Charles V remitted it to the Knights in 1530; the siege culminated in the surrender of the city on 15 August. The siege of Tripoli succeeded an earlier attack on Malta in July, repelled, the successful invasion of Gozo, in which 5,000 Christian captives were taken and brought on galleys to the location of Tripoli; the city was under the command of Father Gaspard de Vallier, with 30 knights and 630 Calabrian and Sicilian mercenaries. The Ottomans had a base since 1531 in the city of Tajura, 20 kilometers to the east, where Khayr al-Din had been based; the Ottomans encircled the fort, established 3 batteries of 12 guns each. The French Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, Gabriel d'Aramon, joined the Ottoman fleet at Tripoli, with two galleys and a galliot, The declared mission of the ambassador was to dissuade the Ottomans from capturing the city, at the request of the Grand Master of Malta, as Malta was not identified as an enemy in the Franco-Ottoman alliance against the Habsburgs.
According to reports, when Sinan Pasha and Dragut refused to lift the siege, on grounds that they were under order to eradicate the Knights of Malta from the African continent, d'Aramon threatened to sail to Constantinople to appeal to sultan Suleiman, but he was barred from leaving the city until the end of the siege. Soon the soldiers in the fort mutinied, negotiation for surrender started; the city was captured on 15 August 1551 by Sinan Pasha after six days of bombardment. The Knights, many of them French, were returned to Malta upon the intervention of the French ambassador, shipped onboard his galleys, while the mercenaries were enslaved.. Murād Agha, the Ottoman commander of Tajura since 1536, was named as the Pashalik of the city. Nicolas de Villegagnon, the future explorer of Brazil, was present at the siege of Tripoli in 1551, wrote an account about it in 1553. From Malta, d'Aramon wrote a letter about his intervention to Henry II; the role of d'Aramon was criticized by Charles V and Julius III on suspicion that he had encouraged the Ottomans to take the city.
It appeared that d'Aramon had participated in the victory banquet of the Ottomans, raising further suspicions about his role in the siege, leading to claims by Charles V that France participated in the siege. In any instance, d'Aramon had a special relationship with the Ottomans, was aware that the fall of Tripoli represented a major setback for Charles V. Upon his return to Malta, Gaspard de Vallier was criticized by the Grand Master Juan de Homedes y Coscon who wished to assign all the blame for the defeat on him, he was brought in front of a tribunal, stripped from the habit and cross of the Order. He had been however staunchly defended by Nicolas de Villegagnon, who exposed the duplicity of de Homedes; the siege was the first step of the all-out Italian War of 1551–1559 in the European theater, in the Mediterranean the French galleys of Marseilles were ordered to join the Ottoman fleet. In 1553, Dragut was nominated commander of Tripoli by Suleiman, making the city an important center for piratical raids in the Mediterranean and the capital of the Ottoman province of Tripolitania.
In a famous attack from Tripoli, in 1558, Dragut attacked Reggio, took all its inhabitants as slaves to Tripoli. In 1560, a powerful naval force was sent to recapture Tripoli, but that force was defeated in the Battle of Djerba. Franco-Ottoman alliance Timeline of Maltese history List of Ottoman sieges and landings Battle of Tripoli 2011
Conquest of the Canary Islands
The conquest of the Canary Islands by the Crown of Castille took place between 1402 and 1496. It can be divided into two periods: the Conquista señorial, carried out by Castilian nobility in exchange for a covenant of allegiance with the crown, the Conquista realenga, carried out by the Spanish crown itself, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs; the ties between the Canaries and the Mediterranean world which had existed since antiquity were interrupted by the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire. Although these linkages were weakened, they were not severed, the Canaries' isolation was not total. During the Middle Ages, the first reports on the Canaries come from Arabic sources, which refer to some Atlantic islands which may have been the Canaries. What does seem clear is that this knowledge of the islands did not signify the end of the cultural isolation of the native inhabitants. Visits to the archipelago began to increase after the end of the 13th century for reasons including: The economic expansion of some European states, such as the Republic of Genoa, the Kingdom of Aragon, the Kingdom of Castille, the Kingdom of Portugal.
