Robert "Bob" Passantino, was an American Christian author and journalist who wrote on subjects related to Christian apologetics and the Christian countercult movement. Passantino lived and worked for most of his adult life in Costa Mesa and received instruction in Christian teaching and practiced as a professing member of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, he emerged as an apologist for faith in Evangelical Christianity during the 1970s. He and his soon-to-be wife, had begun to collaborate in a ministry of Christian evangelism toward adherents of the Jehovah's Witnesses when they became acquainted with the Baptist pastor and countercult writer Walter Martin. Martin was the founder of the apologetics ministry Christian Research Institute. In 1974 Martin relocated the Institute from New Jersey to southern California where he re-established his ministry in association with the Melodyland School of Theology. Martin officiated as the minister at the marriage ceremony of the Passantinos; the Passantinos assisted Martin in the ministry of the Christian Research Institute for five years from 1974 to 1979.
In that context Martin taught them the rudiments of the discipline of apologetics and of investigative reporting in countercult ministry. During the 1970s and 1980s Gretchen served as an editorial assistant in preparing revised editions of some of Martin's books such as The Rise of the Cults, The Kingdom of the Cults and The Maze of Mormonism; as a couple, the Passantinos began to develop their profile as speakers in evangelical churches delivering presentations about cults and general apologetics questions concerning the existence of God and the historicity of the Bible. Together they branched out from working at Christian Research Institute and began to operate their own apologetics and countercult ministry known as Christian Apologetics: Research and Information Service; this ministry subsequently was renamed as Answers In Action. They founded Answers In Action with the intent to help both Christians and non-Christians apply logic and reason to religious inquiry and to assist in answering questions about apologetics, philosophy and theology.
Robert's approach to religion was to "represent their belief system as as you would have them represent yours."Some of their initial writing appeared as researched chapters in Martin's book The New Cults. Their first co-written book Answers to the Cultist at Your Door was designed as a popular apologetics handbook for Christians; the book consisted of brief chapters about the phenomenon of cults followed by specific chapters containing evangelical apologetic responses to the doctrines taught by the Jehovah's Witnesses, Unification Church, Hare Krishna, the Way International. Passantino contributed an essay on Jehovah's Witnesses in Ronald Enroth's book Evangelising the Cults; this essay centered a basic Evangelical apologetic argument that challenged the stance taken by Jehovah's Witnesses on three doctrines: the Trinity and Salvation. He contributed a lengthy essay that explored the theory and application of religious research to the Evangelical Ministries to New Religions' symposium volume Contend for the Faith, published in 1992.
During the 1990s the Passantinos emerged as critical evangelical voices on a number of questions connected to Protestant understandings about the subject of Satanism and the Occult. One of their early exposés, first published in Cornerstone magazine, concerned Lauren Stratford's fraudulent claims of satanic ritual abuse, they were skeptical about claims concerning Satanic Ritual Abuse and they argued that the basis of these claims could be explained as a combination of folklore and moral panic. In both published essays and books they called into question what they regarded as misconceptions held by Christians about the beliefs and practices of Satanist groups; this included their alarm at how Satanists were accused in Christian literature or in popular media as being perpetrators of organized crime. Passantino's commitment to a libertarian concept of free-agency led to critical evaluations of theological and socio-psychological forms of determinism. Against a wide current of Christian and non-Christian opinion, the Passantinos published a controversial article in Cornerstone magazine in 1994, titled Overcoming The Bondage Of Victimization: A Critical Evaluation of Cult Mind Control Theories, in which they criticized the theoretical and empirical underpinnings of "mind control" and "exit counseling" models.
The article was reprinted in a edition of Martin's The Kingdom of the Cults, but has since been removed due to allegations that it didn't represent Martin's own views. The Passantinos were influential on other apologists as evidenced by the acknowledgements made by other apologists who refer to them concerning their input and research; this was so because it was new and no one had addressed the subject prior to the 1970s. Robert Passantino died on age 52, due to cardiac arrest, he is buried at Westminster Memorial in California. His wife, died from cardiac dysrhythmia as a result of undiagnosed diabetes on October 2, 2014, age 61, at Hoag Hospital Newport Beach, they are survived by their three children. In October 2007, Norman Geisler and Chad Meister published a collection of essays written in honor of Passantino titled Reasons for Faith: Making a Case for the Christian Faith. Robert Passantino, Gretchen Passantino, Answers to the Cultist at Your Door, Oregon: Harvest House, 1981. ISBN 0-89081-275-6 Bob Passantino & Gretchen Passantino, Witch Hunt, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1990.
