Maurice Edward Cheeks is an American former professional basketball player and is an assistant coach for the Oklahoma City Thunder of the National Basketball Association. He has served as head coach of the Portland Trail Blazers, Philadelphia 76ers and Detroit Pistons. Cheeks was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame as a player in 2018. Cheeks was born in Chicago, attended DuSable High School, he attended West Texas State University from 1974 to 1978. Cheeks was an all-Missouri Valley Conference player for three straight seasons, as he averaged 16.8 points per game and shot nearly 57% for his collegiate career. He is the third leading scorer in WTSU/WTAM history. After college, Cheeks was selected as the 36th pick in the second round of the 1978 NBA draft by the Philadelphia 76ers, he played 15 years as a point guard in the NBA, including 11 with the Philadelphia 76ers, He earned four trips to the NBA All-Star Game, he helped the 76ers to three trips to the NBA Finals in a four-year span in the early 1980s, including an NBA championship in 1983.
While starting at point guard for a Sixers team that at times included stars Julius Erving, Moses Malone, Andrew Toney, Charles Barkley, Cheeks was well regarded for his team play and defensive skills. He was named to four straight NBA All-Defensive squads from 1983 to 1986, earned a spot on the second team in 1987. In NBA history, Cheeks ranks fifth in eleventh in assists. Upon his retirement from the NBA in 1993, he was the NBA all-time leader in steals and fifth in assists, he averaged 11.7 points and over 2 steals per game for his career. In his rookie year, Cheeks averaged 4.1 steals per game in the 1979 NBA Playoffs, an NBA record for one playoff run. After retirement, Cheeks spent one year coaching for the Continental Basketball Association’s Quad City Thunder, before becoming the 76ers assistant head coach in 1994, he coached under head coaches John Lucas, Johnny Davis, Larry Brown, he was an instrumental part of the Philadelphia team that reached the 2001 NBA Finals. In 2001, he was hired as Portland Trail Blazers head coach.
He led the team to two playoff berths in four years as coach, but could not get past the first round. He was fired after a poor start to the 2004–05 campaign. On April 25, 2003, during a game between the Trail Blazers and the Dallas Mavericks, Cheeks aided 13-year-old Natalie Gilbert in singing the American national anthem. After Gilbert forgot the words at "At the twilight's last gleaming", Cheeks rushed over to help her and they finished it together, as the entire Rose Garden Arena crowd sang with them. Cheeks and Gilbert received a standing ovation. In 2005, Cheeks was named as head coach of the 76ers. Cheeks was popular among Sixers fans because of his eleven-year tenure with the Sixers, during which he helped guide the Sixers to the 1983 NBA championship; the move was praised by Sixers star Allen Iverson, who worked with Cheeks during his run as Sixers' Assistant Head Coach. However, he missed the playoffs in each of his first two seasons. Frustrations began to grow with Sixers veterans Allen Iverson and Chris Webber, who were not happy with the team's direction.
During the 2006–07 season, Iverson would be traded to the Nuggets and Webber would be released, leaving Cheeks with one of the youngest teams in the NBA. On February 20, 2007, the 76ers extended Cheeks' contract one year despite his losing record as coach. At the beginning of the 2007–08 season, expectations were low and the 76ers were picked to finish last in the Conference by many prognosticators. However, the Sixers clinched a playoff berth with a win over the Atlanta Hawks on April 4, 2008, it was their first postseason appearance since 2005, as well as the first in the post-Iverson era. However, they were eliminated by the Detroit Pistons, 4–2. With this elimination, many fans considered this to be a successful season, considering that the Sixers were 12 games under.500 in early February and went on to have a 21–7 run that led them to the playoffs. The Sixers started out the 2008–09 NBA season 9–14, despite their signing of Elton Brand and re-signing of Andre Iguodala during the offseason.
