Louis George Duffus was a South African cricketer who became the country's most respected writer on the game. He was educated in Johannesburg, he was a fine baseballer, as well as a cricketer. He was a right-handed batsman and occasional wicketkeeper, who played in five first-class matches for Transvaal between 1923/24 and 1934/35. Meanwhile, he had established himself as a cricket journalist, accompanying the South African national side on their 1929 tour of England and supplying copy for a number of British papers. Thereafter, until South Africa were barred from Test cricket some forty years as a result of apartheid, he hardly missed a Test match in which they were involved, he covered more than one hundred in all. His Wisden obituary described him as "conscientious and fair, with a delightful manner and a nice turn of phrase". During the 1935 South African tour of England he was summoned from the press box to field as a substitute against Glamorgan, he caught Dyson at slip, which helped in ensuring the tourists' victory in front of a large Swansea crowd.
He was proud. He had not been far from selection for the touring party, having played in a trial match in the previous December, he compiled and edited Volume 3 of the official history of South African cricket, covering the years from 1927 to 1947. He wrote on rugby union and was a war correspondent during World War II, he was the sports editor of the Johannesburg Star. He achieved a degree of fame in the medical world in 1970 when, though a haemophiliac, he had a hip operation in Oxford. Cricketers of the Veld, Sampson Low and Company Ltd, 1946. Beyond the Laager, Hurst & Blackett. Published just after World War 2, it describes South African's experiences during the war. South African Cricket 1927-1947, Volume 3, The South African Cricket Association, 1948. Springbok Glory, Longmans, 1955. Champagne Cricket; when Springboks Leap the Net: The Dramatic History of South Africa in Davis Cup Tennis, Privately Published, 1968. Play Abandoned: An Autobiography, Timmins, 1969, ISBN 0-561-00077-8. Obituary in Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, 1985 edition.
William George "Billy" Bunter is a fictional schoolboy created by Charles Hamilton using the pen name Frank Richards. He features in stories set at Greyfriars School published in the boys' weekly story paper The Magnet from 1908 to 1940. Subsequently, Bunter has appeared in novels, on television, in stage plays, in comic strips, he is in the Lower Fourth form of Greyfriars School, known as the Remove, whose members are 14–15 years of age. A minor character, his role was expanded over the years with his antics being used in the stories to provide comic relief and to drive forward the plots. Bunter's defining characteristic is his greediness and overweight appearance, his character is, in many respects, a obnoxious anti-hero. As well as his gluttony, he is obtuse, racist, deceitful, self-important and conceited; these defects, are not recognised by Bunter. In his own mind, he is an exemplary character: handsome and aristocratic. So, the negative sides of Bunter are offset by several genuine redeeming features.
All these, combined with Bunter's cheery optimism, his comically transparent untruthfulness and inept attempts to conceal his antics from his schoolmasters and schoolfellows, combine to make a character that succeeds in being entertaining but which attracts the reader's lasting sympathy. Charles Hamilton invented the character for an unpublished story in the late 1890s, he claimed Bunter was derived from three persons: a corpulent editor, a short-sighted relative, another relative, perpetually trying to raise a loan. The identity of the fat editor is unclear: various sources suggest either Lewis Ross Higgins, editor of a number of comic papers and, described as resembling the author G. K. Chesterton; the short sighted relative was Hamilton's younger sister Una, who had suffered poor sight since childhood, and, wont to peer at him somewhat like an Owl. Billy Bunter appeared in 1,670 of the 1,683 issues of The Magnet published during the 32-year period from 1908 to 1940, he was introduced in Magnet No. 1 The Making of Harry Wharton as a minor character, but developed into one of the principal characters of the stories as author Charles Hamilton realised his comic potential.
George Orwell described him as "...a real creation. His tight trousers against which boots and canes are thudding, his astuteness in search of food, his postal order which never turns up, have made him famous wherever the Union Jack waves." In addition to stories set at Greyfriars School, his adventures included many travel series, with trips to China, Egypt, Sub-Saharan Africa, Brazil and the South Seas. In his first appearance, Billy Bunter was introduced thus: "The newcomer was a somewhat stout junior, with a broad, pleasant face and an enormous pair of spectacles." Bunter's big round spectacles and rolling gait earned him the nickname the "Owl of the Remove". In the early stories, both Bunter and classmate Johnny Bull were described as "stout" in appearance. With the passage of time, the illustrations would show Bunter's circumference as more pronounced, while Johnny Bull would become indistinguishable from the other schoolboys. A list of the members of the Remove form was published in Magnet #1659 Billy Bunter's Bargain, provided the boys' ages and weights.
