James Montgomery Doohan, LVO was a Canadian actor and voice actor best known for his role as Montgomery "Scotty" Scott in the television and film series Star Trek. Doohan's characterization of the Scottish Chief Engineer of the Starship Enterprise was one of the most recognizable elements in the Star Trek franchise, inspired many fans to pursue careers in engineering and other technical fields, he made contributions behind the scenes, such as the initial development of the Klingon and Vulcan languages. Prior to Star Trek, Doohan served in the Canadian military with the 14th Field Artillery Regiment of the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division, he served as a pilot. He saw combat in Europe during World War II, including the D-Day invasion of Normandy, in which he was wounded by friendly fire. After the war, he had extensive experience performing in radio and television, which led to his role as Scotty. Following the cancellation of the original Star Trek series, Doohan had limited success in finding other roles.
Doohan was born in Vancouver, British Columbia, the youngest of four children of Sarah Frances and William Patrick Doohan, who both emigrated from Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland. His mother was a homemaker, his father, born in Belfast, was a pharmacist and dentist, a member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Ireland. William Doohan owned a chemist shop beside Trinity Presbyterian Church. Doohan's father invented an early form of high-octane gasoline in 1923. Doohan's 1996 autobiography recounted his father's serious alcoholism. Doohan's paternal grandfather, Thomas Doohan, was Head Constable in the Royal Irish Constabulary; the family moved from Vancouver to Ontario. Doohan attended high school at Sarnia Collegiate Institute and Technical School, where he excelled in mathematics and science, he enrolled in the 102nd Royal Canadian Army Cadet Corps in 1938. At the beginning of the Second World War, Doohan joined the Royal Canadian Artillery and was a member of the 14th Field Battery, 2nd Canadian Infantry Division.
He was commissioned a lieutenant in the 14th Field Artillery Regiment of the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division. He was sent to England in 1940 for training, he first saw combat landing at Juno Beach on D-Day. Shooting two snipers, Doohan led his men to higher ground through a field of anti-tank mines, where they took defensive positions for the night. Crossing between command posts at 11:30 that night, Doohan was hit by six rounds fired from a Bren Gun by a nervous Canadian sentry: four in his leg, one in the chest, one through his right middle finger; the bullet to his chest was stopped by a silver cigarette case given to him by his brother. His right middle finger had to be amputated, something he would conceal on-screen during most of his career as an actor. Doohan graduated from Air Observation Pilot Course 40 with eleven other Canadian artillery officers and flew Taylorcraft Auster Mark V aircraft for 666 Squadron, RCAF as a Royal Canadian Artillery officer in support of 1st Army Group Royal Artillery.
All three Canadian RCAF squadrons were manned by artillery officer-pilots and accompanied by non-commissioned RCA and RCAF personnel serving as observers. Although he was never a member of the Royal Canadian Air Force, Doohan was once labelled the "craziest pilot in the Canadian Air Force". In the late spring of 1945, on Salisbury Plain north of RAF Andover, he slalomed a plane between telegraph poles "to prove it could be done"—earning himself a serious reprimand. After the war, Doohan moved to Ontario for further technical education. After hearing a radio drama that he knew he could do better, he recorded his voice at the local radio station, learned about a drama school in Toronto. There he won a two-year scholarship to the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York City, where his classmates included Leslie Nielsen, Tony Randall and Richard Boone. In 1946, he had several roles for CBC radio, starting January 12. For several years, he shuttled between New York as work demanded, he estimated he performed in over 4,000 radio programs and 450 television programs during this period, earned a reputation for versatility.