Due to their slow start, the 76ers fired Cheeks on December 13, 2008. In a 2015 interview with Sports Illustrated, former Sixers forward Matt Barnes referred to Cheeks as "a dick". On August 14, 2009, he was hired as an assistant coach for the Oklahoma City Thunder. On June 10, 2013, Cheeks agreed to become the head coach of the Detroit Pistons. On February 9, 2014, the Detroit Pistons relieved him of his head coaching duties and replaced him with John Loyer on an interim basis for the remainder of the season. On June 29, 2015, Cheeks returned to the Thunder as an assistant coach. On September 7, 2018, Cheeks was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame as a player. List of National Basketball Association career assists leaders List of National Basketball Association career steals leaders List of National Basketball Association career playoff assists leaders List of National Basketball Association career playoff steals leaders List of National Basketball Association players with most assists in a game List of National Basketball Association players with most steals in a game List of National Basketball Association annual minutes leaders Career statistics and player information from Basketball-Reference.com
Earvin "Magic" Johnson Jr. is an American retired professional basketball player and former president of basketball operations of the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association. He played point guard for the Lakers for 13 seasons. After winning championships in high school and college, Johnson was selected first overall in the 1979 NBA draft by the Lakers, he won a championship and an NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award in his rookie season, won four more championships with the Lakers during the 1980s. Johnson retired abruptly in 1991 after announcing that he had contracted HIV, but returned to play in the 1992 All-Star Game, winning the All-Star MVP Award. After protests from his fellow players, he retired again for four years, but returned in 1996, at age 36, to play 32 games for the Lakers before retiring for the third and final time. Johnson's career achievements include three NBA MVP Awards, nine NBA Finals appearances, twelve All-Star games, ten All-NBA First and Second Team nominations.
He led the league in regular-season assists four times, is the NBA's all-time leader in average assists per game, at 11.2. Johnson was a member of the 1992 United States men's Olympic basketball team, which won the Olympic gold medal in 1992. After leaving the NBA in 1992, Johnson formed the Magic Johnson All-Stars, a barnstorming team that travelled around the world playing exhibition games. Johnson was honored as one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History in 1996. Johnson became a two-time inductee into the Basketball Hall of Fame—being enshrined in 2002 for his individual career, again in 2010 as a member of the "Dream Team", he was rated the greatest NBA point guard of all time by ESPN in 2007. His friendship and rivalry with Boston Celtics star Larry Bird, whom he faced in the 1979 NCAA finals and three NBA championship series, are well documented. Since his retirement, Johnson has been an advocate for HIV/AIDS prevention and safe sex, as well as an entrepreneur, philanthropist and motivational speaker.
His public announcement of his HIV-positive status in 1991 helped dispel the stereotype, still held at the time, that HIV was a "gay disease" that heterosexuals need not worry about. Named by Ebony magazine as one of America's most influential black businessmen in 2009, Johnson has numerous business interests, was a part-owner of the Lakers for several years. Johnson is part of a group of investors that purchased the Los Angeles Dodgers in 2012 and the Los Angeles Sparks in 2014. Earvin Johnson Jr. was born in Lansing, the son of General Motors assembly worker Earvin Sr. and school janitor Christine. Johnson, who had six siblings, was influenced by his parents' strong work ethic, his mother spent many hours after work each night cleaning their home and preparing the next day's meals, while his father did janitorial work at a used car lot and collected garbage, all while never missing a day at General Motors. Johnson would help his father on the garbage route, he was teased by neighborhood children who called him "Garbage Man".
Johnson came to love basketball as a youngster. His favorite basketball player was Bill Russell, whom he admired more for his many championships than his athletic ability, he idolized players such as Earl Monroe and Marques Haynes, practiced "all day". Johnson came from an athletic family, his father played high school basketball in his home state of Mississippi, Johnson learned the finer points about the game from him. Johnson's mother from North Carolina, had played basketball as a child, she grew up watching her brothers play the game. By the time he had reached the eighth grade, Johnson had begun to think about a future in basketball, he had become a dominant junior high player. Johnson looked forward to playing at Sexton High School, a school with a successful basketball team and history that happened to be only five blocks from his home, his plans underwent a dramatic change when he learned that he would be bused to the predominately white Everett High School instead of going to Sexton, predominately black.
