4th millennium BC
The 4th millennium BC spans the years 4000 through 3000 BC. Some of the changes in human culture during this time included the beginning of the Bronze Age and the invention of writing. The city states of Sumer and the kingdom of Egypt were established, world population in the course of the millennium doubled, approximately from 7 to 14 million people. C.4000 BC—First neolithic settlers in the island of Thera, Greece, C.4000 BC—Beaker from Susa is made. It is now at Musée du Louvre, Paris, 4000–2000 BC—People and animals, a detail of rock-shelter painting in Cogul, Spain, are painted. It is now at Museo Arqueológico, Barcelona, C.3900 BC—5.9 kiloyear event, one of the most intense aridification events during the Holocene. It ended the Neolithic Subpluvial and likely initiated the most recent desiccation of the Sahara desert, triggering migration to river valleys, babylonian influence predominant in Mediterranean regions of Asia. In Colombia, circa 3600 BC, first rupestrian art Chiribiquete,3600 BC—Construction of the Ġgantija megalithic temple complex on the Island of Gozo, the worlds oldest extant unburied free-standing structures, and the worlds oldest religious structures.
3600–3000 BC—Construction of the Ta Ħaġrat and Kordin III temples on Malta,3500 Metalcasting began in the Mohenjodaro area. C.3500 BC—Figures of a man and a woman, from Cernavodă and they are now at National Historical Museum, Bucharest. 3500–3400 BC—Jar with boat designs, from Hierakonpolis is created, 3500–2340 BC—First cities developed in Southern Mesopotamia. The cuneiform script proper emerges from pictographic proto-writing in the 4th millennium, mesopotamias proto-literate period spans the 35th to 32nd centuries. The first documents written in the Sumerian language date to the 31st century. 3300–2900 BC—Construction of the Newgrange solar observatory/passage tomb in Ireland, 3300—Bronze Age starts in Indus Valley. C.3300 BC—Ötzi the Iceman dies near the border between Austria and Italy, only to be discovered in 1991 buried in a glacier of the Ötztal Alps. His cause of death is believed to be homicide, 3250–3000 BC—Construction of three megalithic temples at Tarxien, Malta. 3200–2500 BC—Construction of the Ħaġar Qim megalithic temple complex on Malta, C.3150 BC—Predynastic period ended in Ancient Egypt.
The period includes 1st and 2nd Dynasties, C.3150 BC a lesser Tollmanns hypothetical bolide event may have occurred
Dutch presence in the region started with the capture of Portuguese Quilon, and ended with the occupation of Malabar by the British in 1795. They possessed military outposts in 11 locations, Ayacotta, Pappinivattom, Pallipuram, Chetwai, Cannanore and Quilon. The Dutch virtually ruled Malabar for a period of over 130 years, the Kingdom of Cochin was under the complete influence of the Dutch and the king was a mere puppet of the Dutch East India Company. They enlarged the Royal Palace built by the Portuguese at Mattancheri for the King of Cochin, in 1744, an impressive country house, called Bolgatty Palace, was erected on Bolghatty Island for the Dutch Governors. The Dutch contributed a work called Hortus Indicus Malabaricus on the medicinal properties of Malabar plants. In Cochin, the Dutch established an orphanage for poor European children, although motivated by the lucrative pepper trade on Malabar, the primary aim for the Dutch in capturing the coast from the Portuguese was to secure Dutch Ceylon from Portuguese invasions.
After failed attempts to capture the main Portuguese fort of Goa in 1604 and 1639, in 1650s the Dutch possessed only the unfortified factories at Kayamkulam and Cannanore. They took Quilon on 29 December 1658, but it was reconquered by the Portuguese on 14 April 1659. It was agreed that Calicut, the most powerful ruler in Malabar, according to the treaty between the two parties, Fort Cranganore was to be made over to Calicut after its successful capture. Van der Meyden dispersed a Nair detachment sent to stop his advance on the way, the Portuguese made no attempt to resist and fled by the backwaters. On March 21, Rijckloff Van Goens signed a treaty with the chief of Paliyam on a ship anchored off the coast. Dutch forces soon landed and attacked the palace of the queen at Mattanceri, the queen was taken as a prisoner. Later in December 1661, Portuguese Quilon was captured by a Dutch expedition under Rijckloff Van Goens and this is often regarded as the beginning of the Dutch presence in Malabar.