Billy Bunter's age is given as 15 years 1 month. On many levels, Bunter's character is unattractive, he is the living embodiment of several of the seven deadly sins: pride, avarice, sloth and, most greed and gluttony. Added to these, Bunter is inquisitive and obtuse; however these traits are softened by Bunter's cheery optimism, his comically transparent untruthfulness and his reliable ineptitude when attempting to conceal his antics from his schoolfellows and schoolmasters. From the first Magnet story, Bunter suffers an ongoing shortage of cash and is forever attempting to borrow money from his schoolfellows, explaining that he is expecting a postal order from one of his "titled relations". Over the course of stories spanning several decades, Bunter's celebrated postal order never materialises. So, Bunter is a skilful and persistent borrower and succeeds in extracting countless loans from his schoolfellows. Wealthier schoolboys such as Lord Mauleverer part with a few shillings to be rid of Bunter.
Bunter's morals are peculiarly his own. He has every intention of repaying the cash he borrows, but allows such debts to linger for months and years, he is obsessed with food – the sweeter and stickier, the better – and is utterly unscrupulous in helping himself to his schoolfellows' sweets and hampers, for which he earns countless kickings. But despite his complete lack of morals in such matters, Bunter is otherwise as hon
Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng province in South Africa. It straddles the Apies River and has spread eastwards into the foothills of the Magaliesberg mountains, it is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the seat of the administrative branch of government, of foreign embassies to South Africa. Pretoria has a reputation for being an academic city with three universities, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and the Human Sciences Research Council; the city hosts the National Research Foundation and the South African Bureau of Standards making the city a hub for research. Pretoria is the central part of the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, formed by the amalgamation of several former local authorities including Centurion and Soshanguve. There have been proposals to change the name of Pretoria itself to Tshwane, the proposed name change has caused some public controversy. Pretoria is named after the Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius, within South Africa sometimes called the "Jacaranda City" due to the thousands of jacaranda trees planted in its streets and gardens.
Pretoria was founded in 1855 by Marthinus Pretorius, a leader of the Voortrekkers, who named it after his father Andries Pretorius and chose a spot on the banks of the "Apies rivier" to be the new capital of the South African Republic. The elder Pretorius had become a national hero of the Voortrekkers after his victory over Dingane and the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River; the elder Pretorius negotiated the Sand River Convention, in which the UK acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal. It became the capital of the South African Republic on 1 May 1860; the founding of Pretoria as the capital of the South African Republic can be seen as marking the end of the Boers' settlement movements of the Great Trek. During the First Boer War, the city was besieged by Republican forces in December 1880 and March 1881; the peace treaty which ended the war was signed in Pretoria on 3 August 1881 at the Pretoria Convention. The Second Boer War resulted in the end of the Transvaal Republic and start of British hegemony in South Africa.
The city surrendered to British forces under Frederick Roberts on 5 June 1900 and the conflict was ended in Pretoria with the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902 at Melrose House. The Pretoria Forts were built for the defence of the city just prior to the Second Boer War. Though some of these forts are today in ruins, a number of them have been preserved as national monuments; the Boer Republics of the ZAR and the Orange River Colony were united with the Cape Colony and Natal Colony in 1910 to become the Union of South Africa. Pretoria became the administrative capital of the whole of South Africa, with Cape Town the legislative capital and Bloemfontein served as the judicial capital. Between 1910 and 1994, the city was the capital of the province of Transvaal. On 14 October 1931, Pretoria achieved official city status; when South Africa became a republic in 1961, Pretoria remained its administrative capital. Pretoria is situated 55 km north-northeast of Johannesburg in the northeast of South Africa, in a transitional belt between the plateau of the Highveld to the south and the lower-lying Bushveld to the north.
It lies at an altitude of about 1,339 m above sea level, in a warm, fertile valley, surrounded by the hills of the Magaliesberg range. Pretoria has a humid subtropical climate with long hot rainy summers and short cool to cold, dry winters; the city experiences the typical winters of South Africa with cold, clear nights and mild to moderately warm days. Although the average lows during winter are mild, it can get cold due to the clear skies, with nighttime low temperatures in recent years in the range of 2 to −5 °C; the average annual temperature is 18.7 °C. This is rather high, considering the city's high altitude of about 1,339 metres, is due to its sheltered valley position, which acts as a heat trap and cuts it off from cool southerly and south-easterly air masses for much of the year. Rain is chiefly concentrated in the summer months, with drought conditions prevailing over the winter months, when frosts may be sharp. Snowfall is an rare event. During a nationwide heatwave in November 2011, Pretoria experienced temperatures that reached 39 °C, unusual for that time of the year.