Johnson's sister Pearl and his brother Larry had bused to Everett the previous year and did not have a pleasant experience. There were incidents of racism, with rocks being thrown at buses carrying black students and white parents refusing to send their children to school. Larry was kicked off the basketball team after a confrontation during practice, prompting him to beg his brother not to play. Johnson did join the basketball team but became angry after several days when his new teammates ignored him during practice, not passing the ball to him, he nearly got into a fight with another player. Johnson accepted his situation and the small group of black students looked to him as their leader; when recalling the events in his autobiography, My Life, he talked about how his time at Everett had changed him: Johnson was first dubbed "Magic" as a 15-year-old sophomore playing for Everett High School, when he recorded a triple-double of 36 points, 18 rebounds, 16 assists. After the game, Fred Stabley Jr. a sports writer for the Lansing State Journal, gave him the moniker despite the belief of Johnson's mother, a Christian, that the name was sacrilegious.
In his final high school season, Johnson led Everett to a 27–1 win–loss record while averaging 28.8 points and 16.8 rebounds per game, took his team to an overtime victory in the state championship game. Johnson dedicated the championship victory to his best friend Reggie Chastine, killed in a car accident the p
Gail Charles Goodrich Jr. is an American retired professional basketball player in the National Basketball Association. He is best known for scoring a record 42 points for UCLA in the 1965 NCAA championship game vs. Michigan, his part in the Los Angeles Lakers' 1971–72 season. During that season the team won a still-record 33 consecutive games, posted what was at the time the best regular season record in NBA history, won the franchise's first NBA championship since relocating to Los Angeles. Goodrich was the leading scorer on that team, he is acclaimed for leading UCLA to its first two national championships under the legendary coach John Wooden, the first in 1963–64 being a perfect 30-0 season when he played with teammate Walt Hazzard. In 1996, 17 years after his retirement from professional basketball, Goodrich was elected to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. A native of the Los Angeles area, Goodrich was the captain of the John H. Francis Polytechnic High School basketball team that dominated and won the 1961 Los Angeles City high school basketball championship.
Goodrich scored 29 points in the championship game despite breaking his ankle in the third quarter. Goodrich has said that he had wanted to attend the University of Southern California, where his father had once been a star player, but coach John Wooden of UCLA showed much more interest in Goodrich than did USC. Like many Division I colleges, USC was wary of Goodrich's short stature, he was only 5 ft 8 in his junior year in high school and at his ultimate height of 6 ft 1 in, he was short by college basketball standards. Goodrich attended UCLA, where he finished as the school's all-time leading scorer and played on the school's first two national championship teams in 1964 and 1965, he was a two-time All-America and the Helms Foundation's "Co-Player of the Year" in 1965. In the 1965 NCAA championship game, he scored a record; this record stood until 1973 when UCLA's Bill Walton scored 44 in the finals vs. Memphis State, through 2007 it is still the second-highest total by a player in the championship game.
While at UCLA, Goodrich was a member of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity. A tenacious and fiery competitor, Goodrich used intelligent ball-handling skills and excellent court vision to lead two of the most successful teams in college basketball history; the left-handed junior guard was the team's main scorer. He finished with an average of 21.5 points per game and guided the 1963–64 UCLA Bruins to a 30-0 record. For the first time, a UCLA team won all 30 of its games en route to the school's first NCAA title. Goodrich and Keith Erickson were the only returning starters from the team that won UCLA's first national title in 1964; as a senior, the Bruins repeated as NCAA champions. At UCLA, Goodrich helped compile a 78-11 three-year record. In both of those championship seasons, Goodrich was named to the NCAA Final Four All-Tournament team. Goodrich at the time finished as UCLA's all-time leading scorer, now broken by Don MacLean. Although many believed Goodrich was too small for the college game and too frail for the pros, through perseverance and discipline, proved his doubters wrong.