On January 3,1662 Van Goens was joined by the Calicut army in a siege of Fort Cranganore in the tropical heat, after a fortnight, the fort surrendered, and the Dutch demolished the structure with the exception of the bastion, where they stationed a garrison. A new treaty was now signed between Calicut and Van der Meyden, Calicut agreed to cede Fort Cranganore and Vypin to the Dutch after the capture of the Portuguese fort at Cochin. The allies moved towards Cochin and marched upon the palace of the Raja on 5 February 1662, the raja was killed in the subsequent battle along with two of his juniors. The Dutch installed another prince on the throne and proceeded to besiege the Portuguese fort and the chief of Paliyam provided supplies to the Dutch, who faced heroic Portuguese resistance during the prolonged siege. The Native rulers of Porca and Cembakasseri kept the besieged supplied with provisions, though disrupted by monsoon rains and the deaths of the ruler of Calicut and important Dutch officers, the garrison finally capitulated on January 8,1663
Religion in Kerala
Religions in Kerala are a mixture of different faiths, most significantly Hinduism and Christianity. Kerala has a reputation of being, one of the most tolerant states in India. According to 2011 Census of India figures,54. 73% of Keralas residents are Hindus,26. 56% are Muslims,18. 38% are Christians, Various tribal people in Kerala have retained various religious beliefs of their ancestors. Hindus constitute the majority in all districts except Malappuram, where Muslims are a majority, adi Shankara was a Brahmin philosopher who contributed to Hinduism and propagated philosophy of Advaita. He was instrumental in establishing four mathas at Sringeri, Puri, melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri was another Brahmin religious figure who composed Narayaniyam, a collection of verses in praise of Krishna. Various practises of Hinduism are unique to Kerala, different cults of Shiva and Vishnu are popular in Kerala. Malayali Hindus worship Bhagavathi as a form of Shakti, almost every village in Kerala has its own local guardian deity, usually a goddess.
Hindus in Kerala strongly believe in power of snake gods, temples in Kerala follow elaborate rituals and only priests from the Nambudiri caste can be appointed as priests in major temples. These priests are assisted by a known as Ambalavasis. Malayali Hindus have unique ceremonies such as Chorunu and Vidyāraṃbhaṃ, buddhism probably flourished for 200 years in Kerala. The Paliyam Copper Plate of the Ay King, Varaguna shows that the Buddhists benefited from royal patronage in the tenth century, Jainism arrived in Kerala around the 3rd century BC. The Jain religion was brought to the South in the third century BC by Chandragupta Maurya and they came to Sravanabelgola in Mysore. The Jains came to Kerala with the rest of the Chera immigrants starting in the sixth century, among the existing original Jain temples in Kerala, the most prominent is called Jainmedu, Vadakkanthara village, about 3 km from Palakkad. This temple was built by Inchanna Satur. This indicates significant population of Jains lived in Palaghat during the 15th century, various members of Marwari business community built the Jain temple in Kochi.
Some historians claim many Hindu temples might have been once Jain temples, several places in Wyanad have Jain temples, an indication that North Malabar was once a flourishing center of Jainism. Historians believe that the decline of Jainism started about the eighth century, Jainism seems to have completely disappeared from Kerala by the sixteenth century, the foreign visitors from Europe do not mention the Jains at all. At present, Jainism in Kerala has a following, mainly among descendants from the original immigrating Jains
Kerala historically known as Keralam, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions, spread over 38,863 km2, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is the official language of the state. The region has been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE, the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks by the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, after independence and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore-Cochin was given the status of a state in 1949. In 1956, Kerala state was formed by merging Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin, Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity.
The culture is a synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India, the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, cashew, the states coastline extends for 595 kilometres, and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the states income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English, Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions. The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology, One popular theory derives Kerala from Kera and alam is land, thus land of coconuts, this happens to be a nickname for the state due to abundance of coconut trees and its use by the locals. The word Kerala is first recorded in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, the inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra, or son of Chera.
