Ohio's 20th congressional district
The 20th Congressional district of Ohio was created after the 1840 census. It was eliminated in the redistricting following the 1990 census, redistricted and renumbered as the 10th district. In its last decade, the district consisted of central Cuyahoga county; the following chart shows historic election results. Bold type indicates victor. Italic type indicates incumbent. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 1983 District Maps of Ohio - United States Congress, Ohio Senate, Ohio House of Representatives, Ohio Court of Appeals, Sherrod Brown, Secretary of State
Mary Rose Oakar
Mary Rose Oakar is an American Democratic politician and former member of the United States House of Representatives from Ohio, the first Democratic woman elected to the United States Congress from that state. Oakar was the first woman of Arab-American ancestry to serve in Congress, she is a member of the Ohio State Board of Education. Oakar, who graduated with a B. A. from Ursuline College in 1962 and an M. A. from John Carroll University in 1966, taught at Lourdes Academy, a Catholic high school for women, directed plays, taught at Cuyahoga Community College from 1968 to 1975 and served on the Cleveland City Council from 1973 to 1976 before winning election to the House from Ohio's 20th congressional district in Cleveland's West Side and the surrounding suburbs. She took office in 1977. Oakar, one of few Arab-American members of the House, became regarded as an powerful member, she was a high-ranking member of the Banking and Urban Affairs Committee, the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service and the House Administration Committee.
Oakar's high placement on these committees allowed her to bring home to Cleveland large sums of money for urban renewal. Oakar forged strong relationships with Jewish groups in Cleveland. From 1985 to 1989, she was elected to a position in the House Democratic leadership, as Secretary of the House Democratic Caucus. In 1991, she was one of nearly 100 Members of Congress involved in the widespread House banking scandal involving multiple overdrafts and bounced checks; the House Bank, not a operating financial institution, was used to pay members of the house. However, members were allowed to take advances on their pay checks without overdraft charges or repercussions to their credit. Oakar was indicted on seven counts, including lying to the FBI, filing false financial statements and using the House bank to convert public money for personal use. If sentenced, she could have received 40 years in a $1.7 million fine. She had used the names of straw donors on federal documents to conceal illegal contributions amounting to $16,000.
Three counts against her were thrown out by the Supreme Court, the others were dropped after she entered a plea bargain in which she pleaded guilty to two misdemeanor charges. In 1992, her district was renumbered the 10th and redrawn to include more Republicans, though it was still solidly Democratic. Oakar withstood a challenge from Cuyahoga County Commissioner Tim Hagan in the Democratic primary — Hagan had been endorsed by Cleveland Mayor Michael R. White — but lost to businessman Martin Hoke in the general election, she won a 1999 libel settlement against Cleveland's newspaper, The Plain Dealer after seven years in court. In April 1992 the Cleveland's Plain Dealer released articles alleging that Oakar was forced to resign from a congressional task force after the House banking scandal; the paper acknowledged that the eight-term Democrat "was rightfully upset that erroneous information" had been printed. Oakar unsuccessfully ran in the 2001 Cleveland Mayoral Primary and served a single term in the Ohio House of Representatives from 2000 to 2002.
In November 2012, she was elected to a four-year term on the Ohio State Board of Education where she represents District 11 which encompasses Ohio Senate districts 21, 23 and 25. In 1979, the Supersisters trading card set was distributed. Oakar served as president of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee from 2003 through 2010. ADC describes itself as the largest Arab-American grassroots civil-rights organization in the U. S. List of American federal politicians convicted of crimes List of Arab and Middle-Eastern Americans in the United States Congress List of federal political scandals in the United States Women in the United States House of Representatives United States Congress. "Mary Rose Oakar". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Profile on the Ohio Ladies' Gallery website Appearances on C-SPAN
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Samuel Stokely was a U. S. Representative from Ohio. Born in Washington, Stokely attended private schools, he was graduated from Washington College, Pennsylvania, in 1813. He studied law, he was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Steubenville, Ohio, in 1817. He was United States land receiver 1821–1833, he served as a member of the State senate in 1837 and 1838. Stokely was elected as a Whig to the Twenty-seventh Congress, he resumed the practice of law in Steubenville, where he died May 23, 1861. He was interred in Union Cemetery. In April 1830, he married Rachel Mason, he purchased the Bezaleel Wells homestead, The Grove, at a sheriff's sale, he and his descendents lived there for sixty years. He was a general in the militia, married and was survived Mrs. Lowther and Mrs. Burton, he had four children. United States Congress. "Samuel Stokely". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Samuel Stokely at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Michael A. Feighan
Michael Aloysius Feighan was an American politician from Lakewood, near Cleveland. He served as a member of the Ohio House of Representatives, as a Democratic Party U. S. Representative from 1943 to 1971, serving Ohio's 20th congressional district, he was recruited by national Democrats who wanted to replace Congressman Martin L. Sweeney, who had for eleven years held the seat representing the west side of Cleveland, they considered Sweeney to be too isolationist. After Feighan had served three decades in the House of Representatives, some local Democratic officials, led by Cleveland City Council President James V. Stanton, had grown tired of his leadership. Sensing that they could not beat Feighan in one election, they set up a stalking horse running a Michael Sweeney, a local lawyer with a good political name. Sweeney lost. Two years in 1970, Stanton himself ran and defeated Feighan in the Democratic primary, concluding Feighan's political career. During the legislation of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 Feighan insisted that "family unification" should take priority in immigration policy over "employability", on the premise that such a weighting would maintain the existing ethnic profile of the country.