Goodrich was nicknamed "Stumpy", a moniker bestowed upon him by teammate Elgin Baylor, because of Goodrich's height and short legs. Goodrich was a territorial pick by the Los Angeles Lakers in the 1965 NBA draft; as a rookie in 1965–66, he averaged about 15 minutes per game as a reserve guard behind starters Jerry West and former UCLA teammate Walt Hazzard. Goodrich posted averages of 2.0 rebounds per game and 1.6 assists per game. On December 23, 1965, he scored a personal single-game best of 25 points against the San Francisco Warriors; the Lakers advanced to the NBA finals. In 1966–67, his playing time increased to over 23 minutes per game as he divided time with Hazzard at guard opposite West. Goodrich posted averages of 3.3 rpg and 2.7 apg. In the first game of the season he scored a career-high 30 points in a game against the Baltimore Bullets, a feat which he duplicated six weeks against the Chicago Bulls. In 1967–68, his third season, Goodrich's playing time increased again, to 26 minutes per game, although it wasn't without frustration as he returned to a reserve role backing up guard Archie Clark opposite West.
Goodrich averaged 2.5 rpg and 2.6 apg. The Lakers returned to the NBA Finals. In 1968, the Lakers lost Goodrich to the Phoenix Suns in the expansion draft, he became the star of the new franchise and a favorite among Suns fans. A full-time starter for the first time in his NBA career in 1968–69, Goodrich showed what was to come as he scored at least 22 points in each of the Suns' first 11 games. In December 1968, he exploded for 40 points against the Warriors, but topped that with 43 against the Bulls and, on March 9, 1969, he scored 47 against the San Diego Rockets. For the season, Goodrich scored tops on his team, he surprised critics who had labeled him a gunner by ranking seventh in assists with 6.4 per game along with 5.4 rpg. He was selected to play in the 1969 NBA All-Star Game. In 1969 -- 70, Goodrich scored 7.5 apg. After the season, on May 20, 1970, he was traded back to the Lakers in exchange for Mel Counts. For the 1970–71 season, now as a Lakers starter alongside Jerry West, Goodrich averaged 17.5 ppg as the Lakers advanced to the Western
Allen Ezail Iverson, nicknamed "The Answer", is an American former professional basketball player. He played for fourteen seasons in the National Basketball Association at both the shooting guard and point guard positions. Iverson was an eleven-time NBA All-Star, won the All-Star game MVP award in 2001 and 2005, was the NBA's Most Valuable Player in 2001, he was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 2016. Iverson attended Bethel High School in Hampton and was a dual-sport athlete, he earned the Associated Press High School Player of the Year award in both football and basketball, won the Division AAA Virginia state championship in both sports. After high school, Iverson played college basketball with the Georgetown Hoyas for two years, where he set the school record for career scoring average and won Big East Defensive Player of the Year awards both years. Following two successful years at Georgetown, Iverson declared eligibility for the 1996 NBA draft, was selected by the Philadelphia 76ers with the first overall pick.
He was named the NBA Rookie of the Year in the 1996–97 season. Winning the NBA scoring title during the 1998–99, 2000–01, 2001–02, 2004–05 seasons, Iverson was one of the most prolific scorers in NBA history, despite his small stature, his regular season career scoring average of 26.7 points per game ranks seventh all-time, his playoff career scoring average of 29.7 points per game is second only to Michael Jordan. Iverson was the NBA Most Valuable Player of the 2000–01 season and led his team to the 2001 NBA Finals the same season. Iverson represented the United States at the 2004 Summer Olympics. In his career, Iverson played for the Denver Nuggets, Detroit Pistons, the Memphis Grizzlies, before ending his NBA career with the 76ers during the 2009–10 season, he was rated the fifth greatest NBA shooting guard of all time by ESPN in 2008. He finished his career in Turkey with Beşiktaş in 2011, he returned as a player-coach for 3's Company in the inaugural season of the BIG3. Allen Iverson was born on June 7, 1975 in Hampton, Virginia to a single 15-year-old mother, Ann Iverson, was given his mother's maiden name after his father Allen Broughton left her.
