1952 Swiss Grand Prix
The 1952 Swiss Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 18 May 1952 at Bremgarten Circuit. It was the first round of the 1952 World Championship of Drivers, in which each Grand Prix was run to Formula Two rules rather than the Formula One regulations used. Pre-WWII Grand Prix great Rudolf Caracciola crashed during a support sports car race, he survived with a broken leg, but this crash ended his racing career. He was driving a Mercedes 300SL. Italian driver Piero Taruffi scored his only win in a World Championship race. With the withdrawal of Alfa Romeo from the World Championship, Ferrari were left as the sole competitive team under the existing regulations, it was therefore decided to run the Championship to Formula Two regulations. The works Ferrari team brought three drivers to the Swiss Grand Prix, namely Farina and Simon. Regular Ferrari drivers Alberto Ascari and Luigi Villoresi were both unavailable, the former due to his participation in the Indianapolis 500, the latter because of his having had a road accident.
Running Ferraris were Rudi Fischer and Peter Hirt of Ecurie Espadon, veteran Frenchman Louis Rosier. Gordini had a three-car team for this race, consisting of Robert Manzon, B. Bira and the debutant Jean Behra; the HWM team, returning to the World Championship for the first time since the previous race at Bremgarten, fielded the all-British quartet of Abecassis, Collins and Moss. Maserati had planned to enter defending World Drivers' Champion Juan Manuel Fangio and fellow Argentinian José Froilán González, but this did not come into fruition. Completing the field were the sole AFM entry of Hans Stuck and a number of run cars representing various constructors. Former Alfa Romeo driver Nino Farina took pole position, alongside Taruffi and Manzon on the front row of the grid. Simon and Fischer started from the second row, in front of Collins and Toulo de Graffenried, driving an Enrico Platé-entered Maserati. Polesitter Farina led the race, his Ferrari teammate assumed the lead. Moss was impressively running in third place in the early stages, behind Farina and Taruffi, before he had to stop.
The main battle was for second place. When Behra had to stop, due to his exhaust pipe having fallen off, who had taken over Simon's car, assumed second place. However, further problems meant that he once again had to retire, on lap 51, handing second to local driver Rudi Fischer; the Swiss driver took his first Championship podium, being the only driver not to be lapped by Taruffi, who took his first World Championship race victory. Behra completed the podium, taking third on debut, while Ken Wharton and Alan Brown took the first points finishes for Frazer Nash and Cooper, respectively. ^1 — André Simon qualified and drove 21 laps of the race in the #32 Ferrari. Nino Farina, whose own vehicle had retired, took over the car for a further 30 laps before again being forced to retire. ^2 — Juan Manuel Fangio and José Froilán González, whose cars were unavailable, withdrew from the event prior to practice. ^3 — Peter Hirt qualified and drove the entire race in the #44 Ferrari. Rudolf Schoeller, named substitute driver for the car, was not used during the Grand Prix.
^4 — Max de Terra drove the #50 Simca-Gordini in the race. Alfred Dattner, entered in the same car, was unable to take part in the Grand Prix due to illness. Notes ^ 1 -- Includes 1 point for fastest lap Macklin withdrew from the race. Farina took over from Simon. First Grand Prix start for Hans Stuck Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are listed. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship
Lea-Francis is a motor manufacturing company that began by building bicycles. LEA & FRANCIS LIMITED Coventry, Warwickshire England 1904-1935 LEA-FRANCIS CARS LIMITED Coventry, England 1937-1960 A. B. PRICE LIMITED Studley, England 1980-1990s R. H. Lea and G. I. Francis started the business in Coventry in 1895, they branched out into car manufacturing in 1903 and motorcycles in 1911. Lea-Francis built cars under licence for the Singer company. In 1919, they started to build their own cars from bought-in components. From 1922, Lea-Francis had a tie up with Vulcan of Southport sharing manufacturing and dealers. Vulcan in return got gearboxes and steering gear. Two six-cylinder Vulcan designed cars were marketed as Lea-Francis 14/40 and 16/60 as well as Vulcans; the association finished in 1928. A sporting image began to appear from about 1925, leading to models such as the Hyper and the Ace of Spades; the Hyper was the first British supercharged production car with a 1.5 litre Meadows engine, in 1928 a Lea-Francis Hyper won the Ulster TT, a 30-lap race on the 13.5-mile Ards circuit on the roads of Northern Ireland in the hands of legendary race car driver, Kaye Don.
