Ed Rush is the stage name used by the drum and bass musician, producer and DJ, Ben Settle. Rush has been releasing records since 1992 and with his musical partner Optical, since 1997. Along with Optical he is the co-founder of the record label Virus Recordings which releases his records along with other drum and bass acts, he is most associated with the aggressive styles of drum and bass music known as techstep and neurofunk. Rush's first releases were a pair of self-released white label 12" singles, the Prince Jammy sampling I Wanna Stay in the Jungle and Look What They've Done in late 1992. In early 1993, Rush begun playing on the London pirate radio station Don FM, where he was to first meet future production partner DJ Trace, resulting in the duo releasing the track Don Bad Man, produced by engineer Nico Sykes. Shortly after, Rush recorded the classic Bludclot Artattack, released on Sykes' No U Turn Records; the release was a key in signalling the change from hardcore to bass. Rush's work became uncompromising and dark: writing in the book Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture, Simon Reynolds wrote "Ed Rush's No U-Turn tracks'Gangsta Hardstep' and'Guncheck' took the explosive energy of hardcore and imploded it, transforming febrile hyperkinesis into molasses thick malaise".
Further collaborations followed including The Mutant by DJ Trace in 1995 and releases on Grooverider's Prototype label and Goldie's Metalheadz further established his reputation as a drum and bass artist. In 1996 Rush and Trace named the dense, hard style of jungle they were working in as "Techstep" which went on to become the dominant style of drum and bass in the late 1990s. Rush's work with Trace and Nico on No U-Turn records was compiled on the album Torque in 1997. In 1995 Rush met Matt Quinn, who worked under the stage name Optical, they met at the Music House, a dubplate mastering company in Islington, London where dubplates would be made for their DJ sets. Rob Playford the owner of the label Moving Shadow gave them space in his Soho office building to allow them to build their own studio, they released their debut single Funktion in 1997, followed it up in 1998 with their debut album,Wormhole, described as the greatest drum and bass album of all time. And introduced the style of drum and bass known as Neurofunk.
In 2000, DJ Craze used their track "Watermelon" in his beat-juggling routine which helped him win his 3rd DMC World Championship. They released their second album in 2000, The Creeps which broadened their palette by introducing vocals to the mix and won best album and best producers at the Knowledge DnB awards, their third album, The Original Doctor Shade was released in 2003 and featured a collaboration with turntablist DJs, Scratch Perverts. In 2005 they took part in the 40 Artists, 40 Days project organised by the Tate Gallery in the run up to London's successful bid to win the right to host the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics. 2006 saw the release of their fourth album Chameleon which saw them using a live band for the first time and three years followed with Travel the Galaxy. Their track Frontline was use in the soundtrack to the 2008 video game Wipeout HD. In 2014, Ministry of Sound described them as one of the most influential artists in bass, their most recent album No Cure was released in October 2015.2015 saw the release of their first headline mix on the long running Fabriclive series of mix CDs, FabricLive.82.
They had a long relationship with the London club Fabric having played at the opening weekend in 1999 and appearing on the first drum and bass mix released by Fabric in 2002. Following Islington Council's decision to revoke Fabric's licence in September 2016, Ed Rush & Optical took part in a benefit show to challenge the decision. In November 2016 agreement was made to reopen the club; as well as club appearances they have appeared at festivals including Glastonbury in 1999 and 2014 and Bestival in 2013. They have collaborated and remixed several other artists including: Goldie, Skunk Anansie,Lil' Louis and Rudimental featuring John Newman, they themselves have been remixed by other artists such as Pendulum who remixed their track Bacteria in 2004. As well as his work with Optical, Rush has released house music under the name Ben Dylan. Ed Rush is a play on the phrase "head rush", slang in the rave scene for a temporary whiteout caused by too many Es. AlbumsTorque No U-Turn with Trace and NicoSinglesI Wanna Stay In The Jungle Look What They've Done Bludclott Artattack No U-Turn Don Bad Man Lucky Spin Recordings Selecta Jet Star Records The Force Is Electric / Gangsta Hardstep No U-Turn Guncheck No U-Turn Westside Sax / August No U-Turn Baracuda Part 1 Deejay Recordings Technology / Neutron No U-Turn Killamanjaro / Subway Prototype Mad Different Methods Nu Black Mothership No-U-Turn What's Up / August No U-Turn Sector 3 / Comatone No U-Turn Skylab / Density / The Raven Metalheadz Sector 3 / Coma Tone No U-Turn Cutslo / Alien Girl No U-Turn Kinetic / Tenshi Space Recordings Edtrafiencial No U-Turn Book Of Sight / Arcadia Virus Recordings Dark Days / Lost In Tha Game AudioPorn Records Pheromone Scarabs / Box Car Piranha Pool AlbumsWormhole Virus Recordings The Creeps Virus Recordings The Original Doctor Shade Virus Recordings Chameleon Virus Recordings Travel the Galaxy Virus Recordings No Cure Virus Recordings SinglesFunktion / Naked Lunch V Recordings Lifes