ISBN 0-8407-3129-9 Bob
Utah State University
Utah State University is a public land-grant research university in Logan, Utah. It is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Universities. With nearly 20,000 students living on or near campus, USU is Utah's largest public residential campus; as of Fall 2018, there were 27,932 students enrolled including 24,880 undergraduate students and 3,052 graduate students. The university has the highest percentage of out-of-state students of any public university in Utah totaling 23% of the student body. Founded in 1888 as Utah's agricultural college, USU focused on science, agriculture, domestic arts, military science, mechanic arts; the university offers programs in liberal arts, business, natural resource sciences, as well as nationally ranked elementary & secondary education programs. It offers master's and doctoral programs in humanities, social sciences, STEM areas, it received its current name in 1957. The university is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity". Utah State University has produced 7 Rhodes Scholars, 1 Nobel Prize winner, 1 MacArthur Fellows program inductee, 4 recipients of the Harry S. Truman Scholarship, 34 recipients of the Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship.
USU has nine colleges and offers 159 undergraduate degrees, 83 master's degrees, 41 doctoral degrees. USU's main campus is in Logan with regional campuses in Brigham City and the Uintah Basin and 28 other locations throughout Utah. In 2010, the College of Eastern Utah, in Price, Utah joined the USU system becoming Utah State University College of Eastern Utah. Throughout Utah, USU operates more than 20 distance education centers. Regional campuses, USU Eastern, distance education centers account for 59% of the students enrolled. USU has 149,000 alumni in all 110 countries. USU's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Utah State Aggies, they are a member of the Mountain West Conference. On December 16, 1861, Justin Morrill introduced a bill into the U. S. House of Representatives, "to establish at least one college in each state upon a sure and perpetual foundation, accessible to all, but to the sons of toil..." President Abraham Lincoln signed the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act into effect in July of the following year.
Meanwhile, after visiting a few rural agricultural schools in his native Denmark, Anthon H. Lund of the Utah Territorial Legislature decided that there existed in Utah a need for such a school fusing the highest in scientific and academic research with agriculture, the way of life for the vast majority of locals. Upon returning to the states, Lund heard about the Morrill Act, pitched a vision for the college that would receive widespread support among the Territorial Legislature, at the time seeking to reapply for statehood. Now there came the question of location. According to historian Joel Ricks in 1938, "Provo had received the Insane Asylum, Salt Lake City had the University and Capitol, the majority of the legislature felt that the new institutions should be given to Weber and Cache Counties." Citizens in Logan, Cache County, banded together and lobbied representatives for the honor. The bill to establish the Agricultural College of Utah was passed on March 8, 1888, on September 2, 1890, 14-year-old Miss Vendla Berntson enrolled as its first student.
In its early years, the college narrowly dodged two major campaigns to consolidate its operations with the University of Utah. Much controversy arose in response to President William J. Kerr's expansion of the college's scope beyond its agricultural roots. Detractors in Salt Lake City feared that such an expansion would come at the expense of the University of Utah, pushed consolidation as a counter. In 1907, an agreement was struck to instead limit the curricula of the Agricultural College to agriculture, domestic science, mechanic arts; this meant closing all departments in Logan, including the already-impressive music department, which did not fall under that umbrella. The University of Utah became responsible, for a time, for courses in engineering, medicine, fine arts, pedagogy, despite the Agricultural College's initial charter in 1888 which mandated that it offer instruction in such things; the bulk of the curricular restrictions were lifted during the next two decades, with the exception of law and medicine, which have since remained the sole property of the University of Utah.
Amid the tumult, the Agricultural College grew modestly, adding its statewide Extension program in 1914. A year the first master's degrees were awarded. UAC, as the Utah Agricultural College was abbreviated received a notable boost in students as a direct result of World War I. Colleges and universities nationwide were temporarily transformed into training grounds for the short-lived Student Army Training Corps, composed of students who received military instruction and could return to their educations following their military service; as the then-tiny campus could not otherwise support such large numbers of new students, college president Elmer Peterson convinced the state in 1918 to appropriate funds for permanent brick buildings, which could be used as barracks for SATC students during the war, instruction afterward. Though the war was soon to end, the campus doubled in size; the 1920s and 1930s saw the genesis of major growth. A School of Education was added in 1928, a prelude to the institution being renamed Utah State Agricultural College in 1929.
