FIFA World Cup
The FIFA World Cup simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association, the sport's global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the inaugural tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not held because of the Second World War; the current champion is France. The current format of the competition involves a qualification phase, which takes place over the preceding three years, to determine which teams qualify for the tournament phase, called the World Cup Finals. After this, 32 teams, including the automatically qualifying host nation, compete in the tournament phase for the title at venues within the host nation over a period of about a month; the 21 World Cup tournaments have been won by eight national teams. Brazil have won five times, they are the only team to have played in every tournament; the other World Cup winners are Italy, with four titles each.
The World Cup is the most prestigious association football tournament in the world, as well as the most viewed and followed sporting event in the world, exceeding the Olympic Games. Brazil, Italy and Mexico have each hosted twice, while Uruguay, Sweden, England, Spain, the United States and South Korea, South Africa and Russia have each hosted once. Qatar are planned as hosts of the 2022 finals, 2026 will be jointly hosted by Canada, the United States and Mexico, which will give Mexico the distinction of being the first country to have hosted games in three finals; the world's first international football match was a challenge match played in Glasgow in 1872 between Scotland and England, which ended in a 0–0 draw. The first international tournament, the inaugural British Home Championship, took place in 1884; as football grew in popularity in other parts of the world at the start of the 20th century, it was held as a demonstration sport with no medals awarded at the 1900 and 1904 Summer Olympics, at the 1906 Intercalated Games.
After FIFA was founded in 1904, it tried to arrange an international football tournament between nations outside the Olympic framework in Switzerland in 1906. These were early days for international football, the official history of FIFA describes the competition as having been a failure. At the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, football became an official competition. Planned by The Football Association, England's football governing body, the event was for amateur players only and was regarded suspiciously as a show rather than a competition. Great Britain won the gold medals, they repeated the feat at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm. With the Olympic event continuing to be contested only between amateur teams, Sir Thomas Lipton organised the Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy tournament in Turin in 1909; the Lipton tournament was a championship between individual clubs from different nations, each one of which represented an entire nation. The competition is sometimes described as The First World Cup, featured the most prestigious professional club sides from Italy and Switzerland, but the FA of England refused to be associated with the competition and declined the offer to send a professional team.
Lipton invited an amateur side from County Durham, to represent England instead. West Auckland won the tournament and returned in 1911 to defend their title. In 1914, FIFA agreed to recognise the Olympic tournament as a "world football championship for amateurs", took responsibility for managing the event; this paved the way for the world's first intercontinental football competition, at the 1920 Summer Olympics, contested by Egypt and 13 European teams, won by Belgium. Uruguay won the next two Olympic football tournaments in 1924 and 1928; those were the first two open world championships, as 1924 was the start of FIFA's professional era. Due to the success of the Olympic football tournaments, FIFA, with President Jules Rimet as the driving force, again started looking at staging its own international tournament outside of the Olympics. On 28 May 1928, the FIFA Congress in Amsterdam decided to stage a world championship itself. With Uruguay now two-time official football world champions and to celebrate their centenary of independence in 1930, FIFA named Uruguay as the host country of the inaugural World Cup tournament.
The national associations of selected nations were invited to send a team, but the choice of Uruguay as a venue for the competition meant a long and costly trip across the Atlantic Ocean for European sides. Indeed, no European country pledged to send a team until two months before the start of the competition. Rimet persuaded teams from Belgium, France and Yugoslavia to make the trip. In total, 13 nations took part: seven from South America, four from Europe and two from North America; the first two World Cup matches took place on 13 July 1930, were won by France and the USA, who defeated Mexico 4–1 and Belgium 3–0 respectively. The first goal in World Cup history was scored by Lucien Laurent o
Penalty cards are used in many sports as a means of warning, reprimanding or penalising a player, coach or team official. Penalty cards are most used by referees or umpires to indicate that a player has committed an offense; the official will hold the card above his or her head while looking or pointing towards the player that has committed the offence. This action makes the decision clear to all players, as well as spectators and other officials in a manner, language-neutral; the colour or shape of the card used by the official indicates the type or seriousness of the offence and the level of punishment, to be applied. Yellow and red cards are the most common indicating cautions and dismissals; the idea of using language-neutral coloured cards to communicate a referee's intentions originated in association football, with English referee Ken Aston. Aston had been appointed to the FIFA Referees' Committee and was responsible for all referees at the 1966 FIFA World Cup. In the quarter-finals, England met Argentina at the Wembley Stadium.