This contradicts the theory that Kera is from coconut tree, at that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil and Kera are variants of the same word. The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for lake, the earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. It is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics, the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam or chera alam, the Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra. According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the warrior sage Parasurama. Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached, according to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari.
The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation, so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, out of respect and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land
Kingdom of Cochin
Kingdom of Cochin was a late medieval Hindu kingdom and princely state on the Malabar Coast, South India. Once controlling much of the territory between Ponnani and Thottappally, the Cochin kingdom shrank to its minimal extent as a result of invasions by the Zamorin of Calicut. When Portuguese armadas arrived in India, Cochin was in vassalage to Zamorin and was looking for an opportunity to break away, Cochin became a long-time Portuguese protectorate providing assistance against native overlords. After the Portuguese, the Dutch East India Company followed by the English East India Company, even today, the full official designation of the Raja of Cochin is “Perumpadappu Gangadhara Veera Kerala Thrikkovil Adhikarikal”. The Kingdom of Cochin, originally known as Perumpadappu Swarupam, was under the rule of the Later Cheras in the Middle Ages, after the fall of the Mahodayapuram Cheras in the 12th century, along with numerous other provinces Perumpadappu Swarupam became a free political entity.
However, it was only after the arrival of Portuguese colonizers on the Malabar Coast did the Perumpadappu Swarupam acquire any political importance, Perumpadappu rulers had family relationships with the Nambudiri rulers of Edappally. After the transfer of Kochi and Vypin from Edappally rulers to the Perumpadappu rulers, ma Huan, the Muslim voyager and translator who accompanied Admiral Zheng He on three of his seven expeditions to the Western Oceans, describes the king of Cochin as being a Buddhist. There is no extant written evidence about the emergence of the Kingdom of Cochin or of the Cochin Royal Family, all that is recorded are folk tales and stories, and a somewhat blurred historical picture about the origins of the ruling dynasty. The surviving manuscripts, such as Keralolpathi and Perumpadapu Grandavari, are collections of myths and legends that are less than reliable as conventional historical sources. There is a legend that the last Perumal who ruled the Chera dynasty divided his kingdom between his nephews and his sons, converted to Islam and traveled to Mecca on a hajj.
The Keralolpathi recounts the narrative in the following fashion, The last. He left for Mecca by ship with some Muslims who arrived at Kodungallur port, before leaving for Mecca, he divided his kingdom between his nephews and sons. The Perumpadapu Grandavari contains an account of the dynastic origins. Cheraman Perumal divided the land in half,17 amsa north of Neelaeswaram and 17 amsa south, totaling 34 amsa, thirty-four kingdoms between Kanyakumari and Gokarna were given to the thampuran who was the daughter of the last niece of Cheraman Perumal. Keralolpathi recorded the division of his kingdom in 345 AD, Perumpadapu Grandavari in 385 AD, including Robin Jeffry and Samuel Mateer, are of the opinion that as with all other Kings of Malabar, the Cochin Raja was of Nair origin. Cochin kingdom ruled over a vast area in central Kerala before the Portuguese arrival and their state stretched up to Ponnani and Pukkaitha in the north, Anamalais in the east, and Cochin and Porakkad in the south, with capital at Perumpadappu on the northern border.
Later, Calicut conquered large parts of Perumpadappu Kingdom, and made them a tributary state, Cochin was the scene of the first European settlement in India. In the year 1500, the Portuguese Admiral Pedro Álvares Cabral landed at Cochin after being repelled from Calicut, the king of Cochin welcomed the Portuguese and a treaty of friendship was signed
Marthanda Varma was ruler of the southern Indian state of Thiruvithaamkoor from 1729 until his death in 1758. He is most celebrated for crushing the Dutch expansionist designs at the Battle of Colachel in 1741, Marthanda Varma, adopted a European mode of martial discipline and expanded his domain to encompass what became the modern state of Travancore. Marthanda Varma built a standing army of about 50,000, reduced the power of the Nair aristocracy. His alliance in 1757 with the ruler of Kochi, against Kingdom of Kozhikode, Travancore under Marthanda Varma did make a determined bid to consolidate its power by the use of maritime outlets. At his accession to the throne in early 18th century, the only route remaining was Thiruvithaamkoor to build an elaborate, the control of trade was seen as crucial in the statecraft of the period. These principles were put into practice by Marthanda Varma and it was the policy of Marthanda Varma to extend patronage to the Syrian Christians, a large trading community in Thiruvithaamkoor, as a means of limiting European involvement in trade.