That change instead resulted in chain migration dominating the subsequent patterns of immigration to the United States and a more ethnically diverse population. United States Congress. "Michael A. Feighan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Michael Feighan Papers at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University The Political Graveyard profile
Dennis John Kucinich is an American politician. A former U. S. Representative from Ohio, serving from 1997 to 2013, he was a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2004 and 2008 Presidential elections, he was a candidate for Governor of Ohio in the 2018 election, losing in the primary to Richard Cordray. From 1977 to 1979, Kucinich served as the 53rd Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio, a tumultuous term in which he survived a recall election and was successful in a battle against selling the municipal electric utility before being defeated for reelection by George Voinovich; because of redistricting following the 2010 state elections, Kucinich was pitted against 9th District incumbent Marcy Kaptur in the 2012 race for the Democratic nomination of Ohio's 9th congressional district absorbed part of Cuyahoga County, which he lost. In January 2013, he became a contributor on the Fox News Channel, appearing on programs such as The O'Reilly Factor. Kucinich was born in Cleveland, Ohio, on October 8, 1946, as the eldest of the seven children of Virginia and Frank J. Kucinich.
His father, a truck driver, was of Croat ancestry. Growing up, his family moved 21 times and Dennis was charged with the responsibility of finding apartments they could afford, he attended Cleveland State University from 1967 to 1970. In 1973, he graduated from Case Western Reserve University with both a Bachelor and a Master of Arts degree in speech and communication. Kucinich's political career began in 1967. In 1969, Kucinich was elected to the Cleveland City Council at the age of twenty-three. In 1972, Kucinich ran for a House of Representatives seat, losing narrowly to incumbent Republican William E. Minshall Jr. After Minshall's retirement in 1974 Kucinich sought the seat again, this time failing to get the Democratic nomination, which instead went to Ronald M. Mottl. Kucinich ran as an Independent candidate in the general election, placing third with about 30% of the vote. In 1975, Kucinich became clerk of the municipal court in Cleveland and served in that position for two years. Kucinich was elected Mayor of Cleveland in 1977 and served in that position until 1979.
At thirty-one years of age, he was the youngest mayor of a major city in the United States, earning him the nickname "the boy mayor of Cleveland". Kucinich's tenure as mayor is regarded as one of the most tumultuous in Cleveland's history. After Kucinich refused to sell Municipal Light, Cleveland's publicly owned electric utility, the Cleveland mafia put out a hit on Kucinich. A hit man from Maryland planned to shoot him in the head during the Columbus Day Parade, but the plot fell apart when Kucinich was hospitalized and missed the event; when the city fell into default shortly thereafter, the mafia leaders called off the contract killer. It was the Cleveland Trust Company that required all of the city's debts be paid in full, which forced the city into default, after news of Kucinich's refusal to sell the city utility. For years, these debts were rolled over, pending future payment, until Kucinich's announcement was made public. In 1998, the Cleveland City Council honored him for having had the "courage and foresight" to stand up to the banks, which saved the city an estimated $195 million between 1985 and 1995.