After the match, newspaper reports stated that referee Rudolf Kreitlein had cautioned Englishmen Bobby and Jack Charlton, as well as sending off Argentinian Antonio Rattín. The referee had not made his decision clear during the game, England manager Alf Ramsey approached FIFA representative for post-match clarification; this incident started Aston thinking about ways to make a referee's decisions clearer to both players and spectators. Aston realised that a colour-coding scheme based on the same principle as used on traffic lights would transcend language barriers and make it clear that a player had been cautioned or expelled; as a result, yellow cards to indicate a caution and red cards to indicate an expulsion were used for the first time in the 1970 FIFA World Cup in Mexico. The use of penalty cards has since been adopted and expanded by several sporting codes, with each sport adapting the idea to its specific set of rules or laws. A yellow card is used in many different sporting codes, its meaning differs among sports.
Examples include: Association football: A yellow card is shown by the referee to indicate that a player has been cautioned. The player's details are recorded by the referee in a small notebook. A player, cautioned may continue playing in the game; the player may not be replaced by a substitute. Law 12 of the Laws of the Game lists the types of offences and misconduct that may result in a caution or is cautionary, it states that "only a player, substitute or substituted player" can be cautioned. In most tournaments, the accumulation of a certain number of yellow cards over several matches results in disqualification of the offending player for a certain number of subsequent matches, the exact number of cards and matches varying by jurisdiction. For more details, see Yellow card Athletics: In track events, a yellow card is as a personal warning in both track and field events used to indicate that a second yellow card would result in a disqualification. IAAF rules have abolished false start warnings.
However, as of 2012, the false start rule is that an athlete's hands must leave the track or their feet must leave the starting blocks before the gunshot in order for a false start to be given. Therefore, if an athlete makes a twitch, while being in their final'set' position, the maximum penalty is a yellow card. Australian rules football: A yellow card is issued against a player for committing any reportable offence, except those listed as'serious' reportable offences. Any player issued a yellow card is unable to participate in the game for the length of a quarter of play, excluding breaks, although the player can be replaced. However, a yellow card may be issued against a player at the discretion of an umpire, despite the player not committing a reportable offence. Yellow cards and red cards are, not issued in the Australian Football League, the highest level of play in Australian rules football. Badminton: A yellow card is given to a singles player or doubles pair as a warning for breaching the Laws of Badminton.
A yellow card can only be given once to a player or pair in a match, subsequent breaches are sanctioned with a red or black card. Bandy: A yellow card indicates a warning given to an entire team for technical fouls such as errors in the execution of goal-throws or free strokes, or the obstruction of a player without ball. Subsequent technical fouls by the same team result in a five-minute penalty indicated by a white card. Canoe polo: A yellow card indicates a player has received a two-minute temporary suspension. A yellow card can be awarded for a deliberate or dangerous foul that prevents the scoring of a near certain goal, dangerous illegal play, deliberate or repeated, foul or abusive language, continuously disputing a referee's decisions or receiving a third green card for any reason. Equestrian sports: Yellow cards may be issued during FEI sanctioned events for abuse of a horse or incorrect behavior towards an official. Abuse of the horse may include riding an lame horse
The CONMEBOL Sudamericana, named as Copa Sudamericana is an annual international club football competition organized by the CONMEBOL since 2002. It is the second-most prestigious club competition in South American football. CONCACAF clubs were invited between 2004 and 2008; the CONMEBOL Sudamericana began in 2002, replacing the separate competitions Copa Merconorte and Copa Mercosur by a single competition. Since its introduction, the competition has been a pure elimination tournament with the number of rounds and teams varying from year to year; the CONMEBOL Sudamericana is considered a merger of defunct tournaments such as the Copa CONMEBOL, Copa Mercosur and Copa Merconorte. The winner of the Copa Sudamericana becomes eligible to play in the Recopa Sudamericana, they gain entry onto the next edition of the Copa Libertadores, South America's premier club competition, contest the Suruga Bank Championship. The reigning champion of the competition is Brazilian club Athletico Paranaense, who defeated Colombian club Junior in the most recent final.