In the mid-1950s, he appeared as forest ranger Timber Tom in the Canadian version of Howdy Doody. Coincidentally, fellow Star Trek cast member William Shatner appeared as Ranger Bill in the American version. Doohan and Shatner both appeared on the 1950s Canadian science fiction series Space Command. Doohan appeared in several episodes of Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans in 1957-58. For GM Presents, he played the lead role in the CBC TV drama Flight into Danger in The Night they Killed Joe Howe. Doohan's credits included The Twilight Zone, Season 4, Episode 3 "Valley of the Shadow", GE True, The Outer Limits, The Fugitive, Fantasy Island, Magnum, P. I; the Man from U. N. C. L. E. and Bonanza. In the Bonanza episode "Gift of Water", he co-starred with actress Majel Barrett who would play Star Trek's Nurse Christine Chapel, he played an assistant to the United States president in two episodes of Voyage to the Bottom of the S
Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles
Pacific Palisades is a coastal neighborhood in the Westside of the city of Los Angeles, located among Brentwood to the east and Topanga to the west, Santa Monica to the southeast, the Santa Monica Bay to the southwest, the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. It is about 9 miles northwest of the UCLA campus; the area has about 24,651 residents. Of those residents it is estimated that 11,799 are males and 12,852 are females, it is a residential area, with a mixture of large private homes, small houses and apartments. In 1911, film director Thomas Ince created his Western film factory, "Inceville", which at its peak employed nearly 600 people. A decade the Rev. Charles H. Scott and the Southern California Methodist Episcopal Church bought the land. Believers lived in tents during construction. By 1925, the Palisades had 100 homes. In one subdivision, streets were named for Methodist missionaries; the tents were replaced by cabins by bungalows, by multimillion-dollar homes. The climate of the area was a big selling point.
Temperatures are much cooler than inland Los Angeles during summer, but sunnier and less foggy than areas south along the coast. During their exile from Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 40s, many German and Austrian intellectuals and artists associated with the Exilliteratur settled in Pacific Palisades, including Thomas Mann at, Lion Feuchtwanger, Theodor W. Adorno, Vicki Baum, Oskar Homolka and Emil Ludwig. Villa Aurora on Paseo Miramar, the Spanish colonial home of Feuchtwanger and his wife, became the focal point of the expatriate community, nicknamed "Weimar by the Sea". For many decades there was a virtual ban on drinking alcohol in the district, a Chinese restaurant, House of Lee, held the only liquor license; the Methodist Church created a Chautauqua Conference Grounds in Temescal Canyon. The Presbyterian Synod purchased the property in 1943 and used it as a private retreat center until the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy purchased the property in 1994 to become Temescal Gateway Park.
The Via Mesa and The Huntington Palisades are the neighborhoods that border the "village" proper to the south of Sunset Boulevard, overlooking the ocean. The Via Mesa is located between Temescal Canyon on Potrero Canyon on the east. Both of these neighborhoods are within walking distance to The Village and sit upon high bluffs that look out over the Pacific Ocean; this area is home to the largest park of the Palisades: the 117-acre Palisades Park which has four baseball diamonds, eight tennis courts, two indoor basketball courts, a hockey rink, dog parks, a number of playgrounds. The El Medio Mesa is located south of Sunset Boulevard beginning about a quarter mile west of The Village, across Temescal Canyon – just past Palisades Charter High School; the El Medio Mesa extends for a long distance from Temescal Canyon all the way to where Sunset Boulevard meets the Pacific Coast Highway. As with The Via Bluffs and The Huntington Palisades, The El Medio Bluffs are located on a high ridge overlooking the Pacific Ocean.
Castellammare is located along the Pacific Coast Highway on small bluffs much closer to sea-level, north of where Sunset Boulevard meets the PCH. This is the home of the Getty Villa and the narrow, winding streets in this neighborhood have Italian names and ocean breezes. Palisades Highlands is a community near the end of Sunset Blvd. Bordering Topanga, about five minutes away from the center of Pacific Palisades; the Highlands could be considered its own separate community high up the hill overlooking the ocean, up Palisades Drive. Rustic Canyon is the neighborhood east of Chautauqua Boulevard that dips into Santa Monica Canyon and includes the Will Rogers State Historic Park; the neighborhood features post-war homes located on the former polo field of The Uplifters, the original site of The Uplifters clubhouse, "cabins" developed as second homes and weekend retreats. This area is known as Uplifter's Ranch; the Riviera is a Palisades neighborhood located two miles east of The Palisades Village and features The Riviera Country Club, a country club, streets named after various locations in the French and Italian Riviera.