The race was watched by a record 250,000 spectators, the victory placed Lea-Francis on the map. The company was re-formed in 1937 under the chairmanship of George Leek with other ex-Riley men such as R. H. Rose who designed a new engine for Lea-Francis which had a similar layout to the Riley 12/4; the 12 hp and the 14 hp were introduced in 1937 and continued until the start of the war in 1939 when production ceased and the factory concentrated on manufacturing for the war effort. Post-war car production commenced in 1946 with updated vehicles based on the pre-war designs; the 14 hp Saloon and Sports were luxurious and sporty vehicles, were popular, if expensive. An improved chassis with independent front suspension and hydraulic brakes was introduced across the range and in 1950 the 18 h.p. saloon and 2½ litre Sports, both with the more powerful 2½ litre engine, were introduced. Production once again came to a halt in 1954, after not having been present at Earl's Court since 1952. A number of 14 hp Sports chassis were sold to Connaught Engineering where they became the L2 and L3 sports-racing cars.
Connaught developed a Formula 2 racing engine for their "A" type single seater, based on the Lea-Francis design. The company had a chequered history with some notable motorcycles and cars but financial difficulties surfaced on a regular basis; the Hillfields site was abandoned in 1937 when it was sold by the receiver and a new company, under a different name moved to Much Park Street in Coventry. It survived there until 1962, when the company closed; the Lynx, a tube-framed 2+2 roadster with a Ford Zephyr 2.6 litre inline-six engine, is the final model produced by Lea-Francis. Unveiled at the October 1960 British Motor show, it was famously painted in mauve with gold trim; the model remained only in prototype form and only 3 Lynx cars were made as no production was started due to lack of demand of this new sports car. A total of 10,000 Lea-Francis vehicles were made until production ceased due to the Lynx's failure to capture the buying public's attention. By the time of its launch, Lea-Francis was so financially distressed that they could not afford to build Lynxes unless they had been ordered, as none were only three Lynxes were made, all prototypes.
Lea Francis fabbled into starting producing the Fuldamobil Nobel bubble car to keep busy but proved a silly plan as the famous MINI was introduced in the late 1950s. Some work was undertaken when a new prototype was built for a possible brand new saloon using a Chrysler V8 engine but remained unfinished; the motor manufacturing parts of the company passed into the hands of the receiver in 1962, leaving Lea-Francis to continue with their engineering business. The company were purchased by Quinton Hazell Ltd. a motorvehicle component manufacturer, while the Lea-Francis name was purchased by English entrepreneur Barrie Price at about the same time. In 1976 Barrie Price began work on a handmade new car, to be an expensive LEA FRANCIS Nostalgia type tourer powered by a Jaguar running gear recalling the same cars LEA FRANCIS was known for in the 1930. By 1980 since his firm A. B. PRICE LIMITED has continued to provide service and spares for the surviving cars and has built a number of retro Lea-Francis modern motor cars to special order reviving the "Ace of Spades."
Name to their unique handbuilt model. These have a handsome aluminium bodyshell with a number of domestic components and have been produced as a two-seat coupes and as convertible car and in both versions these have been powered by Jaguar Cars mechanicals making an average of 12-14 cars for sale with a pricetag at 20000 GBP according to motorbook author and writer G. N Georgano. In 1998 it was believed that the Lea-Francis name might yet be seen again on the road when a new Lea-Francis sports car by the name of the 30/230, designed by James Randle, was shown at the Motor Show. Only a prototype was built; the Lea-Francis Owners' Club has an ever-growing membership of around 340 members who own around 420 vehicles. Citations Bibliography Price, Barrie; the Lea Francis Story. Veloce Publishing. ISBN 1-901295-01-X. Lawrence, Mike. A to Z Of Sports Cars 1945-1990. Bay View Books. ISBN 1870979818. Georgano, G. N.. The Complete Encyclopedia Of Motorcars 1885 To The Present. Ebury Press London. ISBN 0852232349.
Lea Francis Owners' Club website
Merchiston is a prosperous residential area in the south-west of Edinburgh, Scotland. The housing is a mixture of large, late Georgian and Edwardian villas – several of the latter by Edward Calvert – together with a smaller number of Victorian tenements and some large, early-20th century villas. In recent years many of these villas have been subjected to development with blocks of flats being built in their once expansive gardens and the original houses themselves being divided into small numbers of flats. A campus forming a major part of Edinburgh Napier University is in the area; the university uses a variety of other buildings in this and surrounding areas, such as former schools and churches, some of which would otherwise have been demolished or made into further flats. The tower was sold by the Honourable John Scott Napier, 14th Laird of Merchiston in 1914 to the Merchiston Castle School board who used it up until 1930 when the school moved to a new site at Colinton; the area is home to writers Ian Rankin, Lin Anderson, Colin Douglas, Alexander McCall Smith and comedian Dylan Moran.