Maritime trade along the Moroccan coast was a'fait accompli' for all of these nations. Development of new navigation techniques and the development of cartography: a portulan map by Angelino Dulcert of Majorca, from 1339, is the first to show some of the Canary Islands, this date might in fact coincide with the effective rediscovery of the islands by the Genoese seaman Lanzarotto Malocello; the first expedition to visit all the islands of the archipelago took place two years in 1341, under the command of fellow Genoese seaman and explorer Niccoloso da Recco, at the service and on behalf of Portuguese king Afonso IV. Ideological and political motives: the monarchies of Southern Europe entered an expansive phase. In the case of the Iberian monarchies, their territorial expansion was spurred by the so-called reconquista of Moorish southern Spain. For this reason, territorial expansion represented a reinforcement of royal power, imbued with crusader and missionary spirit; the first visit by a European to the Canary Islands since antiquity was by Genoese captain Lanceloto Malocello traditionally dated 1312.
Malocello's motives were unclear - it is believed he might have been searching for traces of the Vivaldi brothers who had disappeared off Morocco, around Cape Non back in 1291. Malocello made landfall on Lanzarote island, remained there for nearly twenty years. Malocello may have attempted to erect himself as a ruler among the aboriginal peoples and been expelled by them. According to some sources, shortly after his return to Europe, in 1336, Malocello led a return expedition to the Canaries, sponsored by the Portuguese crown. However, the existence of this expedition has been dismissed by most modern historians, as being based on forged documents. Evidently drawing from the information provided by Malocello, in 1339 appeared the portolan map by Angelino Dulcert of Majorca showing the Canary island of Lanzarote, as well as the island of Forte Vetura and Vegi Mari. Although earlier maps had shown fantastical depictions of the "Fortunate Islands", this is the first European map where the actual Canary islands make a solid appearance.
In 1341, a three-ship expedition sponsored by King Afonso IV of Portugal, set out from Lisbon, commanded by Florentine captain Angiolino del Tegghia de Corbizzi and Genoese captain Nicoloso da Recco, employing a mixed crew of Italians and Castilians. Cruising the archipelago for five months, the expedition mapped thirteen islands and surveyed the primeval aboriginal inhabitants, the'Guanches', bringing back four natives to Lisbon. European interest in the Canaries picked up after the 1341 mapping expedition; the descriptions of the primeval Guanches, in particular, drew the attention of European merchants, who saw the prospect of new and easy slave-raiding grounds. In 1342, two Majorcan expeditions, one under Francesc Duvalers, another under Domenech Gual, assembled by private merchant consortia with a commission from Roger de Robenach set out for the Canary islands; the results of these expeditions are uncertain. The Catholic Church was drawn by the news. In 1344, the Castilian-French noble Luis de la Cerda serving as a French ambassador to the papal court in Avignon, submitted a proposal to Pope Clement VI, offering the Church the more palatable vision of conquering the islands and converting the native Canarians to Christianity.
In November 1344, Pope Clement VI issued the bull Tuae devotionis sinceritas granting the Canary islands in perpetuity to Luis de la Cerda and bestowing upon him the title of sovereign "Prince of Fortuna". The pope followed this up with another bull, in January 1345, giving the projected Cerda-led conquest and conversion of the islands the character of a crusade, granting indulgences to its participants, papal letters were dispatched to the Iberian monarchs urging them to provide material assistance to Cerda's expedition; the Portuguese king Afonso IV lodged a protest, claiming priority of discovery, but conceded to the authority of the pope. Alfonso X
Spanish conquest of Oran (1509)
The conquest of Oran by the Spanish Empire took place on May 1509, when an army led by Pedro Navarro on behalf of the Cardinal Cisneros seized the north-African city, controlled by the moors of Tlemcen. A fleet left port from Cartagena on 16 May and sailed towards Mers el-Kebir, a city located near Oran and under Spanish control; the fleet had 10 galleys, plus additional small boats. They carried around 3000-4000 cavalry-men; the army spent the night of 17 May in Mers el Kebir. The Christians stormed the city of Oran part of the Kingdom of Tlemcen, combining the use of the fleet with a ground assault on 18 May. After breaking through the walls of the city the casualties numbered less than 30 on the assaulting side, while the 12,000 defenders suffered 4,000 casualties. On 20 May, Cisneros entered the city conquered; the city remained a part of the Spanish Empire until 1708, when it was seized by the Ottoman Dey of Algiers taking advantage of the War of the Spanish Succession. The city was conquered again by the Spanish in 1732.