The neighborhood is divided into south sections by Sunset Boulevard. It borders Brentwood; the Riviera Country Club hosts the Genesis Open on the PGA Tour in February. Riviera has hosted three major championships: the U. S. Open in 1948 and the PGA Championship in 1983 and 1995. Ben Hogan won three times in less than 18 months at the course, it became known as "Hogan's Alley." The country club will host golf during the 2028 Summer Olympics. In 2009, the Los Angeles Times's "Mapping L. A." project supplied these Pacific Palisades statistics: population: 25,507 residents in the 22.84-square-mile neighborhood—1,048 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities for the city and the county. Every Fourth of July, the community's Chamber of Commerce sponsors day-long events which include 5K and 10K runs, a parade down Sunset Boulevard, a fireworks display at Palisades High School football field; the district includes some large parklands and many hiking trails. The Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks operates several recreational faci
Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, United States. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is bordered on three sides by the city of Los Angeles – Pacific Palisades to the north, Brentwood on the northeast, West Los Angeles on the east, Mar Vista on the southeast, Venice on the south; the Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736. Due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica became a famed resort town by the early 20th century; the city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its downtown core, significant job growth and increased tourism. The Santa Monica Pier and Pacific Park remain popular destinations. Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language; the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present-day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3, 1769. Named after the Christian saint Monica, there are two different accounts of how the city's name came to be.
One says it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, but her feast day is May 4. Another version says it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears Saint Monica shed over her son's early impiety. In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios. Following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2, 1848. In the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, a wharf out into the bay; the first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building a beer hall, now part of the Santa Monica Hostel. It is Santa Monica's oldest extant structure. By 1885, the town's first hotel was the Santa Monica Hotel. Amusement piers became enormously popular in the first decades of the 20th century and the extensive Pacific Electric Railroad brought people to the city's beaches from across the Greater Los Angeles Area.
Around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in and around Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in Santa Monica and Venice; the two ethnic minorities were viewed differently by White Americans who were well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an integral economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community. Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field for the Douglas Aircraft Company. In 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes returned after covering 27,553 miles in 175 days, were greeted on their return September 23, 1924, by a crowd of 200,000; the Douglas Company kept facilities in the city until the 1960s. The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply. One report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000.
Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt. In the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica; the federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings, most notably City Hall. The main Post Office and Barnum Hall were among other WPA projects. Douglas's business grew astronomically with the onset of World War II, employing as many as 44,000 people in 1943. To defend against air attack, set designers from the Warner Brothers Studios prepared elaborate camouflage that disguised the factory and airfield; the RAND Corporation began as a project of the Douglas Company in 1945, spun off into an independent think tank on May 14, 1948. RAND acquired a 15-acre campus between the Civic Center and the pier entrance; the completion of the Santa Monica Freeway in 1966 brought the promise of new prosperity, though at the cost of decimating the Pico neighborhood, a leading African American enclave on the Westside. Beach volleyball is believed to have been developed by Duke Kahanamoku in Santa Monica during the 1920s.
The Santa Monica Looff Hippodrome is a National Historic Landmark. It sits on the Santa Monica Pier, built in 1909; the La Monica Ballroom on the pier was once the largest ballroom in the US and the source for many New Year's Eve national network broadcasts. The Santa Monica Civic Auditorium was an important music venue for several decades and hosted the Academy Awards in the 1960s. McCabe's Guitar Shop is a leading acoustic performance space as well as retail outlet. Bergamot Station is a city-owned art gallery compound; the city is home to the California Heritage Museum and the Angels Attic dollhouse and toy museum. The New West Symphony is the resident orchestra of Barnum Hall, they are resident orchestra of the Oxnard Performing Arts Center and the Thousand Oaks Civic Arts Plaza. Santa Monica has three main shopping districts: Montana Avenue on the north side, the Downtown District in the city's core, Main Street on the south end; each has personality. Montana Avenue is a stretch of luxury boutique stores and small offices that features more upscale shopping.