The key commodity was pepper, but other goods came to be defined as Royal Monopoly Items, Thiruvananthapuram became a prominent city in Kerala under Marthanda Varma. Prime ministers under Marthanda Varma - Arumukham Pillai, Thanu Pillai, Marthanda Varmas policies were continued in large measure by his successor and nephew, Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma, who went on to successfully defend Thiruvithaamkoor against the Kingdom of Mysore. Marthanda Varma was born in 1705 to queen Karthika Thirunal and Raghava Varma of Kilimanur royal house, queen Karthika Thirunal - an adoptee from the Kingdom of Kannur in the north - was the senior queen of Attingal at the time. The state was ruled by chief Ravi Varma during this period, trippappur swaroopam then, was a small chiefdom extending from Edava in the north to Aruvamozhi in the south. According to historians, within this state the power of the chief was only nominal then, due to the power of the nobles, chief among them being the Barons of the Eight Houses.
The powers of the ruler were to a great extent curbed by the power of the Council of Eight and a Half, the rivalries of European powers like the Dutch and the English made the situation more complex. It was into these conditions, where the chief was powerless under the nobles of the state. It is known that the prince advised the chief to sign treaty with the English East India Company, after being pleased by the maturity and administrative talent of his nephew, Rama Varma anointed the teenager as the Prince of Neyattinkara. After crushing the power of the feudal lords (the Nair aristocracy known as the Ettuveetil Pillamar, Marthanda Varma turned his attention to the neighbouring petty chiefdoms. The chief was brought to Thiruvananthapuram and lodged almost as state prisoner in the Valikoikkal palace, a contingent of Thiruvithaamkoor army under Dalawa Arumukham Pillai was stationed at Quilon. Marthanda Varma next turned his attention towards the little chiefdom of Marta, the neighbouring chiefdom of Kayamkulam - sensing an imminent invasion by Thiruvithaamkoor - soon allied itself with the Kochi and Vadakkumkur.
The Kayamkulam chief was successful in rescuing the Kollam chief from his Thiruvananthapuram prison, the allies built new fortification and strengthened their defences against the threat from Thiruvananthapuram
Architecture of Kerala
Keralas style of architecture is unique in India, in its striking contrast to Dravidian architecture which is normally practiced in other parts of South India. The architecture of Kerala has been influenced by Dravidian and Indian Vedic architectural science over two millennium, the Tantrasamuchaya, Thachu-Shastra, Manushyalaya-Chandrika and Silparatna are important architectural sciences, which have had a strong impact in Kerala Architecture style. The Manushyalaya-Chandrika, a devoted to domestic architecture is one such science which has its strong roots in Kerala. The architectural style has evolved from Kerala’s peculiar climate and long history of influences of its major trading partners like Chinese, Arabs. The characteristic regional expression of Kerala architecture results from the geographical, geographically Kerala is a narrow strip of land lying in between western seaboard of peninsular India and confined between the towering Western Ghats on its east and the vast Arabian sea on its west.
Favoured by plentiful rains due to Monsoon and bright sunshines, this land is green with vegetation. In the uneven terrain of this region human habitation is distributed thickly in the fertile low-lands, heavy rains have brought in presence of large water bodies in form of lakes, rivers and lagoons. The climatic factors thus made its significant contributions in developing the style, to counter wettest climatic conditions coupled with heavy humidity. History played its own contributions to the Kerala architecture, the towering Western Ghats on its east, has successfully prevented influences of neighboring Tamil countries into present day Kerala in times. The Kerala’s rich spice cultivations brought it center of maritime trade until modern periods. This helped in bring in influences of these civilizations into Kerala architecture, the locational feature of Kerala has influenced the social development and indirectly the style of construction. In the ancient times the Arabian sea and the Ghats formed impenetrable barriers helping the evolution of a culture of Proto-Dravidians.