He grew up in the projects of Virginia where drugs and crime were the social norms. During his early childhood years, he was loved by the neighborhood kids and was given the nickname "Bubba Chuck." A childhood friend, Jaime Rogers, said that Iverson would always look out for the younger kids and that "He could teach anybody." At the age of thirteen his father figure in his life, Michael Freeman, was arrested in front of him for dealing drugs. He failed the eighth grade because of absences and moved to Hampton, Virginia to get out of the projects, he attended Bethel High School, where he started as quarterback for the school football team, while playing running back, kick returner, defensive back. He started at point guard for the school basketball team. During his junior year, Iverson was able to lead both teams to Virginia state championships, as well as earning The Associated Press High School Player of the Year award in both sports. Iverson played for the Boo Williams AAU basketball team and won the 1992 17-and-under AAU national championship.
On February 14, 1993, Iverson and several of his friends were involved in an altercation with several patrons at a bowling alley in Hampton, Virginia. Iverson's crowd was raucous and had to be asked to quiet down several times, a shouting duel began with another group of youths. Shortly after that, a huge fight erupted. During the fight, Iverson struck a woman in the head with a chair. He, three of his friends, who were black, were the only people arrested. Iverson, 17 at the time, was convicted as an adult of the felony charge of maiming by mob, a used Virginia statute, designed to combat lynching. Many people around the Virginian area believed the incident to be a product of racial prejudice; the brawl was with Poquoson High School white students who were known for "not liking black people." A videotape surfaced of the incident that shows Iverson leaving shortly after the fighting began. Iverson said of the incident:For me to be in a bowling alley where everybody in the whole place know who I am and be crackin' people upside the head with chairs and think nothin' gonna happen?
That's crazy! And what kind of a man would I be to hit a girl in the head with a damn chair? I rather have'em say, they waited eight months to try Iverson as an adult, the lead detective lied on the stand about telling Iverson "to take pictures" when he went down to the courthouse. The count said that Iverson maimed three people, a sixty-year sentence. Iverson drew a 15-year prison sentence, with 10 years suspended. After Iverson spent four months at Newport News City Farm, a correctional facility in Newport News, he was granted clemency by Virginia Governor Douglas Wilder, the Virginia Court of Appeals overturned the conviction in 1995 for insufficient evidence; this incident and its impact on the community is explored in the documentary film No Crossover: The Trial of Allen Iverson. "They wanted to make an example out of Iverson," said Iverson's high school basketball coach. "Only defendants not given bond are capital murderers" said James Elleson, Iverson's lawyer. Tom Brockaw and the public played a huge role in the release of Iverson.
There were rallies and marches for all four black men that were incarcerated, Tom Brockaw did a special interview with Iverson from the jail. In th
Robert Joseph Cousy is an American retired professional basketball player. Cousy played point guard with the Boston Celtics from 1950 to 1963 and with the Cincinnati Royals in the 1969–70 season. Making his high school varsity squad as a junior, he went on to earn a scholarship to the College of the Holy Cross, where he led the Crusaders to berths in the 1948 NCAA Tournament and 1950 NCAA Tournament and was named an NCAA All-American for 3 seasons. Cousy was drafted by the Tri-Cities Blackhawks as the third overall pick in the first round of the 1950 NBA draft, but after he refused to report, he was picked up by Boston, he had an exceptionally successful career with the Celtics, leading the league an unprecedented 8 straight years in assists, playing on six NBA championship teams, being voted into 13 NBA All-Star Games in his 13 full NBA seasons. He was named to 12 All-NBA First and Second Teams and won the 1957 NBA Most Valuable Player Award. En route to his assist streak, unmatched either in number of crowns or consecutive years, Cousy introduced a new blend of ball-handling and passing skills to the NBA that earned him the nickname "The Houdini of the Hardwood".