Similar record-breaking extreme heat events occurred in January 2013, when Pretoria experienced temperatures exceeding 37 °C on several days. The year 2014 was one of the wettest on record for the city. A total of 914 mm fell up with 220 mm recorded in this month alone. In 2015 Pretoria saw its worst drought since 1982. January 2016 saw Pretoria reach a new record high of 44 °C on 7 January 2016. Depending on the extent of the area understood to constitute "Pretoria", the population ranges from 700,000 to 2.95 million. The main languages spoken in Pretoria are Sepedi, Setswana, Xitsonga and English; the city of Pretoria has the largest white population in Sub-Saharan Africa. Since its founding it has been a major Afrikaner population centre
Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia, located in the parklands between the city centre and North Adelaide. The venue is predominantly used for cricket and Australian rules football, but has played host to rugby league, rugby union, tennis among other sports as well as being used to hold concerts. Austadiums.com described Adelaide Oval as being "one of the most picturesque Test cricket grounds in Australia, if not the world". After the completion of the grounds most recent redevelopment in 2014, sports journalist Gerard Whateley described the venue as being "the most perfect piece of modern architecture because it's a contemporary stadium with all the character that it's had in the past". Adelaide Oval has been headquarters to the South Australian Cricket Association since 1871 and South Australian National Football League since 2014; the stadium is managed by the Adelaide Oval Stadium Management Authority. Its record crowd for cricket was 55,317 for the Second Ashes Test on 2 December 2017 and its record crowd for an Australian rules football match was 62,543 at the 1965 SANFL Grand Final between the Port Adelaide and Sturt.
In 1871 the ground was established after the formation of South Australian Cricket Association. During 1888 a switchback rollercoaster was constructed and was adjacent to Adelaide Oval where the present Riverbank Stand resides. In 1900 a picket fence was put in place around Oval's playing surface. In 1911 the current Adelaide Oval scoreboard, designed by architect Kenneth Milne, began service. In 1990 the Sir Donald Bradman Stand was built to replace the John Creswell stand and provided up to date facilities for spectators. In 1997 lights were constructed at the ground allowing sport to be held at night; this was the subject of a lengthy dispute with the Adelaide City Council relating to the parklands area. The first towers erected. In 2003 two grandstands, named the Chappell Stands, after the South Australian cricketing brothers Ian Chappell, Greg Chappell and Trevor Chappell were completed. Temporary stands were constructed for the 2006 Ashes Series to cope with demand. In August 2008 the South Australian Cricket Association announced that it had approved plans to redevelop the ground, involving expanding its capacity to 40,000.
Development plans showed a reconfiguration of a remodelled western stand. The redevelopment would make the ground a viable option for hosting Australian Football League games as well as international soccer and rugby; the state and federal Governments each pledged $25m to the project, leaving the SACA to raise at least $45m. The SACA planned for the new stand to be ready in time for the 2010–11 Ashes series; the South Australian government announced it would commit funding to redevelop Adelaide Oval into a multi-purpose sports facility that would bring AFL football to central Adelaide. Announcing an agreement negotiated with SACA, SANFL and the AFL, the Rann Labor government committed $450 million to the project; the three original western stands were demolished were torn down in June 2009 and a single Western stand was developed in its place ahead of the 2010–11 Ashes series. The Adelaide Oval Stadium Management Authority, a joint venture of SACA and the South Australian National Football League, was registered as a company on 23 December 2009 following the re-announcement of the plan.
The AOSMA has eight directors, four associated with SACA and four with SANFL. In 2010 the new Western stand was completed incorporating 14,000 individual seats and features improved shading conditions and amenities for SACA members. In the lead up to the 2010 state election, the opposition SA Liberals announced that, if elected, it would build with a new stadium with a roof, located at Riverside West at the site of the state government's new hospital location; the incumbent SA Labor government subsequently announced it would fund a $450 million upgrade and redevelopment of the whole of Adelaide Oval, rather than just the Western Grand Stand. Labor narrowly won re-election in 2010, resulting in its Adelaide Oval upgrade policy going ahead though for a steeper $535 million, of which this deal included the State Government clearing the SACA's $85 million debt. However, in early-mid-2010, prior to the election, it became clear. Following the 2010 state election, the Rann Labor government capped the State Government's commitment, stating: "It's $450 million – and not a penny more", set a deadline for the parties to agree.