The Main Street district offers an eclectic mix of clothing and other specialty retail. The Downtown District is the home of the Third Street Promenade, a major outdoor pedestrian-on
James T. Kirk
James Tiberius "Jim" Kirk is a fictional character in the Star Trek franchise. Kirk first appears in Star Trek: The Original Series and has been portrayed in numerous films, comics and video games; as the captain of the starship USS Enterprise, Kirk leads his crew as they explore new worlds, new civilizations, "boldly go where no man has gone before". The characters of Spock and Leonard McCoy act as his logical and emotional sounding boards, respectively. Kirk, played by William Shatner, first appears in Star Trek's first episode, "The Man Trap", broadcast on September 8, 1966. Shatner continued in the role for the show's three seasons, provided the voice of the animated version of Kirk in Star Trek: The Animated Series. Shatner returned in six subsequent films. Chris Pine portrays an alternative young version of the character in the 2009 Star Trek film. Pine reprised his role in Star Trek Beyond. Other actors have played the character in fan-created media, the character has been the subject of multiple spoofs and satires.
Kirk has been criticized for his relationships with women. James Tiberius Kirk was born in Riverside, Iowa, in the year 2228, where he was raised by his parents and Winona Kirk. Although born on Earth, Kirk lived for a time on Tarsus IV, where he was one of nine surviving witnesses to the massacre of 4,000 colonists by Kodos the Executioner. James Kirk's brother, George Samuel Kirk, is first mentioned in "What Are Little Girls Made Of?" and introduced and killed in "Operation: Annihilate!", leaving behind three children. Kirk became the first and only student at Starfleet Academy to defeat the Kobayashi Maru test, garnering a commendation for original thinking for reprogramming the computer to make the "no-win scenario" winnable. Kirk was granted a field commission as an ensign and posted to advanced training aboard the USS Republic, he was promoted to lieutenant junior grade and returned to Starfleet Academy as a student instructor. Students could either "think or sink" in his class, Kirk himself was "a stack of books with legs".
Upon graduating in the top five percent, Kirk was promoted to lieutenant and served aboard the USS Farragut. While assigned to the Farragut, Kirk commanded his first planetary survey and survived a deadly attack that killed a large portion of the Farragut's crew, including his commanding officer, Captain Garrovick, he received his first command, a spaceship equivalent to a destroyer, while still quite young. Kirk became Starfleet's youngest starship captain after receiving command of the USS Enterprise for a five-year mission, three years of which are depicted in the original Star Trek series. Kirk's most significant relationships in the television series are with first officer Spock and chief medical officer Dr. Leonard "Bones" McCoy. McCoy is someone to whom Kirk is a foil to Spock. Robert Jewett and John Shelton Lawrence's The Myth of the American Superhero describes Kirk as "a hard-driving leader who pushes himself and his crew beyond human limits". Terry J. Erdman and Paula M. Block, in their Star Trek 101 primer, note that while "cunning and confident", Kirk has a "tendency to ignore Starfleet regulations when he feels the end justifies the means".
Although Kirk throughout the series becomes romantically involved with various women, when confronted with a choice between a woman and the Enterprise, "his ship always won". Roddenberry wrote in a production memo that Kirk is not afraid of being fallible, but rather is afraid of the consequences to his ship and crew should he make an error in judgment. Roddenberry wrote: has any normal man's insecurities and doubts, but he knows he cannot show them—except in private with ship's surgeon McCoy or in subsequent moments with Mr. Spock whose opinions Kirk has learned to value so highly. In Star Trek: The Motion Picture, Admiral Kirk is Chief of Starfleet Operations, he takes command of the Enterprise from Captain Willard Decker. Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry's novelization of The Motion Picture depicts Kirk married to a Starfleet officer killed during a transporter accident. At the beginning of Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, Kirk takes command of the Enterprise from Captain Spock to pursue his enemy from "Space Seed", Khan Noonien Singh.
The movie introduces David Marcus. Spock, who notes that "commanding a starship is first, best destiny", dies at the end of Star Trek II. In Star Trek III: The Search for Spock, Admiral Kirk leads his surviving officers in a successful mission to rescue Spock from a planet on which he is reborn. Although Kirk is demoted to Captain in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home for disobeying Starfleet orders, he receives command of a new Enterprise, the USS Enterprise-A; the ship is ordered decommissioned at the end of Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country. In Star Trek Generations, Captain Jean-Luc Picard finds Kirk living in the timeless Nexus, despite the fact that history recorded his death during the Enterprise-B's maiden voyage, Kirk having fallen into the Nexus in the incident that caused his "death". Picard convinces Kirk to return to Picard's present to help stop the villain Soran from destroying Veridian III's sun. Although Kirk refuses the offer, he agrees after realizing the Nexus cannot give him the one thing he has always sought: the ability to make a difference.