Known as "Cooz", he was introduced at Boston Garden as "Mr. Basketball". After his playing career, he coached the Royals for several years, capped by a seven-game cameo comeback for them at age 41. Cousy became a broadcaster for Celtics games. Upon his election to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1971 the Celtics retired his #14 jersey and hung it in the rafters of the Garden. Cousy was named to the NBA 25th Anniversary Team in 1971, the NBA 35th Anniversary Team in 1981, the NBA's 50th Anniversary All-Time Team in 1996, making him one of only four players that were selected to each of those teams, he was the first president of National Basketball Players Association. Cousy was the only son of poor French immigrants living in New York City, he grew up in the Yorkville neighborhood of Manhattan's East Side, in the midst of the Great Depression. His father Joseph was a cab driver; the elder Cousy had served in the German Army during World War I. Shortly after the war, his first wife died of pneumonia.
He married a secretary and French teacher from Dijon. At the time of the 1930 census, the family was renting an apartment in Astoria, for $50 per month; the younger Cousy spoke French for the first 5 years of his life, started to speak English only after entering primary school. He spent his early days playing stickball in a multicultural environment playing with African Americans and other ethnic minority children; these experiences ingrained him with a strong anti-racist sentiment, an attitude he prominently promoted during his professional career. When he was 12, his family moved to a rented house in Queens; that summer, the elder Cousy put a $500 down payment for a $4,500 house four blocks away. He rented out the bottom two floors of the three-story building to tenants to help make his mortgage payments on time. Cousy took up basketball at the age of 13 as a student at St. Pascal's elementary school, was "immediately hooked"; the following year, he entered Andrew Jackson High School in St Albans.
His basketball success was not immediate, in fact he was cut from the school team in his first year. That year, he joined the St. Albans Lindens of the Press League, a basketball league sponsored by the Long Island Press, where he began to develop his basketball skills and gained much-needed experience; the next year, however, he was again cut during the tryouts for the school basketball team. That same year, he broke his right hand; the injury forced him to play left-handed until his hand healed, making him ambidextrous. In retrospect, he described this accident as "a fortunate event" and cited it as a factor in making him more versatile on the court. During a Press League game, the high school basketball coach saw, he was impressed by the budding star's two-handed ability and invited Cousy to come to practice the following day to try out for the junior varsity team. He did well enough to become a permanent member of the JV squad, he continued to practice day and night, by his junior year was sure he was going to be promoted to the varsity.
He joined the varsity squad midway through the season, scoring 28 points in his first game. He had no intention of attending college, but after he started to make a name for himself on the basketball court he started to focus on improving in both academics and basketball skills to make it easier for him to get into college, he again excelled in basketball his senior year, leading his team to the Queens divisional championship and amassing more points than any other New York City high school basketball player. He was named captain of the Journal-American All-Scholastic team, he began to plan for college. His family had wanted him to attend a Catholic school, he wanted to go somewhere outside New York City. Boston College recruited him, he considered accepting the BC offer, but it had no dormitories, he was not interested in being a commuter student. Soon afterward, he received an offer from the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts about forty miles west of Boston, he was impressed by the school, accepted the basketball scholarship it offered him.
He spent the summer before matriculating working at Tamarack Lodge in the Catskill Mountains and playing in a local basketball league along with a number of established college players. Cousy was one of six freshmen on
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports; the organization is headquartered in Indiana. In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of, generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer used by the NCAA.
In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools at the expense of athletes. Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing; as rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and had to be adapted for each contest.
The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport." Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules. The IAAUS was established on March 31, 1906, took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. More rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II; the "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses.
Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, member schools were concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games; as college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, III.
Five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States; the AIAW was in a vulnerable position. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA. By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program. By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma.
The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football tel
Michael Jeffrey Jordan known by his initials, MJ, is an American former professional basketball player, the principal owner and chairman of the Charlotte Hornets of the National Basketball Association. He played 15 seasons in the NBA for the Chicago Bulls and Washington Wizards, his biography on the official NBA website states: "By acclamation, Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time." He was one of the most marketed athletes of his generation and was considered instrumental in popularizing the NBA around the world in the 1980s and 1990s. Jordan played three seasons for coach Dean Smith at the University of North Carolina; as a freshman, he was a member of the Tar Heels' national championship team in 1982. Jordan joined the Bulls in 1984 as the third overall draft pick, he emerged as a league star and entertained crowds with his prolific scoring. His leaping ability, demonstrated by performing slam dunks from the free throw line in Slam Dunk Contests, earned him the nicknames Air Jordan and His Airness.