In May, Treasurer Kevin Foley announced that "the Government's final offer to the SANFL and SACA for the redevelopment" was $535 million, the deadline was extended to August 2010. The SACA and the SANFL were in the process of negotiating an agreement that would enable Australian Rules Football to use Adelaide Oval during the AFL season as their home ground. In August 2010, SANFL and SACA representatives signed letters of intent committing to the project, including the capped $535 million offer from the state government; the redevelopment included a $40 million pedestrian bridge across the River Torrens to link the Adelaide railway station precinct with the Adelaide Oval precinct, completed for the Ashes cricket series in December 2013 and completed ahead of the 2014 AFL season. In early 2011, the AFL, SANFL, SACA, the SA Government and the Australian Government reache
Bangladesh national cricket team
The Bangladesh national cricket team, is administered by the Bangladesh Cricket Board. Bangladesh is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test and One Day International status, it played its first Test match in November 2000 against India in Dhaka, becoming the tenth Test-playing nation. Bangladesh's first official foray into international cricket came in the 1979 ICC Trophy in England. On 31 March 1986, Bangladesh played its first ODI match, against Pakistan in the Asia Cup. For a long time, football was the most popular sport in Bangladesh, but cricket became popular – in urban areas – and by the late 1990s had surpassed football. In 1997, Bangladesh won the ICC Trophy in Malaysia and thus qualified for its first Cricket World Cup to participate in England in 1999. There, it defeated Pakistan – causing much upset – and Scotland. On 26 June 2000, Bangladesh was granted full ICC membership. Bangladesh holds the record for most consecutive losses in ODIs. After gaining full member status with the ICC, Bangladesh had to wait until 2004 for its first ODI win since the 1999 World Cup.
The team on the losing side on that occasion was Zimbabwe, who participated in Bangladesh's maiden Test victory in 2005. In 2009 Bangladesh toured the West Indies for two Tests and by winning both secured their first overseas Test series victory; as of 28 July 2018, Bangladesh has played 108 Tests. Its first victory was against team Zimbabwe, the next two came against the West Indian team. Results have improved predominantly at home with draws earned against New Zealand, Pakistan and South Africa and wins against England, Sri Lanka and Australia, they played their 100th Test when they toured Sri Lanka in March 2017. The team has been more successful in ODIs, it has played 82 Twenty20 Internationals, winning 26. Bangladesh is ranked ninth in Tests, seventh in ODIs and tenth in T20Is by the ICC. Several East Pakistan-based sides played in Pakistani domestic cricket prior to Bangladesh's declaration of independence of 1971—the East Pakistan cricket team fielded three players who played ICC Trophy matches.
In 1977, Bangladesh became an Associate member of the International Cricket Council. Bangladesh was one of fifteen teams to take part in the inaugural ICC Trophy. Held in 1979, it gave non-Test playing countries the opportunity to qualify for that year's World Cup. Bangladesh, under the captaincy of Raqibul Hasan, won two matches and lost two, but failed to progress beyond the first round. Victory in the South-East Asian Cricket Conference Tournament in February 1984 ensured Bangladesh qualified for the 1986 Asia Cup. On 31 March 1986, Bangladesh played their first One Day International against a full member of the ICC, they lost their second ODI, against Sri Lanka, finishing last in the three-team tournament. Bangladesh qualified for this time hosting the tournament. Although they lost all their matches, Bangladesh's fixtures were retrospectively awarded ODI. Floods in the preceding months meant the tournament was in doubt. A charity match raised $70,000 for the flood victims. Bangladesh added a black mark in 1986 ICC Trophy with only 2 wins.
Bangladesh took part in the 1990 Austral-Asia Cup, the Asia Cup in 1990–91, 1995, 1997, several other triangular tournaments, but it was not until 1998 that they won their first ODI. Their 22-match losing streak since their first ODI was at the time a record. Bangladesh posted its first ODI win against Kenya, in India thanks to Mohammad Rafique, who contributed a fiery 77 runs and took 3 wickets. Put on 137 for the first wicket with Athar Ali Khan. Athar's own contribution was 47. In October 1998, Bangladesh hosted the first ICC KnockOut Trophy held, a knock-out ODI tournament featuring all the Test playing nations. Bangladesh took part in each of the 1979, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1994 editions of the ICC Trophy, won the trophy in 1997, in the process qualified for the 1999 World Cup; the General Secretary of Bangladesh Cricket Board, Aminul Huq Moni took the initiative to install Astro Turf in Abahani Cricket Ground and Bangabandhu National Stadium, so that the local players had two full seasons to prepare on the type of pitch they would playing in ICC Trophy in 1997.