Doctoral degrees were first granted in 1950. In 1957, the school was granted university status as Utah State University
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints informally known as the LDS Church or Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church, considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ. The church is headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah in the United States, has established congregations and built temples worldwide. According to the church, it has 67,000 full-time volunteer missionaries. In 2012, the National Council of Churches ranked the church as the fourth-largest Christian denomination in the United States, with over 6.5 million members reported by the church, as of January 2018. It is the largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith during the period of religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening. Adherents referred to as "Latter-day Saints" or, less formally, "Mormons", view faith in Jesus Christ and his atonement as fundamental principles of their religion. LDS theology includes the Christian doctrine of salvation only through Jesus Christ, though LDS doctrines regarding the nature of God and the potential of mankind differ from mainstream Christianity.
The church has an open canon which includes four scriptural texts: the Bible, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, the Pearl of Great Price. Other than the Bible, the majority of the LDS canon constitutes revelation received by Joseph Smith and recorded by his scribes which includes commentary and exegesis about the Bible, texts described as lost parts of the Bible, other works believed to be written by ancient prophets; because of some of the doctrinal differences, Catholic and several Protestant churches consider the Church to be distinct and separate from mainstream Christianity. Under the doctrine of continuing revelation, Latter-day Saints believe that the church president is a modern-day "prophet and revelator" and that Jesus Christ, under the direction of God the Father, leads the church by revealing his will to its president. Individual members of the church believe that they can receive personal revelation from God in conducting their lives; the president heads a hierarchical structure with various levels reaching down to local congregations.
Bishops, drawn from the laity, lead local congregations. Male members, beginning in January of the year they reach age 12, may be ordained to the priesthood, provided they are living the standards of the church. Women are not ordained to the priesthood but do occupy leadership roles in some church auxiliary organizations. Both men and women may serve as missionaries and the church maintains a large missionary program that proselytizes and conducts humanitarian services worldwide. Faithful members adhere to church laws of sexual purity, health and Sabbath observance, contribute ten percent of their income to the church in tithing; the church teaches about sacred ordinances through which adherents make covenants with God, including baptism, the sacrament, priesthood ordination and celestial marriage —all of which are of great significance to church members. The history of the LDS Church is divided into three broad time periods: the early history during the lifetime of Joseph Smith, in common with all Latter Day Saint movement churches.
The LDS Church called the Church of Christ, was formally organized by Joseph Smith on April 6, 1830, in western New York. Smith changed the name to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints after he stated he had received a revelation to do so. Initial converts were drawn to the church in part because of the newly published Book of Mormon, a self-described chronicle of indigenous American prophets that Smith said he had translated from golden plates. Smith intended to establish the New Jerusalem in North America, called Zion. In 1831, the church moved to Kirtland and began establishing an outpost in Jackson County, where he planned to move the church headquarters. However, in 1833, Missouri settlers brutally expelled the Latter Day Saints from Jackson County, the church was unable via a paramilitary expedition to recover the land; the church flourished in Kirtland as Smith published new revelations and the church built the Kirtland Temple, culminating in a dedication of the building similar to the day of Pentecost.
The Kirtland era ended in 1838, after a financial scandal rocked the church and caused widespread defections. Smith regrouped with the remaining church in Far West, but tensions soon escalated into violent conflicts with the old Missouri settlers. Believing the Saints to be in insurrection, the Missouri governor ordered that the Saints be "exterminated or driven from the State." In 1839, the Saints converted a swampland on the banks of the Mississippi River into Nauvoo, which became the church's new headquarters. Nauvoo grew as missionaries sent to Europe and elsewhere gained new converts who flooded into Nauvoo. Meanwhile, Smith introduced polygamy to his closest associates, he established ceremonies, which he stated the Lord had revealed to him, to allow righteous people to become gods in the afterlife, a secular institution to govern the Millennial kingdom. He introduced the church to a full accounting of his First Vision, in which two heavenly "personages" (God the Father and his
Dave Hunt (Christian apologist)
David Charles Haddon Hunt was an American Christian apologist, radio commentator and author. He was in full-time ministry from 1973 until his death; the Berean Call, which highlights Hunt's material, was started in 1992. From 1999 to 2010, he hosted Search the Scriptures Daily radio ministry alongside T. A. McMahon. Hunt traveled to the Near East, lived in Egypt, wrote numerous books on theology, prophecy and other religions, including critiques of Catholicism, Islam and Calvinism, among others. Hunt's Christian theology was evangelical dispensational and he was associated with the Plymouth Brethren movement. David Charles Haddon Hunt was born on September 30, 1926, in Riverside, California, to Lillie and Albert Hunt, he was raised with two other siblings. As a young man, he spent time in the military, at the end of World War II, he was an alumnus of UCLA. From June 24, 1950, until his death, Hunt was married to his college sweetheart, Ruth Klaussen, who together raised four children: David Jr. Janna and Jon.
