MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Rock music in Hungary
Hungarian rock has been a part of the popular music of Hungary since the early 1960s. The first major bands were Metró and Omega. At the time, rock was not approved of by the Hungarian Communist authorities. In the 1970s, the Communists cracked down on rock, Illés was banned from recording; some members of the other bands formed a supergroup called Locomotiv GT, while the band Omega became popular in Germany. In 1968, the New Economic Mechanism was introduced, intending on revitalizing the Hungarian economy, while the band Illés won every prize at the prestigious Táncdalfesztivál. In the 70s, the Russians cracked down on subversives in Hungary, rock was a major target; the band Illés was banned from recording, while Metró and Omega left. Some of the members of these bands formed a supergroup, Locomotiv GT, that became famous; the remaining members of Omega, succeeded in achieving stardom in Germany, remained popular for a time. Rock bands in the late 1970s had to conform to the Record Company's demands and ensure that all songs passed the inspection of the Song Committee, who scoured all songs looking for ideological disobedience.
LGT was the most prominent band of a classic rock style, popular, along with Illés, Bergendy and Zorán, while there were other bands like The Sweet and Middle of the Road who catered to the desires of the Song Committee, producing rock-based pop music without a hint of subversion. Meanwhile, the disco style of electronic music produced such performers as the sanctioned Neoton Familia, Beatrice and Szűcs Judit, while the more critically acclaimed progressive rock scene produced bands like East, V73, Color and Panta Rhei.also born of the Apostol band. In the early 1980s, economic and cultural depression wracked Hungary, leading to a wave of disillusioned and alienated youth the people that rock, the burgeoning worldwide field of punk rock, spoke to the most. Major bands from this era included Beatrice, who had moved from disco to punk and folk-influenced rock and were known for their splashy and theatrical performances, P. Mobil, Hobo Blues Band, a bluesy duo, A. E. Bizottság, Európa Kiadó, Sziámi and Edda művek.
The 1980s saw the Record Production Company broken up because Hungary's authorities realized that restricting rock was not effective in reducing its effect. The early part of the decade saw the arrive of punk and new wave music in full force, the authorities incorporated those styles as well; the first major prison sentences for rock-related subversion were given out, with the members of the punk band CPg sentenced to two years for political incitement. By the end of the decade and into the 1990s, internal problems made it impossible for the Hungarian government to counter the activities of rock and other musical groups. After the collapse of the Communist government, the Hungarian scene become more and more like the styles played in the rest of Europe; the 2000s see the emergence of new different genres, while the classic rock remained in the background. Several metal bands reached international success such as Blind Myself, Superbutt. Hungarian alternative band Kispál és, they became famous for their lead singer's unique style of singing.
As the only Hungarian underground band Attila Grandpierre's Vágtázó Halottkémek reached measureable international recognition with their fusion of tribal rhythms with hardcore punk rock. In 1990 Pál Utcai Fiúk's first studio album was released titled Ha Jön Az Álom; the band became of the most well-known alternative rock band in Hungary. Their most known albums are A Bál, A Nagy Rohanás, Szajhák és Partizánok, Ha Jön Az Élet, Közönséges, Legelő. In 1991 Kispál és a Borz's first studio album was released titled Naphoz Holddal; the band became the most successful alternative rock band in Hungary. Their most notable albums are Föld Kaland Ilyesmi, Ágy, Asztal, Tévé, Kasza, Léc, Ül, Bálnák Ki A Partra; the band became noted for their singer András Lovasi's unique style of lyrics. In 1993 Quimby's first record was released titled A Sip of Story; the band became one of the leading bands of the Hungarian alternative scene. Their most famous albums are Jerrycan Dance, Majom-tangó, Diligramm, Ékszerelmére, Káosz Amigos, Kilégzés, Lármagyűjtögető, Kicsi Ország and Instant Szeánsz.