Bangladesh became a regular ICC member with the right to play ODIs and started hosting bilateral and triangular ODI tournaments. Earlier, in February Dhaka hosted the final SAARC cricket tournament. Bangladesh played in its first World Cup in England in 1999 and recorded their first win in a World Cup match against Scotland. Bangladesh created an enormous upset by beating Pakistan by 62 runs in the group match at Northampton. Bangladesh made 9/223 from its full 50 overs, in reply, Pakistan could only manage 161 due to timely run-outs by wicket-keeper Khaled Mashud and some tight bowling by Khaled Mahmud, who took 3/31 from 10 overs. Mahmud was judged the man of the match. Bangladesh did not qualify for the Super Six round due to defeats in three of its five matches. However, the win over Pakistan, who finished runners-up to Australia, helped Bangladesh to gain Test playing status the following year. Bangladesh had sacked coach Gordon Greenidge, who had steered the team through the 1997 ICC Trophy and
University of the Witwatersrand
The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, is a multi-campus South African public research university situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg. It is more known as Wits University or Wits; the university has its roots in the mining industry, as do Johannesburg and the Witwatersrand in general. Founded in 1896 as the South African School of Mines in Kimberley, it is the third oldest South African university in continuous operation; the university has an enrolment of 38,353 students as of 2017, of which 20 percent live on campus in the university's 22 residences. 65 percent of the university's total enrolment is for undergraduate study, with the remaining 35 percent being postgraduate. The 2017 Academic Ranking of World Universities places Wits University, with its overall score, as the highest ranked university in Africa. Wits was ranked as the top university in South Africa in the Center for World University Rankings in 2016. According to the CWUR rankings, Wits occupies this ranking position since 2014.
The university was founded in Kimberley in 1896 as the South African School of Mines. It is the third oldest South African university in continuous operation, after the University of Cape Town, Stellenbosch University.. Eight years in 1904, the school was moved to Johannesburg and renamed the Transvaal Technical Institute; the school's name changed yet again in 1906 to Transvaal University College. In 1908, a new campus of the Transvaal University College was established in Pretoria; the Johannesburg and Pretoria campuses separated on 17 May 1910, each becoming a separate institution. The Johannesburg campus was reincorporated as the South African School of Mines and Technology, while the Pretoria campus remained the Transvaal University College until 1930 when it became the University of Pretoria. In 1920, the school was renamed Johannesburg. On 1 March 1922, the University College, was granted full university status after being incorporated as the University of the Witwatersrand; the Johannesburg municipality donated a site in Milner Park, north-west of Braamfontein, to the new institution as its campus and construction began the same year, on 4 October.
The first Chancellor of the new university was Prince Arthur of Connaught and the first Principal was Professor Jan Hofmeyr. Hofmeyr set the tone of the university's subsequent opposition to apartheid when, during his inaugural address as Principal he declared, while discussing the nature of a university and its desired function in a democracy, that universities "should know no distinctions of class, race or creed". True to Hofmeyr's words, from the outset Wits was an open university with a policy of non-discrimination on racial or any other grounds. There were six faculties—Arts, Medicine, Engineering and Commerce—37 departments, 73 academic staff, 1,000 students. In 1923, the university began moving into the new campus vacating its former premises on Ellof Street for the first completed building in Milner Park: the Botany and Zoology Block. In 1925, the Prince of Wales opened Central Block; the university's first library, housed at the time in what was meant to be a temporary construction, was destroyed in a fire on Christmas Eve in 1931.
Following this, an appeal was made to the public for ₤80,000 to pay for the construction of a new library, the acquisition of books. This resulted in the rapid construction of the William Cullen Library. During this period, as the Great Depression hit South Africa, the university was faced with severe financial restrictions. Nonetheless, it continued to grow at an impressive rate. From a total enrolment of 2,544 students in 1939, the university grew to 3,100 in 1945; this growth led to accommodation problems, which were temporarily resolved by the construction of wood and galvanised-iron huts in the centre of the campus. During World War II, Wits was involved in South Africa's war efforts; the Bernard Price Institute of Geophysical Research was placed under the Union of South Africa's defence ministry, was involved in important research into the use of radar. Additionally, an elite force of female soldiers was trained on the university's campus. In 1948 the National Party was voted into power by South Africa's white electorate on a platform of "apartheid".