J. K. Rowling is said to have moved to Cramond. Merchiston was the childhood home of Scotland and British Lions rugby legends Gavin Hastings and Scott Hastings. In the area are a number of independent schools including George Watson's College and a Steiner School. On the fringes of the area where it meets Craiglockhart is the suburban railway line, mooted for reopening. To the north of the area is the Union Canal. North of the canal are Craiglockhart Primary School and the site of the former Merchiston railway station, a railway station on the now-closed Caledonian Railway line to Edinburgh Princes Street railway station. Other nearby areas include Morningside to the southeast, Burghmuirhead to the east and Bruntsfield to the northeast. Entry in Gazetteer for Scotland Merchiston Community Council Community Council map showing boundary of area Craiglockhart Primary School
1953 Italian Grand Prix
The 1953 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 13 September 1953 at Monza. It was the ninth and final race in the 1953 World Championship of Drivers, run to Formula Two rules in 1952 and 1953, rather than the Formula One regulations used; this made it the last World Championship race to run under the Formula Two regulations. The 80-lap race was won by Maserati driver Juan Manuel Fangio. Nino Farina finished second for his teammate Luigi Villoresi came in third; the initial part of the race was a four-way battle between Alberto Ascari, Giuseppe Farina, Juan Manuel Fangio and Onofre Marimón. With five drivers running together on the last lap, the race saw a spectacular finish with Ascari and Farina ahead of Fangio approaching the last corner. Ascari spun. To avoid him, Farina recovered later. Fangio took a famous win. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lap Shared Drive – Car #56: Mantovani Musso Alberto Ascari wins World Championship for the second, final, time. First F1 Grand Prix drive for Umberto Maglioli Last F1 Grand Prix drive for Yves Giraud-Cabantous and Hans Stuck Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included.
Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points.
1953 French Grand Prix
The 1953 French Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 5 July 1953 at Reims. It was race 5 of 9 in the 1953 World Championship of Drivers, run to Formula Two rules in 1952 and 1953, rather than the Formula One regulations used. Not only had the Reims circuit's layout changed, the name was different – both in regard to the same thing; the new and longer circuit bypassed the town of Gueux and as a result, the circuit was now called "Reims". It is popularly known as'the race of the century' because of the sixty lap battle between Briton Mike Hawthorn and Argentine Juan Manuel Fangio. Hawthorn won the duel after they swapped the lead at every corner on the Reims circuit. In addition, after 500 km of racing, the four lead cars were less than 5 seconds apart. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lap Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Ddavid.com: The French Grand Prix of 1953 The Story of the Grand Prix – The Race of the Century French GP 1953
Cooper Car Company
The Cooper Car Company is a car manufacturer founded in December 1947 by Charles Cooper and his son John Cooper. Together with John's boyhood friend, Eric Brandon, they began by building racing cars in Charles's small garage in Surbiton, England, in 1946. Through the 1950s and early 1960s they reached motor racing's highest levels as their rear-engined, single-seat cars altered the face of Formula One and the Indianapolis 500, their Mini Cooper dominated rally racing. Due in part to Cooper's legacy, Great Britain remains the home of a thriving racing industry, the Cooper name lives on in the Cooper versions of the Mini production cars that are still built in England, but are now owned and marketed by BMW; the first cars built by the Coopers were single-seat 500-cc Formula Three racing cars driven by John Cooper and Eric Brandon, powered by a JAP motorcycle engine. Since materials were in short supply after World War II, the prototypes were constructed by joining two old Fiat Topolino front-ends together.
According to John Cooper, the stroke of genius that would make the Coopers an automotive legend—the location of the engine behind the driver—was a practical matter at the time. Because the car was powered by a motorcycle engine, they believed it was more convenient to have the engine in the back, driving a chain. In fact there was nothing new about'mid' engined racing cars but there is no doubt Coopers led the way in popularizing what was to become the dominant arrangement for racing cars. Called the Cooper 500, this car's success in hillclimbs and on track, including Eric winning the 500 race at one of the first postwar meetings at Gransden Lodge Airfield created demand from other drivers and led to the establishment of the Cooper Car Company to build more; the business grew by providing an inexpensive entry to motorsport for every aspiring young British driver, the company became the world's first and largest postwar, specialist manufacturer of racing cars for sale to privateers. Cooper built up to 300 single-and twin-cylinder cars during the 1940s and 1950s, dominated the F3 category, winning 64 of 78 major races between 1951 and 1954.