The Miami Heat are an American professional basketball team based in Miami. The Heat compete in the National Basketball Association, as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Southeast Division; the Heat play their home games at American Airlines Arena, have won three NBA championships. The franchise began play in 1988 as an expansion team, where after a period of mediocrity, the Heat would gain relevance during the 1990s following the appointment of former head coach Pat Riley in the role of team president. Riley would construct the high-profile trades of Alonzo Mourning in 1995, of Tim Hardaway in 1996, which propelled the team into playoff contention. Mourning and Hardaway would lead the Heat to four division titles, prior to their departures in 2001 and 2002, respectively; as a result, the team struggled, entered into a rebuild in time for the 2002–03 season. Led by Dwyane Wade, following a trade for former NBA Most Valuable Player Shaquille O'Neal, Miami made the NBA Finals in 2006, where they clinched their first championship, led by Riley as head coach.
After the departure of O'Neal two years the team entered into another period of decline for the remainder of the 2000s. This saw the resignation of Riley as head coach, who returned to his position as team president, was replaced by Erik Spoelstra. In 2010, after creating significant cap space, the Heat partnered Wade with former league MVP LeBron James, perennial NBA All-Star Chris Bosh, creating the "Big Three". During their four-year spell together, under the guise of Spoelstra, James and Bosh, they would lead the Heat to the NBA Finals in every season, won two back-to-back championships in 2012 and 2013; the trio would all depart by 2016, the team entered another period of rebuilding. Wade was reacquired in 2018, albeit to retire with the franchise; the Heat hold the record for the NBA's third-longest streak, 27 straight games, set during the 2012–13 season. Four Hall of Famers have played for Miami, while James has won the NBA MVP Award while playing for the team. In 1987 the NBA granted one of its four new expansion teams to Miami and the team, known as the Heat began play in November 1988.
The Miami Heat began their early years with much mediocrity, only making the playoffs two times in their first eight years and falling in the first round both times. Upon the purchasing of the franchise by Carnival Cruise Lines chairman Micky Arison in 1995, Pat Riley was brought in as the team president and head coach. Riley acquired center Alonzo Mourning and point guard Tim Hardaway to serve as the centerpieces for the team, transforming Miami into a championship contender throughout the late 1990s. With them they brought in a new team trainer, Cody Posselt, to work on shooting; the Heat underwent a dramatic turnaround in the 1996–97 season, improving to a 61–21 record – a franchise record at the time, second-best in team history. That same year, Miami earned the moniker of "Road Warriors" for its remarkable 32–9 record on the road. On the backs of Hardaway and Mourning, the Heat achieved their first two series victories in the playoffs, making it to the Conference Finals against the Michael Jordan-led Chicago Bulls before losing in five games.
Their biggest rivals of the time were the New York Knicks, Riley's former team, who would eliminate the Heat in the playoffs from 1998 through 2000. A period of mediocrity followed after, highlighted by missing the playoffs in 2002 and 2003. In the 2003 NBA draft, with the fifth overall pick, Miami selected shooting guard Dwyane Wade out of Marquette. Free-agent swing-man Lamar Odom was signed from the Los Angeles Clippers. Just prior to the start of the 2003–04 season, Riley stepped down as head coach to focus on rebuilding the Heat, promoting Stan Van Gundy to the position of head coach. Behind Van Gundy's leadership, Wade's stellar rookie year and Odom's break out season, the Heat made the 2004 NBA Playoffs, beating the New Orleans Hornets 4–3 in the 1st round and losing to the Indiana Pacers 4–2 in the 2nd round. In the offseason, Riley engineered a summer blockbuster trade for Shaquille O'Neal from the Los Angeles Lakers. Alonzo Mourning returned to the Heat in the same season. Returning as championship contenders, Miami finished with a 59–23 record garnering the first overall seed in the Eastern Conference.