The two stop Soran. However, Kirk is mortally wounded. Picard buries Kirk on the planet; this Star Tr
Star Trek uniforms
Star Trek uniforms are costumes worn by actors portraying personnel from the fictitious organization Starfleet in the Star Trek science fiction franchise. Costume design changed between various television series and films those representing different time periods, both for appearance and comfort. Deliberately mixing styles of uniforms from the various series was used to enhance the sense of time travel or alternative universes; the rank system of the Star Trek universe resembles that of the United States Navy in contrast to other science fiction franchises that use an army ranking system. In Star Trek: The Original Series and Star Trek: The Motion Picture, ranks are indicated by sleeve stripes. In television series, ranks are indicated by varying numbers of pips or bars on the individuals' uniform collars; the insignia are worn on the left breast by all personnel. They were metallic gold, with a black border. However, the specific shape differed based on the ship or base to which the person was assigned, as seen in such TOS episodes as "Court-Martial" or "The Doomsday Machine."
In the case of the Enterprise, the insignia was an arrowhead shape. A black symbol within the insignia indicated the wearer's division — a star with an elongated top point indicated command, a circle crossed by an oval science and medical, an angular spiral operations and engineering; these same symbols were used on most of the different insignia. In the second pilot, the science/medical and engineering/operations symbols were reversed, there were other slight variations between the insignia as used in the pilots and in the regular series; the original uniform designs were the product of designer William Ware Theiss. The original series uniforms consisted of a colored top and dark pants, with significant variations between the designs used in the pilot episodes and the rest of the series; the first uniforms, as seen in the unaired pilot "The Cage" and again in the second pilot "Where No Man Has Gone Before", are somewhat different from the Starfleet uniform seen in the rest of the original series.
The original concept used a heavy, ribbed turtle neck collar of the same color as the tunic for the men, with a cowl neck variation for the women, each in three colors: gold and light blue. Officers in the first Star Trek pilot, "The Cage," wore a single gold sleeve stripe, only the officer grades of "lieutenant" and "captain" were used in dialog. A "chief" was visible, but wearing a different sleeve stripe. Characters addressed. In the first pilot, the uniforms included gray coats with silver rank stripes on the sleeves, worn on away missions and identical for men and women, an optional gray cap. In the second pilot episode, "Where No Man Has Gone Before," most officers again wore a single stripe. Kirk wore two stripes; these differences between the rank indicators used in the pilots and those used in the main series could be explained by the fact that creator Gene Roddenberry and wardrobe designer William Ware Theiss had not yet worked out a consistent system for officer-grade indicator markings on the uniforms.
This they would work out after the second pilot, "Where No Man Has Gone Before," succeeded in selling the series. The original uniform material was velour; this was used in the first and second seasons because it was cheap and easy to care for, but it shrank after it was dry-cleaned, it tore easily. Thus, it was replaced, in the third season, by a nylon fabric used in professional baseball uniforms. Differently colored shirts were worn with dark gray trousers — which appeared black on camera — for the men. Miniskirt-length dresses with cheer briefs and dark tights were worn by the women. Black boots were worn by both sexes. Nichelle Nichols did not believe that the miniskirts were unusually short or revealing: I was wearing them on the street. What's wrong with wearing them on the air? I wore'em on airplanes, it was the era of the miniskirt. Everybody wore miniskirts. On certain occasions, the characters would wear dress uniforms that are made of a shinier fabric a polyester satin, are decorated with gold piping and colored badges that vary depending on rank.