This volume of construction enabled the company to grow into the senior categories. Though Schell retired in the first lap, this marked the first appearance of a rear-engined racer at a Grand Prix event since the end of WWII; the front-engined Formula Two Cooper Bristol model was introduced in 1952. Various iterations of this design were driven by a number of legendary drivers – among them Juan Manuel Fangio and Mike Hawthorn – and furthered the company's growing reputation by appearing in Grand Prix races, which at the time were run to F2 regulations; until the company began building rear-engined sports cars in 1955, they had not become aware of the benefits of having the engine behind the driver. Based on the 500-cc cars and powered by a modified Coventry Climax fire-pump engine, these cars were called "Bobtails". With the center of gravity closer to the middle of the car, they found it was less liable to spins and much more effective at putting the power down to the road, so they decided to build a single-seater version and began entering it in Formula 2 races.
Jack Brabham raised some eyebrows when he took sixth place at the 1957 Monaco Grand Prix in a rear-engined Formula 1 Cooper. When Stirling Moss won the 1958 Argentine Grand Prix in Rob Walker's entered Cooper and Maurice Trintignant duplicated the feat in the next race at Monaco, the racing world was stunned and a rear-engined revolution had begun; the next year, 1959, Brabham and the Cooper works team became the first to win the Formula One World Championship in a rear-engined car. Both team and driver repeated the feat in 1960, every World Champion since has been sitting in front of his engine; the little-known designer behind the car was Owen Maddock, employed by Cooper Car Company. Maddock was known as ` Whiskers' to Charles Cooper. Maddock was a familiar figure in the drivers' paddock of the 1950s in open-neck shirt and woolly jumper and a prime force behind the rise of British racing cars to their dominant position in the 1960s. Describing how the revolutionary rear-engined Cooper chassis came to be, Maddock explained, "I'd done various schemes for the new car which I'd shown to Charlie Cooper.
He kept saying'Nah, that's not it, try again.' I got so fed up I sketched a frame in which every tube was bent, meant just as a joke. I showed it to Charlie and to my astonishment he grabbed it and said:'That's it!' " Maddock pioneered one of the first designs for a honeycomb monocoque stressed skin composite chassis, helped develop Cooper's C5S racing gearbox. Brabham took one of the championship-winning Cooper T53 "Lowlines" to Indianapolis Motor Speedway for a test in 1960 entered the famous 500-mile race in a larger and offset car based on the 1960 F1 design, the unique Type T54. Arriving at the Speedway 5 May 1961, the "funny" little car from Europe was mocked by the other teams, but it ran as high as third and finished ninth, it took a few years, but the Indianapolis establishment realized the writing was on the wall and the days of their front-engined roadsters were numbered. Beginning with Jim Clark, who drove a rear-engined Lotus in 1965, every winner of the Indianapolis 500 since has had the engine in the back.
The revolution begun by the little chain-driven Cooper 500 was complete. Once every Formula car manufacturer beg
Dunlop is a brand of tyres owned by various companies around the world. Founded by pneumatic tyre pioneer John Boyd Dunlop in Birmingham, England in 1889, it is owned and operated by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company in North America, Europe and New Zealand. In India, the brand is owned by Dunlop India Ltd.. In Asia and Latin America by Sumitomo Rubber Industries. In 1985, Dunlop Rubber Company was acquired by BTR plc, Sumitomo acquired the rights to manufacture and market Dunlop branded road tyres. Sumitomo did not acquire any Dunlop company. In 1997 Sumitomo gained agreement to use the Dunlop name in its corporate name, changed the name of its UK subsidiary to Dunlop Tyres Ltd. In 1999, Sumitomo and Goodyear began a joint venture by which Sumitomo continued to manufacture all Japanese-made tyres under the Dunlop name, while Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company bought 75% of the European and North American tyre businesses of Sumitomo; the company has extensive manufacturing operations throughout the world.
With the closure of the Washington plant in 2006, Goodyear Dunlop ceased mainstream car and lorry tyre production in the UK. In 2016, it was announced that Sumitomo Rubber Industries would commence the second phase of its $131 Million investment for the upgrade and expansion of its Dunlop tire manufacturing plant at Ladysmith, in South Africa; until May 2014, Goodyear Dunlop occupied a compact part of the site with their British main office. In the UK, the company operates as a sales organisation, importing tyres from manufacturing plants around the world, including China and Poland; the Goodyear Dunlop joint venture is managed from sites in Luxembourg and Brussels, which report to Goodyear in Akron, United States. Fort Dunlop was a motorsport manufacturing operation located in a corner of the original Dunlop factory in Erdington, established in 1891 until May 2014; this factory produced specialised vintage and touring car tyres, produced about 300,000 specialised racing tyres per year. On 30 May 2014, the Birmingham factory ceased tyre production, ending Dunlop tyre production in the UK.
Dunlop Dunlop Rubber Tompkins, Eric. The History of the Pneumatic Tyre. Dunlop Archive Project. ISBN 0-903214-14-8