After losing his re-election bid for Mayor to George Voinovich in 1979, Kucinich kept a low profile in Cleveland politics. He criticized a tax referendum proposed by Voinovich in 1980, which voters approved, he struggled to find employment and moved to Los Angeles, where he stayed with a friend, actress Shirley MacLaine. During the next three years, Kucinich worked as a radio talk-show host and consultant, it was a difficult period for Kucinich financially. Without a steady paycheck, Kucinich fell behind in his mortgage payments, nearly lost his house in Cleveland, ended up borrowing money from friends, including MacLaine, to keep it. On his 1982 income tax return, Kucinich reported an income of $38; when discussing this period, Kucinich stated, "When I was growing up in Cleveland, my early experience conditioned me to hang in there and not to quit... It's one thing to experience that as a child, but when you have to as an adult, it has a way to remind you how difficult things can be. You understand what people go through."In 1982, Kucinich moved back to Cleveland and ran for Secretary of State.
In 1983, Kucinich won a special election to fill the seat of a Cleveland city councilman who had died. His brother, Gary Kucinich, was a councilman at the time. In 1985, there was some speculation. Instead, his brother Gary ran against the incumbent Voinovich. Kucinich, gave up his council position to run for Governor of Ohio as an independent against Richard Celeste, but withdrew from the race. After this, Kucinich, in his own words "on a quest for meaning," lived in New Mexico until 1994, when he won a seat in the Ohio State Senate. In 1996, Kucinich was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives, representing the 10th district of Ohio, he defeated two-term Republican incumbent Martin Hoke by three percentage points. He would never face another general election contest nearly that close, would be re-elected seven times. Committee on Education and the Workforce Subcommittee on Workforce Protections Subcommittee on Health, Employment and Pensions Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs, Stimulus Oversight and Government Spending Kucinich served as chair of the Congress
Cuyahoga County, Ohio
Cuyahoga County is a county in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2016 United States Census estimates, the population was 1,249,352, making it the second most populous county in the state, its county seat is Cleveland. The county is named after the Iroquoian word Cuyahoga, which means'crooked river'; the name is assigned to the Cuyahoga River, which bisects the county. Cuyahoga County is included in OH Metropolitan Statistical Area. Former U. S. President James A. Garfield was born in. After the discovery of the New World, the land that became Cuyahoga County was part of the French colony of Canada, ceded in 1763 to Great Britain and renamed Province of Quebec. In the late 18th century the land became part of the Connecticut Western Reserve in the Northwest Territory was purchased by the Connecticut Land Company in 1795. Cuyahoga County was created on June 7, 1807 and organized on May 1, 1810, it was reduced by the creation of Huron and Lorain Counties. It was named after the Cuyahoga River. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,246 square miles, of which 457 square miles is land and 788 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county in Ohio by area. A portion of Cuyahoga Valley National Park is in the county's southeastern section. Lake County Geauga County Summit County Medina County Lorain County Portage County As of the 2010 census, there were 1,280,122 people, 571,457 households, 319,996 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,800 people per square mile. There were 621,763 housing units at an average density of 1,346 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.6% White, 29.7% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.6% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. 4.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.5% were of German, 12.8% Irish, 8.8% Italian, 8.1% Polish, 5.9% English, 3.7% Slovak and 3.1% Hungarian, ancestries. There are sizable numbers of Russians, Arabs and Greeks.
88.4% spoke English, 3.7% Spanish, 4.9% some other Indo-European language. 7.3% of the population were foreign-born. There were 571,457 households out of which 28.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.40% were married couples living together, 15.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.90% were non-families. 32.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 89.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,603, the median income for a family was $58,631; the per capita income for the county was $26,263.
About 10.30% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.40% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,280,122 people, 545,056 households, 319,996 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,800.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 621,763 housing units at an average density of 1,360.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 63.6% white, 29.7% black or African American, 2.6% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.8% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.4% were German, 13.0% were Irish, 9.2% were Italian, 8.6% were Polish, 6.3% were English, 2.8% were American. Of the 545,056 households, 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.3% were non-families, 35.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age was 40.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $43,603 and the median income for a family was $58,064. Males had a median income of $47,182 versus $36,683 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,263. About 12.4% of families and 16.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.7% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over. The Cuyahoga County Council and Executive exercise direct government over unincorporated areas of Cuyahoga County; as of 2012, this consisted of two small areas: Olmsted Township. Cuyahoga County had long been led by a three-member Board of County Commissioners. In July 2008, Federal Bureau of Investigation agents began raiding the offices of Cuyahoga County Commissioners and those of a wide range of cities and villages across Cuyahoga County; the investigation revealed extensive bribery and corruption across the area, affecting hundreds of millions of dollars in county contracts and business.
The investigation led to the arrest of county commissioner Jimmy Dimora.