The NP's aim was to create an artificial white majority in most of South Africa by depriving the black majority of their citizenship, making them citizens of the "homelands" associated with their ethnic groups instead. These were, in theory, "self-governing", in four cases were granted "independence", but in reality, their lack of economic infrastructure left the independent homelands as little more than South African puppet states. This policy of "grand apartheid" was accompanied by the extension of racially discriminatory measures within so-called "white South Africa", including the segregation of universities. Wits managed to remain an open institution, but by 1956 the NP government began to push for the full implementation of university apartheid. In response, in 1957, the University of Cape Town, Rhodes University and the University of Natal issued a joint statement entitled "The Open Universities in South Africa", committing themselves to the principles of university autonomy and academic freedom.
In 1959, the apartheid government's Extension of University Education Act forced restricted registrations of black students for most of the aparth
Batting average (cricket)
In cricket, a player's batting average is the total number of runs they have scored divided by the number of times they have been out. Since the number of runs a player scores and how they get out are measures of their own playing ability, independent of their teammates, batting average is a good metric for an individual player's skill as a batter; the number is simple to interpret intuitively. If all the batter's innings were completed, this is the average number of runs they score per innings. If they did not complete all their innings, this number is an estimate of the unknown average number of runs they score per innings; each player has several batting averages, with a different figure calculated for each type of match they play, a player's batting averages may be calculated for individual seasons or series, or at particular grounds, or against particular opponents, or across their whole career. Batting average has been used to gauge cricket players' relative skills since the 18th century.
Most players have career batting averages in the range of 20 to 40. This is the desirable range for wicket-keepers, though some fall short and make up for it with keeping skill; until a substantial increase in scores in the 21st century due to improved bats and smaller grounds among other factors, players who sustained an average above 50 through a career were considered exceptional, before the development of the heavy roller in the 1870s an average of 25 was considered good. All-rounders who are more prominent bowlers than batsmen average something between 20 and 30. 15 and under is typical for specialist bowlers. A small number of players have averaged less than 5 for a complete career, though a player with such an average is a liability unless an exceptional bowler as Alf Valentine, B. S. Chandrasekhar or Glenn McGrath were. Career records for batting average are subject to a minimum qualification of 20 innings played or completed, in order to exclude batsmen who have not played enough games for their skill to be reliably assessed.
Under this qualification, the highest Test batting average belongs to Australia's Sir Donald Bradman, with 99.94. Given that a career batting average over 50 is exceptional, that only five other players have averages over 60, this is an outstanding statistic; the fact that Bradman's average is so far above that of any other cricketer has led several statisticians to argue that, statistically at least, he was the greatest athlete in any sport. Disregarding this 20 innings qualification, the highest career test batting average is 112, by Andy Ganteaume, a Trinidadian Keeper-batsman, dismissed for 112 in his only test innings. Batting averages in One Day International cricket tend to be lower than in Test cricket, because of the need to score runs more and take riskier strokes and the lesser emphasis on building a large innings, it should be remembered in relation to the ODI histogram above, that there were no ODI competitions when Bradman played. If a batter has been dismissed in every single innings this statistic gives the average number of runs they score per innings.
However, for a batter with innings which finished not out, the true average number of runs they score per innings is unknown as it is not known how many runs they would have scored if they could have completed all their not out innings. This statistic is an estimate of the average number of runs. If their scores have a geometric distribution this statistic is the maximum likelihood estimate of their true unknown average. Batting averages can be affected by the number of not outs. For example, Phil Tufnell, noted for his poor batting, has an respectable ODI average of 15, despite a highest score of only 5 not out, as he scored an overall total of 15 runs from 10 innings, but was out only once. A batter who has not been dismissed in any of the innings over which their average is being calculated does not have a batting average, as dividing by zero does not give a result. Highest career batting averages in Test matches. Table shows players with at least 20 innings completed. * denotes not out. Last updated: 14 October 2018.
Highest career batting averages in First-class cricket as follows: Source: Cricinfo Statsguru. Table shows players with at least 50 innings batted, note this table has no requirement for minimum number of runs scored. * denotes not out. Last updated: 10 November 2018. Alternative measures of batting effectiveness have been developed, including: Strike rate measures a different concept to batting average – how the batter scores – so it does not supplant the role of batting average, it is used in limited overs matches, where the speed at which a batter scores is more important than it is in first-class cricket. A system of player rankings was developed to produce a better indication of players' current standings than is provided by comparing their averages. Cricket statistics Batting average Bowling average