In 1992 Nulladik Változat released their first studio album with the eponymous title. In 1995 Sexepil reached international markets with their song Jerusalem, aired on Music Television's alternative program. In 1996 Nulladik Változat released their second studio album titled Négy; the album contained the song Hajnal which brought success for the band in Hungarian underground scene. In 1997 C. A. F. B.'s second studio album, was released by Premier Art Records. The album included the hit single Engedj Be. In 1998 Land of Charon released their first full-length studio album titled Asztrálgép; the album included songs like Ishtar és Kthulu, Álmok Romjai and many more. In 1998 Heaven Street Seven's first studio album was released titled Hip-hop Mjúzik; the band released several other records both in Hungarian and in English but they became noted in Hungary as one of the leading bands of the Hungarian alternative music scene. Their most notable albums are Hol Van Az A Krézi Srác?, Sajnálom, White lies in HiFi, Mozdulj!, Éjszaka, Ezután
Endre Csillag is a Hungarian guitarist. His nickname is Csuka. Hobó Blues Band Kormorán Edda Művek Culture Kings Funk Bizzness D. Nagy és a Frakció Németh Gábor Project Bikini Rolls Frakció Deák Bill Gyula Kormorán Edda Művek D. Nagy és a Frakció Heaven Kalapács József Hard Deák Bill Gyula http://www.bikininet.hu/index.php http://www.csillagendre.freeweb.hu
Miskolc (Hungarian pronunciation: is a city in northeastern Hungary, known for its heavy industry. With a population of 161,265 Miskolc is the fourth largest city in Hungary, it is the county capital of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and the regional centre of Northern Hungary. The name derives from Slavic form of Michael. Miškovec → Miskolc with the same development as Lipovec → Lipólc, Lipóc; the name is associated with the Miskolc clan named after the vice versa. Earliest mentions are que nunc vocatur Miscoucy, de Myschouch, Ponyt de genere Myscouch, in Miscovcy; the city lies at the meeting point of different geographical regions – east from the Bükk mountains, in the valley of the river Sajó and the streams Hejő and Szinva. According to the 2001 Census the city has a total area of 236.68 km2. The ground level slopes gradually; the lowest areas are the banks of the river Sajó, with an altitude of 110–120 m. The area is made up of sedimentary rocks. Between the Avas hill and Diósgyőr lies the hilly area of the Lower Bükk consisting of sandstone, clay, layers of coal, from the tertiary period, volcanic rocks from the Miocene.
The Central Bükk, a sloping mountainous area with an altitude between 400 and 600 m, is situated between Diósgyőr and Lillafüred. The surface was formed by karstic erosions; the highest area, the 600 -- 900 m high Higher Bükk bore. This consists of sea sediments from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, volcanic rocks like diabase and porphyry. Several caves can be found in the area; the city is known for lowest measured temperature in Hungary with −35 °C. Summers are sometimes warm and humid in Miskolc. Daytime temperatures of 20–30 °C or higher are commonplace. Snow and ice are dominant during the winter season. Miskolc receives about 120 centimetres of snowfall annually. Days below freezing and nights below −20 °C both occur in the winter; the area has been inhabited since ancient times – archaeological findings date back to the Paleolithic, proving human presence for over 70,000 years. Its first known dwellers were one of the Celt tribes; the area has been occupied by Hungarians since the "Conquest" in the late 9th century.
It was first mentioned by this name around 1210 AD. The Miskóc clan lost their power when King Charles I centralized his power by curbing the power of the oligarchs. Miskolc was elevated to the rank of oppidum in 1365 by King Louis I, he had the castle of the nearby town Diósgyőr transformed into a Gothic fortress. The city developed in a dynamic way, but during the Ottoman occupation of most of Hungary the development of Miskolc was brought to a standstill; the Turks burnt Miskolc in 1544 and the city had to pay heavy taxes until 1687. It was ruled by Ottomans after Battle of Mezőkeresztes in 1596 as part of Eyalet of Egir until 1687, it was during these years. By the end of the 17th century the population of the city was as large as that of Kassa, 13 guilds had been founded. During the war of independence against Habsburg rule in the early 18th century, Prince Francis II Rákóczi, the leader of the Hungarians put his headquarters in Miskolc; the imperial forces sacked and burnt the city in 1707.