He worked as a CPA before his entry into full-time ministry. Hunt believed occult or pagan influences are pervasive in modern culture - this includes evolution, as well as all forms of psychology, some forms of entertainment and some forms of medicine, his book Occult Invasion is dedicated to this area. Hunt was a strict Biblical Creationist - refutations of evolution and theistic evolution were a frequent topic of his radio programs, Search the Scriptures Daily and According to God's Word.... I think you’ve got to be stubborn to reject God and to say evolution—it all happened by chance. No rational person could support that thesis, and I would challenge anybody....—you know the more they get down—when we discovered electron microscopes and we got down to the molecular level of life, we found that it was far more complex than Darwin realized. Hunt addressed Calvinism in a book called What Love is This? Calvinism's Misrepresentation of God, published in 2002 and revised in 2004 and 2006, he sought to refute many alleged misconceptions of Calvinism without taking an Arminian stance.
He outlined a theological middle ground between Calvinism and Arminianism, according to Hunt, one can believe in eternal security but reject Calvinistic teaching. Published in 2004 was Debating Calvinism: Five Points, Two Views, co-written in a point-counterpoint debate format by Hunt and Calvinist apologist James White. In A Woman Rides the Beast, he identified the Roman Catholic Church as the Whore of Babylon from the prophecies in chapters 17 and 18 of the Book of Revelation; the book The Godmakers, which Dave Hunt co-wrote with Ed Decker, the accompanying film The God Makers by Jeremiah Films were an exposé of Mormonism, highlighting the Mormon belief that Jesus is the spirit brother of Lucifer and many other disturbing facts. The book and film have been criticized not only by Mormons themselves as inaccurate portrayals of their religion but as inaccurate by other non-Mormon groups that are critical of Mormonism. In 1973 he wrote the screenplay for Time to Run, a Christian film produced for the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association.
The Seduction of Christianity, which categorized Word of Faith teachings and psychology-based counseling as New Age heresies, generated much debate in the 1980s. Responses from meditation proponents and from Calvinist re-constructionist writers include Seduction?? A Biblical Response and The Reduction of Christianity. Hunt has written a rejoinder to the latter critics in his Whatever Happened to Heaven? Hunt wrote about Y2K with the intent of refuting the fearful predictions being made by other Christian fundamentalist writers. In his final book, "Cosmos and Human Destiny", Hunt supported the Creationist viewpoint and alleged that there were deficiencies in both the Big Bang theory and the theory of evolution. America and Islam, ISBN 1-929125-32-1 America, the Sorcerer's New Apprentice: The Rise of New Age Shamanism, ISBN 0-89081-651-4 Battle for the Mind, ISBN 1-928660-09-6 Beyond Seduction: A Return to Biblical Christianity, ISBN 0-89081-558-5 Cosmos and Human Destiny, ISBN 978-1-928660-64-4 Countdown to the Second Coming, ISBN 0-89081-910-6 The Cult Explosion, ISBN 0-89081-241-1 A Cup of Trembling: Jerusalem and Bible Prophecy, ISBN 1-56507-334-7 Death of a Guru, ISBN 0-89081-434-1 Debating Calvinism: Five Points, Two Views.