Argentine clubs have accumulated the most victories with eight while containing the largest number of different winning teams, with a total of six clubs having won the title. The cup has been won by 15 different clubs. Argentine clubs Boca Juniors and Independiente are the most successful clubs in the cup's history, having won the tournament twice, with Boca Juniors being the only one to achieve it back-to-back, in 2004 and 2005. In 1992, the Copa CONMEBOL was an international football tournament created for South American clubs that did not qualify for the Copa Libertadores and Supercopa Sudamericana; this tournament was replaced by the Copa Merconorte and Copa Mercosur. These tournaments started in 1998 but were discontinued in 2001. A Pan-American club cup competition was intended, under the name of Copa Pan-Americana, but instead, the Copa Sudamericana was introduced in 2002 as a single-elimination tournament with the reigning Copa Mercosur champion, San Lorenzo; as of 2015 the tournament comprised 48 teams in a knockout format, with 16 sides getting bye to the second round.
Starting from the 2017 edition, the tournament implemented the following format changes: The tournament was expanded from 47 to 54 teams. A total of 44 teams would directly enter the Copa Sudamericana, while a total of 10 teams eliminated from the Copa Libertadores would be transferred to the Copa Sudamericana, entering the competition in the second stage; the schedule of the tournament was extended to year-round so it would start in February and conclude in December. As the Copa Libertadores and the Copa Sudamericana would be held concurrently, no team would be able to qualify for both tournaments in the same year; the Copa Sudamericana champions would no longer directly qualify for the next edition as they would now directly qualify for the group stage of the Copa Libertadores. Brazil would be allocated six berths, decreased from eight. All teams directly entering the Copa Sudamericana would enter the first stage; the tournament shares its name with the trophy called the Copa Sudamericana or la Sudamericana, awarded to the Copa Sudamericana winner.
La Otra Mitad de La Gloria is a promotional Spanish phrase used in the context of winning or attempting on winning the Copa Sudamericana. It is a term used by Spanish-speaking media; the tournament itself has become regarded among its participants since its inception. In 2004, Cienciano's conquest of the trophy ignited a party across Peru; the Mexican football federation regards Pachuca's victory in 2006 as the most important title won by any Mexican club. Sports Illustrated qualified Arsenal, unlikely contenders for the 2007 edition, as "the underdog that couldn't be stopped". Like the Copa Libertadores, the Copa Sudamericana was sponsored by a group of multinational corporations. Like the premier South American club football tournament forementioned, the competition used a single, main sponsor; the first major sponsor was Nissan Motors, who signed an 8-year contract with CONMEBOL in 2003. However, the competition has had many secondary sponsors. Many of these sponsors have expanded to other nations.
Nike supplies the official match ball. Embratel, a brand of Telmex, is the only telecommunications sponsor of the tournament. Individual clubs may wear jerseys with advertising if such sponsors conflict with those of the Copa Sudamericana; as of May 2017, online entertainment site Bumbet has become a premium sponsor of Copa Sudamericana. Clubs in the Copa Sudamericana receive $400,000 for qualifying for the competition. Afterwards, each club earns $90,000 per home match; that amount is derived from stadium advertising. In addition, CONMEBOL pays $500,000 to the winners. Starting 2019 season, DirecTV and DAZN broadcast the Copa and Recopa Sudamericana coverage until 2022 from the previous broadcaster, Fox Sports and the CONMEBOL Libertadores-Sudamericana broadcast package are separate. RedeTV! will broadcast the tournament. Claudio Morel Rodríguez is the only player to have won three Copa Sudamericana winners' medals; as of
São José Esporte Clube
São José Esporte Clube called São José, nicknamed Eagle of the Valley, is the main football team in São José dos Campos, Brazil. Its home stadium is Estádio Martins Pereira, which has a maximum capacity of 15,300; the club was founded on August 13, 1933, as Esporte Clube São José, after Futebol Clube and Klaxon merged. The club merged in 1945 with Associação Esportiva São José to form São José Esporte Clube. On March 8, 1964, São José became a professional club. In December, 1976, due to a financial crisis, the club changed its name to São José Esporte Clube, with the purpose of not paying its debts; the club changed its colors, which were black and white, to the current blue and white ones, changed its logo. In 1989, the club was runner-up of Campeonato Paulista, after beating Corinthians in the semifinals, losing to São Paulo in the final, runner-up of Campeonato Brasileiro Second Division, losing to Bragantino in the final, but being promoted to the following year's first division. In 1996, São José won the Copa Vale after defeating Aparecida in the final.