He gained a reputation for being one of the best defensive players in basketball. In 1991, he won his first NBA championship with the Bulls, followed that achievement with titles in 1992 and 1993, securing a "three-peat". Although Jordan abruptly retired from basketball before the beginning of the 1993–94 NBA season, started a new career in Minor League Baseball, he returned to the Bulls in March 1995 and led them to three additional championships in 1996, 1997, 1998, as well as a then-record 72 regular-season wins in the 1995–96 NBA season. Jordan retired for a second time in January 1999, but returned for two more NBA seasons from 2001 to 2003 as a member of the Wizards. Jordan's individual accolades and accomplishments include six NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Awards, ten scoring titles, five MVP Awards, ten All-NBA First Team designations, nine All-Defensive First Team honors, fourteen NBA All-Star Game selections, three All-Star Game MVP Awards, three steals titles, the 1988 NBA Defensive Player of the Year Award.
He holds the NBA records for highest career regular season scoring average and highest career playoff scoring average. In 1999, he was named the greatest North American athlete of the 20th century by ESPN, was second to Babe Ruth on the Associated Press' list of athletes of the century. Jordan is a two-time inductee into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, having been enshrined in 2009 for his individual career, again in 2010 as part of the group induction of the 1992 United States men's Olympic basketball team, he became a member of the FIBA Hall of Fame in 2015. Jordan is known for his product endorsements, he fueled the success of Nike's Air Jordan sneakers, which were introduced in 1984 and remain popular today. Jordan starred as himself in the 1996 film Space Jam. In 2006, he became part-owner and head of basketball operations for the Charlotte Bobcats, bought a controlling interest in 2010. In 2014, Jordan became the first billionaire player in NBA history, he is the third-richest African-American, behind Robert F. Oprah Winfrey.
Jordan was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Deloris, who worked in banking, James R. Jordan Sr. an equipment supervisor. His family moved to Wilmington, North Carolina. Jordan is the fourth of five children, he has two older brothers, Larry Jordan and James R. Jordan, Jr. one older sister and one younger sister, Roslyn. Jordan's brother James retired in 2006 as the Command Sergeant Major of the 35th Signal Brigade of the XVIII Airborne Corps in the U. S. Army. Jordan attended Emsley A. Laney High School in Wilmington, where he highlighted his athletic career by playing basketball and football, he tried out for the varsity basketball team during his sophomore year, but at 5'11", he was deemed too short to play at that level. His taller friend, Harvest Leroy Smith, was the only sophomore to make the team. Motivated to prove his worth, Jordan became the star of Laney's junior varsity team, tallied several 40-point games; the following summer, he trained rigorously. Upon earning a spot on the varsity roster, Jordan averaged more than 25 points per game over his final two seasons of high school play.
As a senior, he was selected to play in the 1981 McDonald's All-American Game and scored 30 points, after averaging 27 points, 12 rebounds and 6 assists per game for the season. Jordan was recruited by numerous college basketball programs, including Duke, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. In 1981, Jordan accepted a basketball scholarship to North Carolina, where he majored in cultural geography; as a freshman in coach Dean Smith's team-oriented system, he was named ACC Freshman of the Year after he averaged 13.4 ppg on 53.4% shooting. He made the game-winning jump shot in the 1982 NCAA Championship game against Georgetown, led by future NBA rival Patrick Ewing. Jordan described this shot as the major turning point in his basketball career. During his three seasons at North Carolina, he averaged 17.7 ppg on 54.0% shooting, added 5.0 rpg. He was selected by consensus to the NCAA All-American First Team in both his sophomore and junior seasons. After winning the Naismith and the Wooden College Player of the Year awards in 1984, Jordan left North Carolina one year before his scheduled graduation to enter the 1984 NBA draft.
The Chicago Bulls selected Jordan after Hakeem Olajuwon and Sam Bowie. One of the primary reasons why Jordan was not drafted