Islam and the Nations, ISBN 1-928660-32-0 The Mind Invaders, ISBN 1-56507-831-4 The New Spirituality, ISBN 1-56507-121-2 Occult Invasion, ISBN 1-56507-269-3 Peace and the Coming Holocaust subtitled "The New Age Movement in Prophecy", ISBN 0-89081-331-0 The Power of the Spirit, ISBN 0-87508-247-5 Revelation Hoofbeats, ISBN 1-59160-873-2 Sanctuary of the Chosen, ISBN 1-56507-215-4 Secret Invasion, ISBN 0-89081-560-7 Seduction of Christianity: Spiritual Discernment in the Last Days, ISBN 0-89081-441-4 Seeking and Finding God, ISBN 1-928660-23-1 To Russia With Love, ISBN 978-1-928660-36-1 Toward the 7th Millennium: A Penetrating Look into the Future, ISBN 0-937422-42-8 Understanding the New Age Movement, ISBN 0-8908
In Christianity, evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ. Christians who specialize in evangelism are known as evangelists, whether they are in their home communities or living as missionaries in the field, although some Christian traditions refer to such people as missionaries in either case; some Christian traditions consider evangelists to be in a leadership position. Christian groups who encourage evangelism are sometimes known as evangelist; the scriptures do not use the word evangelism, but evangelist is used in Acts 21:8, Ephesians 4:11, 2 Timothy 4:5. The word evangelist comes from the Koine Greek word εὐαγγέλιον via Latinised evangelium as used in the canonical titles of the Four Gospels, authored by Matthew, Mark and John; the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον meant a reward given to the messenger for good news and "good news" itself. The verb form of euangelion, occurs in older Greek literature outside the New Testament, making its meaning more difficult to ascertain.
Parallel texts of the Gospels of Luke and Mark reveal a synonymous relationship between the verb euangelizo and a Greek verb kerusso, which means "to proclaim". Some Christians distinguish between evangelism and proselytism, the latter viewed as unethical because it is taken to involve the abuse of people's freedom and the distortion of the gospel of grace by means of coercion, deception and exploitation; the term "proselytize" might be used when one group does not approve of the missional activities of another when one group is losing members to another group. Different denominations follow different theological interpretations which reflect upon the point of, doing the actual conversion, whether the evangelist or the Holy Spirit or both. Calvinists, among other Christian denominations, believe the soul is converted salutary to Christ only if the Holy Spirit is effective in the act. Catholic missionary work in Russia is seen as evangelism, not proselytism. Archbishop Kondrusiewicz stated, "that proselytism is unacceptable and cannot constitute a strategy for the development of our structures either in Russia or in any other country in the world".
Regarding claims by the Orthodox church that spreading the faith and receiving converts amounts to proselytism, the Catholic Church's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a document called "Doctrinal Note on some Aspects of Evangelization" which states that evangelism is "an inalienable right and duty, an expression of religious liberty...", added, "The incorporation of new members into the Church is not the expansion of a power group, but rather entrance into the network of friendship with Christ which connects heaven and earth, different continents and age. It is entrance into the gift of communion with Christ...." In recent history, certain Bible passages have been used to promote evangelism. William Carey, in a book entitled,'An Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens' popularised a quotation, according to the Bible, during his last days on earth Jesus commanded his eleven disciples as follows: Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you.
And I am with you always, to the end of the age. However, recent scholarship by Chris Wright and others has suggested that such activity is promoted by the entire Bible, or at least the wider term'mission', although the meaning of the word'mission' and its relationship to'evangelism' is disputed amongst Christians. Breaking from tradition and going beyond television and radio a wide range of methods have been developed to reach people not inclined to attend traditional events in churches or revival meetings. Dramas such as Heaven's Gates, Hell's Flames have gained enormous popularity since the 1980s; these dramas depict fictional characters who die and learn whether they will go to heaven or hell. The child evangelism movement is a Christian evangelism movement that originated in the 20th century, it focuses on the 4/14 Window which centers on evangelizing children between the ages of 4 and 14 years old. Beginning in the 1970s, a group of Christian athletes known as The Power Team spawned an entire genre of Christian entertainment based on strong-man exploits mixed with a Christian message and accompanied by an opportunity to respond with a prayer for salvation.