Montgomery Scott's dress uniform as seen in "The Savage Curtain," includes a Scottish tartan. It is the tartan of the Clan Scott, one of Scotland's oldest clans. Jumpsuits in the same colors with black undershirts were worn by background characters. Beginning with the first regular series episode "The Man Trap", the department colors were altered from the pilot versions: command and helm personnel wear gold shirts; the most used Command Section shirts were olive-green in color, but they appeared to be a golden-yellow color called "tenne" both under the lights used on the set and in the post-development film stock. In series, the gold color was canonized in dialog. However, some uniforms – the alternate shirts worn by Captain Kirk, the Command Section dress uniforms – were made of a different material which, while the same color, showed up as olive-green under the lights and when photographed; the green shirts (seen in TOS: "The Trouble with Trib
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
A helmsman or helm is a person who steers a ship, submarine, other type of maritime vessel, or spacecraft. The rank and seniority of the helmsman may vary: on small vessels such as fishing vessels and yachts, the functions of the helmsman are combined with that of the skipper. In the merchant navy, the person at the helm is an able seaman during ship arrivals and while maneuvering in restricted waters or other conditions requiring precise steering. An ordinary seaman is restricted to steering in open waters. Moreover, military ships may have a quartermaster at the helm. A professional helmsman maintains a steady course, properly executes all rudder orders, communicates to the officer on the bridge using navigational terms relating to ship's heading and steering. A helmsman relies upon visual references, a magnetic and gyrocompass, a rudder angle indicator to steer a steady course; the mate or other officer on the bridge directs the helmsman aboard navy ships. Clear and exact communication between the helmsman and officer on the bridge is essential to safe navigation and ship handling.
Subsequently, a set of standard steering commands, responses by the helmsman, acknowledgment by the conning officer are recognized in the maritime industry. The helmsman repeats any verbal commands to demonstrate that the command is understood; the International Convention on Standards of Training and Watchkeeping for Seafarers requires that a helmsman be able to understand and respond to helm orders in English. The proliferation of autopilot systems and the increased computerization of operations on a ship's bridge lessen the need for helmsmen standing watch in open waters. Helm orders or commands fall into two categories: heading commands. A rudder command dictates changing the angle of the rudder, a single-event action. Whereas steering a heading is a comparatively long event and will require ongoing or continuous rudder adjustments; the following are helm orders used in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard: Rudder Midships Check your swing Hard rudder Left or right standard rudder Shift your rudder Heading Steady as she goes Steady on a course Steering a ship requires skills gained through training and experience.
An expert helmsman has a keen sense of how a particular ship will respond to the helm or how different sea conditions impact steering. For instance, experience teaches a helmsman the ability to correct the rudder in advance of a ship falling off course; this requires the capacity to anticipate the delay between when the helm is applied and when the ship responds to the rudder. A skilled helmsman will avoid overcompensating for a ship's movement caused by local conditions, such as wind, currents, or rough seas. Computer-based ship simulators provide a training environment for learning skills to steer a ship. Training can be programmed to replicate a variety of ship environmental conditions. Scenarios depicted in 3-D graphics range from making course corrections in open waters to maneuvering in port, rivers, or other shallow waters. Cost compared to a real vessel is low. Mariners learn responses to dangerous situations, such as steering failure, in the safety of a virtual environment. Land-based ship simulators may feature a full-scale replica of a steering stand with a ship's wheel.
Such simulators incorporate magnetic and gyro compasses for steering. Moreover, a rudder angle indicator that responds appropriately to the helm is part of the configuration; however technology allows for a multitude of smaller workstations in a classroom setting. Administrators network student workstations so that the instructor can launch individual scenarios at each station. Computer models are used to simulate conditions such as wind and currents. Moreover, shallow-water effects or other hydrodynamic forces, such as ships passing close to each other, can be depicted. A computer application records training sessions, complete with voice commands issued by the instructor which are received by the students via a headset. On-the-job training at sea is critical to a helmsman developing ability to "sense" or anticipate how a ship will respond in different conditions; the experienced helmsman uses measured responses to sea conditions when encountering heavy weather that may cause a ship to pitch and roll as it pounds its way through oncoming waves.
Subsequently, the helmsman learns to relax and take into account the vessel's natural rhythm in order to avoid oversteering whatever the maritime environment. More accurate steering is attained with less rudder. Applying the minimal rudder required to steer a course reduces drag of the ship, thereby favorably impacting the ship's speed and operating costs. One of the helmsman's most important duties is steering a ship in a harbor or seaport when reduced speeds slow a ship's response to the rudder. For it is during ship departures, when most ship collisions or groundings occur. Clear communication between the officer of the bridge and the helmsman is essential for safe operations; the officer or harbor pilot re