In 2003, the club was renamed to Esporte São José, but in 2005, the club returned to its previous name, São José Esporte Clube. In 2006, São José moved back to Campeonato Paulista A-2. Years in Campeonato Brasileiro Série A: 1982 Place: 12th out of 44 1990 Place: 19th out of 20 Campeonato Paulista Third Division: 11965Campeonato Paulista Fourth Division: 11964Campeonato Paulista Série A2: 21972, 1980Campeonato Paulista Special Division: 11987Campeonato Paulista First Division: 0Runner-up: 1989Campeonato Brasileiro Série B: 0Runner-up: 1989Copa Vale: 11996Campeonato Paulista A-3: 0Runner-up: 2006 Émerson Leão Fidelis Roque Junior Sérgio Valentim Tião Marino São José's home pitch is Estádio Martins Pereira, inaugurated in 1970, with a maximum capacity of 15,317 people. On March 22, 1970, São José Esporte Clube played its first match in Estádio Martins Pereira. São José and Nacional drew 0-0; the Águia became the official mascot of São José in 1978, two years after São José changed their team colors.
"Azulão do Vale" was the team's nickname before that, but they changed it to "Águia do Vale" when Águia became the team's mascot. Águia was chosen as the club mascot as eagles are driven animals and will fight to the end against the odds. The biggest rival of São José is Taubaté; the derby between the two clubs is known. The team that São José played most against is Santo André; the current kits of São José are made by Umbro. Until December 1976, the club played in black and white vertical striped shirts, black shorts and white socks, not unlike Corinthians away kit. Finals of Campeonato Paulista A-1 1989 June 28 – São José 0–1 São Paulo July 2 – São José 0–0 São Paulo Tour of Spain 1989 August 17 – São José 2–1 Torrevieja August 19 – São José 1–1 Palamós August 21 – São José 0–0 Córdoba August 22 – São José 0–0 Martos August 24 – São José 2–1 Réus Desportivo August 25 – São José 1–0 Atlético Palma August 27 – São José 3–1 Mollerussa August 28 – São José 0–0 Estepona August 29 – São José 2–1 Portullano Women's team São José EC Page
Referee (association football)
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. He or she is the final decision-making authority on all facts connected with play, is the only official on the pitch with the authority to start and stop play and impose disciplinary action against players during a match. At most levels of play the referee is assisted by two assistant referees, who are empowered to advise the referee in certain situations such as the ball leaving play or infringements of the Laws of the Game occurring out of the view of the referee. At higher levels of play the referee may be assisted by a fourth official who supervises the teams' technical areas and assists the referee with administrative tasks, and, at the highest levels, additional assistant referees and/or video assistant referees. Referees' remuneration for their services varies between leagues. Many are wholly amateur, some may be paid a small fee or reimbursed for expenses, and, in some countries, a limited number of referees – those who officiate in their country's top league – are employed full-time by their national associations and receive a retainer at the start of every season plus match fees.
Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the additional honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials. Otherwise, the local national organisation determines the manner of training and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches; the referee's powers and duties are described by Law 5 of the Laws of the Game. These include: Powers stopping, suspending or terminating the match at their discretion, for any infringements of the Laws. An injured player may only return to the field of play, they are not obliged to take this action but must do so when the ball next goes out of play. Duties enforcing the Laws of the Game; the player may only return on receiving a signal from the referee, who must be satisfied that the bleeding has stopped. As per Law 9 of the game, if during the game the ball hits the referee there is no stoppage in play.
However the officials would be expected to position themselves such that this would be unlikely to occur. Modern day referees and their assistants wear a uniform consisting of a jersey, badge and socks: until the 1950s it was more common for a referee to wear a blazer than a jersey. Traditionally that uniform was always all black, unless one of the teams was wearing a dark jersey in which case the referee would wear another colour of jersey to distinguish themself from both teams. At the 1994 World Cup finals, new jerseys were introduced that gave officials a choice of burgundy, yellow or white, at the same time the creation of the Premier League in England saw referees wear green jerseys: both changes were motivated by television considerations. Since most referees have worn either yellow or black, but the colours and styles adopted by individual associations vary greatly. For international contests under the supervision of FIFA, Adidas uniforms are worn because Adidas is the current sponsor.
FIFA allows referees to wear five colours: black, yellow and blue. Along with the jersey, referees are required to wear black shorts, black socks, black shoes; the badge, which displays the referee's license level and year of validity, is affixed to the left chest pocket. All referees carry a whistle, a watch, penalty cards, a data wallet with pen and paper, a coin for determining which team has the choice of ends or kick-off. Most are encouraged to have more than one of each on them in case they drop a whistle or a pen