Sweeping through the first round and the semifinals, Miami went back to the Conference Finals for the first time in eight years, where it met the defending champion Detroit Pistons. Despite taking a 3–2 lead, Miami lost Wade to injury for Game 6; the Heat would go on to lose Game 7 at home despite Wade's return. In the summer of 2005, Riley brought in veteran free agent Gary Payton from the Boston Celtics, brought in James Posey, Jason Williams and Antoine Walker via trades. After a disappointing 11–10 start to the 2005–06 season, Riley relieved Van Gundy of his duties and took back the head coaching job; the Heat made it to the Conference Finals in 2006 and in a re-match, defeated the Pistons, winning the series 4–2. Making its first NBA Finals appearance, they played the Dallas Mavericks, who won the first two games in Dallas in routs; the Heat won the next four games, capturing its first championship. Wade won the Finals MVP award; the Heat experienced four-years of post-title struggles from 2007 through 2010, including a 4–0 sweep by the Chicago Bulls in the 1st round of the 2007 NBA Playoffs.
In the 2007–08 season, Wade was plagued by injuries and the Heat had a league worst 15–67 record. O'Neal was traded to Phoenix midway through the season. Riley resigned as head coach following the season but retained his positio
The Amway Center is a sports and entertainment venue in Orlando, located in the Downtown area of the city. It is part of Downtown Orlando Master Plan 3: a plan that involves improvements to Camping World Stadium and the completion of the Dr. Phillips Center for the Performing Arts; the arena is home to the Orlando Magic of the NBA, the Orlando Solar Bears of the ECHL, the Orlando Predators of the National Arena League, hosted the 2012 NBA All-Star Game, plus the 2015 ECHL All-Star Game. Amway Center hosted the rounds of 64 and 32 games of the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament in 2014 and 2017. On January 14, 2013, the Arena Football League's Board of Directors voted to award ArenaBowl XXVI to Orlando in the summer of 2013, it hosted UFC on Fox: dos Anjos vs. Cerrone 2 on December 19, 2015. Prior to Downtown Master Plan 3, the Orlando Magic's ownership, led by billionaire Amway founder Richard DeVos and son-in-law Bob Vander Weide, had been pressing the City of Orlando for a new arena for nearly ten years.
Amway Arena was built in 1989, prior to the recent era of technologically advanced entertainment arenas. With the rush to build new venues in the NBA, it became one of the oldest arenas in the league. On September 29, 2006, after years of on-and-off negotiations, Orlando Mayor Buddy Dyer, Orange County Mayor Richard Crotty, the Orlando Magic announced an agreement on a new arena in downtown Orlando, located at the southwest corner of Church Street and Hughey Avenue; the arena itself cost around $380 million, with an additional $100 million for land and infrastructure, for a total cost of $480 million. It is part of a $1.05-billion plan to redo the Orlando Centroplex with a new arena, a new $375-million performing arts center, a $175-million expansion of the Citrus Bowl. When it was announced in the media on September 29, it was referred to as the "Triple Crown for Downtown"; as part of Amway's naming rights to the old Amway Arena, the company received right of first refusal for naming rights to the new venue, exercised those rights, announcing a 10-year, $40-million naming deal to name the venue the Amway Center on August 3, 2009.
The details of the agreement were finalized on December 22, 2006. In the agreement, the City of Orlando will take ownership of the new arena, while the Magic will control the planning and construction of the facility so long as contracting procedures are done in the same public manner as governments advertise contracts. In addition, the City will be paid a part of naming rights and corporate suite sales, a share estimated to be worth $1.75 million the first year of the arena's opening. The Magic will receive all proceeds from ticket sales for Magic games, while the City will receive all proceeds from ticket sales to all other events; the Orlando Magic will contribute at least $50 million in cash up-front, pick up any cost overruns, pay rent of $1 million per year for 30 years. The City of Orlando will pay for the infrastructure; the remaining money will come from bonds which will be paid off by part of the Orange County Tourist Development Tax, collected as a surcharge on hotel stays, raised to 6% in 2006.