Other entertainment-based Christian evangelism events include live theater and music. The Christian music industry has played a significant role in modern evangelism. Rock concerts in which the artist exhort non-believing attendees to pray a prayer for salvation have become common, just as common are concerts that are focused on activity not on prayer and conversion, thus forming an environment, not driven by conversion, but instead relaying of a message. Evangelists such as Reinhard Bonnke conduct mass evangelistic crusades around the world. Hundreds of church denominations and organizations participate in an evangelism movement known as the Billion Soul Harvest, a comprehensive initiative to convert a billion people to Christianity. New opportunities for evangelization have been provided in recen
A writer is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate their ideas. Writers produce various forms of literary art and creative writing such as novels, short stories, plays and essays as well as various reports and news articles that may be of interest to the public. Writers' texts are published across a range of media. Skilled writers who are able to use language to express ideas well contribute to the cultural content of a society; the term "writer" is used elsewhere in the arts – such as songwriter – but as a standalone "writer" refers to the creation of written language. Some writers work from an oral tradition. Writers can produce material across a number of genres, non-fictional. Other writers use multiple media – for example, graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas. Another recent demand has been created by civil and government readers for the work of non-fictional technical writers, whose skills create understandable, interpretive documents of a practical or scientific nature.
Some writers may use multimedia to augment their writing. In rare instances, creative writers are able to communicate their ideas via music as well as words; as well as producing their own written works, writers write on how they write. Writers work professionally or non-professionally, that is, for payment or without payment and may be paid either in advance, or only after their work is published. Payment is only one of the motivations of writers and many are never paid for their work; the term writer is used as a synonym of author, although the latter term has a somewhat broader meaning and is used to convey legal responsibility for a piece of writing if its composition is anonymous, unknown or collaborative. Writers choose from a range of literary genres to express their ideas. Most writing can be adapted for use in another medium. For example, a writer's work may be read or recited or performed in a play or film. Satire for example, may be written as a poem, an essay, a film, a comic play, or a piece of journalism.
The writer of a letter may include elements of biography, or journalism. Many writers work across genres; the genre sets the parameters but all kinds of creative adaptation have been attempted: novel to film. Writers may change to another. For example, historian William Dalrymple began in the genre of travel literature and writes as a journalist. Many writers have produced both fiction and non-fiction works and others write in a genre that crosses the two. For example, writers of historical romances, such as Georgette Heyer, invent characters and stories set in historical periods. In this genre, the accuracy of the history and the level of factual detail in the work both tend to be debated; some writers write both creative fiction and serious analysis, sometimes using different names to separate their work. Dorothy Sayers, for example, wrote crime fiction but was a playwright, essayist and critic. Poets make maximum use of the language to achieve an emotional and sensory effect as well as a cognitive one.
To create these effects, they use rhyme and rhythm and they exploit the properties of words with a range of other techniques such as alliteration and assonance. A common theme is its vicissitudes. Shakespeare's famous love story Romeo and Juliet, for example, written in a variety of poetic forms, has been performed in innumerable theatres and made into at least eight cinematic versions. John Donne is another poet renowned for his love poetry. Novelists write novels -- stories, they situate invented characters and plots in a narrative designed to be both credible and entertaining. Every novel worthy of the name is like another planet, whether large or small, which has its own laws just as it has its own flora and fauna. Thus, Faulkner's technique is the best one with which to paint Faulkner's world, Kafka's nightmare has produced its own myths that make it communicable. Benjamin Constant, Eugène Fromentin, Jacques Rivière, all used different techniques, took different liberties, set themselves different tasks.
François Mauriac, novelist A satirist uses wit to ridicule the shortcomings of society or individuals, with the intent of exposing stupidity. The subject of the satire is a contemporary issue such as ineffective political decisions or politicians, although human vices such as greed are a common and universal subject. Philosopher Voltaire wrote a satire about optimism called Candide, subsequently turned into an opera, many well known lyricists wrote for it. There are elements of Absurdism in Candide, just as there are in the work of contemporary satirist Barry Humphries, who writes comic satire for his character Dame Edna Everage to perform on stage. Satirists use various techniques such as irony and hyperbole to make their point and they choose from the full range of genres – the satire may be in the form of prose or poetry or dialogue in a film, for example. One of the most famous satirists is Jonathan Swift who wrote the four-volume work Gulliver's Travels and many other satires, including A Modest Proposal and The Battle of the Books.
It is amazing to me that... our age is wholly illiterate and has hardly produced one writer upon any subject. Jonathan Swift, satirist A short story writer is a writer of short stories, works of fiction that can be read in a single sitting. Libretti (the p