The earliest vestiges of constructions in Kerala belong to this period dated between 3000 B. C. to 300 B. C and they can be grouped into two types – tomb cells and megaliths. The rock cut tomb cells are located in the laterite zones of central Kerala, for example at Porkalam. The tombs are roughly oblong in plan with single or multiple bed chambers with a court in the east from where steps rise to the ground level. Another type of chamber is made of four slabs placed on edges. One or more such dolmens are marked by a stone circle, among the megaliths are the umbrella stones, resembling handless palm leaf umbrellas used for covering pits enclosing burial urns. Two other types of megaliths, hat stones and menhirs however have no burial appendages and they appear to be rather memorial stones
Kalpetta is a town and a municipality in the Wayanad district, state of Kerala, India. Kalpetta is the headquarters of Wayanad district as well as the headquarters of Vythiri taluk and it is a bustling town surrounded by dense coffee and tea plantations and mountains. It lies on the Kozhikode-Mysore National Highway NH766 at an altitude of about 780 m above sea level, Kalpetta is 72 km from Kozhikode and 140 km from Mysore. There is a number of hotels and resorts within and surrounding Kalpetta town. It is believed that the early Jain residents who migrated from Karnataka have named the place Kalpetta, in Kannada, the words Kal and Pettah means deposits of stones. Rocks -large and small- are found throughout the landscape of Kalpetta, Kalpetta was under the rule of Western Ganga dynasty until AD930. Through ages this region fell into the rule of Hoysala Empire, Vijayanagara Empire, Pazhassi Raja was the next to rule the region. Kalpetta Nair administered the place as the representative for Pazhassi Raja, mysorean invasion of Kerala made Kalpetta a part of Tipu Sultans empire.
This continued until the demise of Tipu Sultan, along with the rest of Malabar, Kalpetta came under British rule after Tipu Sultans demise. In Wayanad, the Indian independence movement started first at Kalpetta, the first political conference was held in 1921 under the leadership of Dharmaraja Iyer. K. P. Kesava Menon and A. K. Gopalan participated in this meeting, formation of the committee of Indian National Congress occurred around the same time. Father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi visited Kalpetta on 1934 January 14, Kalpetta became the headquarters when Wayanad district was formed on 1 November 1980. Kalpetta was still a Village Panchayath when it became district headquarters, as of 2011 India census, Kalpetta had a population of 31,580. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%, in Kalpetta, 11% of the population is under the age of 6. Being the district headquarters, Kalpetta is home to a number of government offices. Besides, the district offices of Media Houses, Political Parties etc.
function out of Kalpetta. Hence a large section of the population of Kalpetta are office-goers, like elsewhere in Kerala, Hindus and Christians live in harmony in Kalpetta. There is a significant Jain population in Kalpetta, Kalpetta has very good road connectivity with the rest of Kerala and neighboring South Indian cities
The Indus script is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilization during the Kot Diji and Mature Harappan periods between 3500 and 1900 BCE. In spite of attempts, the script has not yet been deciphered. There is no known bilingual inscription to help decipher the script, some of the syntax varies depending upon location. The first publication of a seal with Harappan symbols dates to 1875, since then, over 4,000 inscribed objects have been discovered, some as far afield as Mesopotamia. In the early 1970s, Iravatham Mahadevan published a corpus and concordance of Indus inscriptions listing 3,700 seals and 417 distinct signs in specific patterns and he found that the average inscription contained five symbols, and the longest inscription contained only 14 symbols in a single line. He established the direction of writing as right to left, Early examples of the symbol system are found in an Early Harappan and Indus civilisation context, dated to possibly as early as the 35th century BCE.