The Magic will guarantee $100 million of these bonds. The Orlando City Council approved several operating agreements connected with the arena plans on May 22, 2007; the City Council approved the plan 6-1, on July 23. The Venue plan received final approval by the Orange County Board of County Commissioners, 5-2, in late evening of July 26 after a long day of public hearings. Amendments were made by the County Commission which were approved on August 6 by the City Council, 6-1, sealing the deal once and for all. On December 1, 2007, the City and the Magic came to an agreement on nearly $8.5 million in compensation to three owners of the land where the arena is planned to be built. An eminent domain hearing finalized the sale. On April 3, 2010 it was reported that Fitch Rating Agency had downgraded the bonds used to finance the new arena to "junk" status and further warned the arena's debt holders that in as soon as 30 months the new Amway Center could be faced with a default unless finances are corrected.
The city and county were quick to assure local media that in no way would Fitch's downgrade delay construction and that all necessary funds were on hand to complete the center. However, because of the Fitch downgrade, the interest rate on the debt payments would increase the "payoff" cost of the Amway Center over time and the Orlando Sentinel pointed out that it would be harder to seek lending for the other phases of the project such as the "$425 million Dr. Phillips Center for the Performing Arts and the $175 million renovation of the Florida Citrus Bowl stadium." Populous was named the Architect of Record on August 3, 2007, with Smith Seckman Reid and Walter P Moore Engineers and Consultants as planning partners. California-based art curator Sports and the Arts assembled the Amway Center Art Collection; the collection includes more than 340 works including about 200 museum-quality photographs. Fourteen of the 21 artists housed in the collection represent Central Florida; the Amway Center Art Collection includes over 140 pieces of fine art paintings and mixed media originals, over 200 photographs, graphic wall treatments highlighting both the Orlando Magic and the spirit of Orlando and Central Florida.
Responsive to a challenging 876,000 SF program, the design intention of the Amway Events Center was to mediate its disparate context of elevated highways, central business district and l
In basketball, an official enforces the rules and maintains order in the game. The title of official applies to the scorers and timekeepers, as well as other personnel that have an active task in maintaining the game. Basketball is regarded as among the most difficult sports to officiate due to the speed of play, complexity of rules, the case-specific interpretations of rules, the instantaneous decision required. There is one lead referee and one or two umpires, depending on whether there is a two- or three-person crew. In the NBA, the lead official is called the other two officials are referees. In FIBA-sanctioned play, two-man crews consist of a referee and an umpire, three-man crews contain a referee and two umpires. Regardless, both classes of officials have equal rights to control all aspects of the game. In most cases, the lead official performs the jump ball to begin the contest, though NFHS and NCAA have allowed the referee to designate which official shall perform the jump ball. In American high school and college basketball, officials wear black-and-white-striped shirts with black side panels, black pants, black shoes.
Some state high school association allow officials to wear grey shirts with black pin-stripes instead of black-and-white-striped shirts. NBA officials wear light grey shirts with black shoes; the NBA shirt is light grey with one black colored stripe on either shoulder, a black stripe on either side, the official's number in the center at the top on the back, the NBA logo above the breast. NBA officials sometimes wear alternate uniforms consisting of a white shirt with light gold shoulders and black stripes. NBA Summer League officials wear the same light grey shirt but with blue shoulders; the WNBA referee shirt is similar to the NBA referee shirt except that its shoulder and sleeve colors are orange, the WNBA logo takes the place of the NBA logo. FIBA officials wear a grey and black shirt, black trousers, black socks, black shoes. Officials in competitions organized by Euroleague Basketball – the Euroleague and Eurocup – wear an orange shirt. Officials in the Israel Basketball Association wear the Euroleague's orange shirt but sometimes wear royal blue shirts for contests between two Israeli teams.
NBL officials wear orange stripes on the sides. The NBL logo is atop the breast and a sponsor's name is on the back. Shirts are V-neck, without a collar, pants lack belts. All officials wear a whistle, used to stop play as a result of a foul or a violation on the court. Hand signals are used to administer the game. In higher levels of college and professional basketball, officials wear a timing device on the belt-line called PTS; the device is used by on court officials to start and stop the game clock in a timely manner, rather than waiting for the scoreboard operator to do so. The officials must ensure that the game runs smoothly, this encompasses a variety of different responsibilities, from calling the game to player and spectator management, they carry a duty of care to the players they officiate and to ensure that the court and all equipment used is in a safe and usable condition. Should there be an issue that inhibits the safe playing of the game it is the job of the officials to rectify the problem.