Four years half of the population fell victim of a cholera epidemic. Miskolc recovered and another age of prosperity began again. In 1724, Miskolc was chosen to be the city. Many other significant buildings were built in the 18th and 19th centuries, including the city hall, schools such as Lévay József Református Gimnázium és Diákotthon, the synagogue, the theatre; the theatre is regarded as the first stone-built theatre of Hungary, although the first one was built in Kolozsvár. According to the first nationally held census the city had a population of 14,719, 2,414 houses; these years brought prosperity, but the cholera epidemic of 1873 and the flood of 1878 took many lives. Several buildings were destroyed by the flood, but bigger and grander buildings were built in their places. World War I did not affect the city directly, but many people died, either from warfare or from the cholera epidemic, it was occupied by Czechoslovak troops between 1919 after the First World War. After the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary lost Kassa and Miskolc became the sole regional center of northern Hungary.
This was one of the reasons for the enormous growth of the city during the 1940s. Early in World War II Hungary became an ally of Nazi Germany. Unhappy with the Hungarian government, the Germans troops occupied Hungary on March 19, 1944 and put the anti-semitic Arrow Cross Party in charge of the government. Jews in Miskolc and elsewhere were ordered to wear yellow stars on their clothing. Under the supervision of Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann, "deportations" from Miskolc began on June 11 or 12th, 1944. Over 14,000 Jewish adults and children were sent by cattle car to Auschwitz, where most were gassed on arrival. After the war
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
Zoltán Laszolo Hetényi is a Hungarian ice hockey goaltender who plays for Alba Volán Székesfehérvár in the Austrian Hockey League. Hetényi began playing hockey by Dunaferr. After coming through the youth ranks of the team, he switched to Ferencvárosi TC and Alba Volán Székesfehérvár, making his debut for the Hungarian champions in 2004; the breakthrough in his career came in the 2007–2008 season, when thanks to his outstanding performances, he managed to supplant first choice keeper Krisztián Budai. In addition, he earned a place in the Hungarian team, that went undefeated on the 2008 IIHF World Championship Division I and won promotion to the top level championship after seventy years. Hetényi contributed to the success with a shutout against Croatia. Alongside other three Hungarians, he was listed for the 2009 KHL entry draft, but in the end he was not picked by any club. In 2010 he travelled to Slovenia for the Division I World Championship as the starting goalie of the national team, despite Hungary missed out the promotion after falling short to the hosts, Hetényi topped the goalkeepers' list both in GAA and in saving percentage, making two shutouts in the process.
For the 2011–12 season, Hetényi joined the Finnish team Jokerit of the league SM-liiga. In the 2012–13 season, Hetenyi spent a season in North America in the ECHL with the Cincinnati Cyclones and the Orlando Solar Bears. Unable to establish himself on the ice and making headlines off the ice, Hetenyi opted to return to Europe in signing with Tappara Tampere of the Finnish Liiga. During the 2013–14 season, after playing on loan in the Mestis with LeKi, unable to make an appearance with Tappara, Hetenyi made a return to familiar surroundings in his original club, Alba Volán Székesfehérvár on 19 November 2013. In October of 2017, Hetenyi was signed by Head Coach Jeff Carr of the Knoxville Ice Bears, he has a brother, Péter, a professional ice hockey player, playing as a defender. In 2013 whilst in North America Hetényi was arrested for drunken misbehavior in an Atlanta restaurant. Hungarian Championship: Winner: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 IIHF World Championship Division I: Winner: 2008 Hungarian Championship Rookie of the Year: 2004 Best Junior Player of the Hungarian Championship: 2005, 2006 Best Goaltender of the Hungarian Championship Playoffs: 2008 Biographical information and career statistics from Eliteprospects.com, or Eurohockey.com, or The Internet Hockey Database
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c