Often, animals such as bulls, rhinoceros, water buffaloes, after 1900 BCE, the systematic use of the symbols ended, following the final stage of the Mature Harappan civilization. A few Harappan signs have been claimed to appear until as late as around 1100 BCE, the thermoluminescence date for the pottery is 1528 BCE. This evidence has been used to claim that a late Harappan script was used until around 1500 BCE, the characters are largely pictorial but include many abstract signs. The inscriptions are thought to have been written from right to left. The number of signs is about 400. Since this is too large a number for each character to be a phonogram, it is taken that it must, Asko Parpola, reviewing the Farmer and Witzel thesis in 2005, stated that their arguments can be easily controverted. He cited the presence of a number of rare signs in Chinese. Revisiting the question in a 2007 lecture, Parpola took on each of the 10 main arguments of Farmer et al. presenting counterarguments for each.
A2009 paper published by Rajesh P N Rao, Iravatham Mahadevan, a follow-up study presented further evidence in terms of entropies of longer sequences of symbols beyond pairs. However, Sproat claimed that there existed a number of misunderstandings in Rao et al, Rao et al. s argument against Sproats claims, and Sproats reply, were published in Computational Linguistics in December 2010. The June 2014 issue of Language carries a paper by Sproat that provides evidence that the methodology of Rao et al. is flawed. Rao et al. s rebuttal of Sproats 2014 article and Sproats response are published in the December 2015 issue of Language, over the years, numerous decipherments have been proposed, but there is no established scholarly consensus
Ambukuthi mala is a mountain in the Wayanad district of Kerala, India. It is 12 km from Sulthan Bathery and near Ambalavayal, three pre-historic caves are located at a height of 1,000 metres on Ambukuthi mala. These caves are believed to be formed as a result of an earthquake, some Old and New Stone Age pictorial writings can be seen on the walls of these natural caves. The cave drawings are at least 7000 years old and still older as they are different periods. A less ancient script from the 4th or 3rd century BC is seen in the caves which is better conserved
Wayanad District is a district in the north-east of Kerala state, India with headquarters at the town of Kalpetta. The district was formed on 1 November 1980 as the 12th district in Kerala by carving out areas from Kozhikode, the district is 3. 79% urbanised, with three municipal towns Kalpetta and Sulthan Bathery. Wayanad has seen a recent tourism boom and is now one of the most popular tourist destinations of Kerala and it is the only district in Kerala that shares its borders with both Karnataka and Tamil Nadu states. For this reason, it is visited by tourists from these states. The only Earth Dam in India is Banasura Sagar Dam and the pine forest of Kerala is Chandanathode. Pulpally in Wayanad boasts of the only Luv Kush Temple in Kerala, the edicts and caves of Ambukuthimala and other evidences state that the place is as old as the beginning of the New Age Civilisation. The district houses the Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary with four ranges namely Sulthan Bathery, Kurichiat, Wayanad is surrounded by the legendary wildlife sanctuaries of Bandipur and Nagarhole.
Wayanad has the largest population of Asian elephants in the world, Wayanad district is in the southern tip of the Deccan Plateau. Part of the Western Ghats is in the district, in the centre of the district hills are lower in height while the northern area has high hills. The eastern area is flat and open, the region was known as Mayakshetra in the earliest records. Mayakshetra evolved into Mayanad and finally to Wayanad, the Folk etymology of the word says it is a combination of Vayal and Naad, making it The Land of Paddy Fields. There are many indigenous tribals in this area and it is set high on the Western Ghats with altitudes ranging from 700 to 2100 m. According to archaeological evidence, the Wayanad forests have been inhabited for more than 3,000 years, historians are of the view that human settlement existed in these parts for at least ten centuries before Christ. Much evidence of New Stone Age civilisation can be seen in the hills throughout the present day Wayanad district, the Edakkal Caves have 6000 year old rock engravings from the Neolithic age.
Recorded history of this district is available from the 18th century, in ancient times, this land was ruled by the Rajas of the Veda tribe. The Kutumbiyas, The two caves of Ampukuthimala in Sulthan Bathery, with pictures on their walls and pictorial writings, speak volumes of a bygone civilisation. As per Hultzch, an epigraphist from the department of epigraphy, Madras, it speaks of the descendant of Kutumbiya clan, Kannada chieftain, Vishnu Varma. The Gangas, The recorded history of this exists only from the 10th century onward