After the 1790 earthquake, they abandoned Oran and Mers el-Kebir in 1792. Fernández Duro, Cesáreo. 1895. Armada Española. Imprenta Real. Accessed 2016. Sánchez Doncel, Gregorio. 1991. Presencia de España en Orán, 1509-1792. Estudio Teológico de San Ildefonso
José Joaquín de Olmedo
José Joaquín de Olmedo y Maruri was President of Ecuador from March 6, 1845 to December 8, 1845. A patriot and poet, he was the son of the Spanish Captain Don Miguel de Olmedo y Troyano and the Guayaquilean Ana Francisca de Maruri y Salavarría. On October 9, 1820, Olmedo and others declared the city of Guayaquil independent from Spain, he was President of the Free Province of Guayaquil until it was united to Gran Colombia by Simón Bolívar against Olmedo's will. He was twice mayor of Guayaquil, he was Vice President of Ecuador from 1830 to 1831, became President of Ecuador from March 6, 1845, to December 8, 1845, surviving an attempted coup on June 18 of that year. He was a noted poet who emphasized patriotic themes, his best-known work is La victoria de Junin, which pictures the Latin American fighters for independence from Spain as the legitimate heirs of the Incas. Olmedo devoted his life to Guayaquil, he created the Guayaquilean flag and shield, in 1821 he composed the Song to the October Ninth, which would become the Guayaquil Anthem.
He is quoted as saying "He who does not hope to win has lost."The José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport in Guayaquil is named after him. José Joaquín de Olmedo was a participant in a group organized by don José de Antepara that supported secession from the Spanish Empire; the group was formed the night of October 1, 1820 in the home of José de Villamil under the guise of a quinceañera for Isabela Morlás, the daughter of fellow secessionist Pedro Morlás. Gregorio Escobedo, Francisco de Paula Lavayen, Luis Fernando Vivero, José Rivas participated, as well as Venezuelans Febres Cordero, Miguel de Letamendi, Luis Urdaneta, among others; the group, known as the "Forge of Vulcan," concluded the meeting with an oath of loyalty to the cause by those present. During the days following the meeting and Villamil managed to convince the military leaders in charge of Guayaquil’s defense to join the cause of independence. However, they decided to give leadership of the liberationist movement to Olmedo.
On October 3, Villamil visited Olmedo to offer him the position of leadership, but Olmedo declined because he thought that the movement should be led by someone with military instead of political experience. Olmedo confirmed his commitment to the cause and offered to help with political and diplomatic matters once independence was reached; the cause of independence led by León de Febres Cordero, continued in the following days with exhaustive planning of the rebellion that aimed to keep losses and use of weapons to a minimum. On the night of October 8 the revolution began with the capture of several military outposts by the rebels and the apprehension of authorities loyal to the Spanish crown; the rebellion continued until the morning of October 9. During his life, he dedicated part of his time to the creation of novels, songs and other kinds of literary works. Among his most well known works are: Canto a Bolívar, he wrote the lyrics of its anthem. In 1808 he was inspired to compose the prologue to the tragedy El Duque de Viseo de Quintana and his poem El Árbol, which he finished in 1809.
El Árbol contains two parts: one, philosophical and has great aesthetic sense, one, less constructed which ends the poem. This makes. In January 1811 he read his poem Improntu. In the beginning of 1817 he traveled to Lima and wrote A un amigo, don Gaspar Rico.... In 1821 he wrote Canción al 9 de octubre, considered to be the first anthem of the Ecuadorian territory. In 1823 in Lima he edited his 45-page translation from English of Essay on Man by Alexander Pope. In 1825 he composed the poem La Libertad. In 1837 he wrote Canción del 10 de agosto, which served as a precursor to the current national anthem as demonstrated by Espinosa Pólit. In 1840 he wrote. In 1843 he edited. From them on his poems began to be published with great success. In 1848 a volume of Obras Poéticas, a collection revised and corrected by Olmedo, was released in Valparaiso months before his death; the second edition was issued in Paris with 214 pages. There are publications as well. Official Website of the Ecuadorian Government about the country President's History Works by or about José Joaquín de Olmedo at Internet Archive Works by José Joaquín de Olmedo at LibriVox