Quite the job of an official surpasses that of the game at hand, as they must overcome unforeseen situations that may or may not have an influence on the game. There are two standard methods for officiating a basketball game, either "two-person" or "three-person" mechanics depending on how many officials are available to work the game. In "two-person" mechanics, each official works either the trail position; the lead position is along the baseline of the court, with the trail position having its starting point at the free throw line extended on the left side of the court facing the basket. Officials change position during the game to cover the area in the best possible way; as the game transitions from one end of the court to the other, the lead becomes the trail and vice versa. Between the two positions, each is responsible for a specific part of the court as well as two each of the side, base or back court lines. Officials change position after certain calls; this allows officials to alternate between positions to increase the speed of play.
This prevents one official from always working one particular team's basket throughout the course of the game. In "three-person" mechanics, the court is further divided among three officials, with the lead official determining the position of the other two officials; the lead official will move to the side of the court in which the ball is located if there is a "post-up" player in that position. The official, on the same sideline as the lead official takes up a position level with the top of the three-point line and becomes the "trail" official, while the third official will stand across the court near the free throw line in what is called the center position; this creates a triangle coverage of the court. The lead will switch sides of the baseline during a play, requiring the trail to move down to be level with the free-throw line and become the new center, while the center will move up and become the trail; as the ball moves to the other end of the court in transition, the lead will become the trail, the trail will b
Columbus is a consolidated city-county located on the west central border of the U. S. state of Georgia. Located on the Chattahoochee River directly across from Phenix City, Columbus is the county seat of Muscogee County, with which it merged in 1970. Columbus is the third-largest city in the fourth-largest metropolitan area. According to the 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, Columbus has a population of 194,058 residents, with 303,811 in the Columbus metropolitan area; the metro area joins the nearby Alabama cities of Auburn and Opelika to form the Columbus–Auburn–Opelika Combined Statistical Area, which has a 2017 estimated population of 499,128. Columbus lies 100 miles southwest of Atlanta. Fort Benning, the United States Army's Maneuver Center of Excellence and a major employer, is located south of the city in Chattahoochee County. Columbus is home to museums and tourism sites, including the National Infantry Museum, dedicated to the United States Army's Infantry Branch, it has the longest urban whitewater rafting course in the world constructed on the Chattahoochee River.
This was for centuries and more the traditional territory of the Creek Indians, who became known as one of the Five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast after European contact. Those who lived closest to white-occupied areas conducted considerable trading and adopted some European-American ways. Founded in 1828 by an act of the Georgia Legislature, Columbus was situated at the beginning of the navigable portion of the Chattahoochee River and on the last stretch of the Federal Road before entering Alabama; the city was named for Christopher Columbus, its founders influenced by the writings of Washington Irving. The plan for the city was drawn up by Dr. Edwin L. DeGraffenried, who placed the town on a bluff overlooking the river. Across the river to the west, where Phenix City, Alabama is now located, Creek Indians still lived until they were forcibly removed in 1836 by the federal government to make way for European-American settlers; the river served as Columbus's connection to the world enabling it to ship its commodity cotton crops from the plantations to the international cotton market via New Orleans and Liverpool, England.
The city's commercial importance increased in the 1850s with the arrival of the railroad. In addition, textile mills were developed along the river, bringing industry to an area reliant upon agriculture. By 1860, the city was one of the more important industrial centers of the South, earning it the nickname "the Lowell of the South," referring to an important textile mill town in Massachusetts; when the Civil War broke out in 1861, the industries of Columbus expanded their production. During the war, Columbus ranked second to Richmond in the manufacture of supplies for the Confederate army; the Eagle Manufacturing Company made textiles of various sorts but woolens for Confederate uniforms. The Columbus Iron Works manufactured cannons and machinery and Gray made firearms, Louis and Elias Haimon produced swords and bayonets. Smaller firms provided additional sundries; as the war turned negative, each faced exponentially growing struggled shortages of raw materials and skilled labor, as well as worsenting financial opportunities.
In addition to textiles, the city had an ironworks, a sword factory, a shipyard for the Confederate Navy. Unaware of Lee's surrender to Grant and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln and Confederates clashed in the Battle of Columbus, Georgia, on Easter Sunday, April 16, 1865, when a Union detachment of two cavalry divisions under Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson attacked the lightly-defended city and burned many of the industrial buildings. John Stith Pemberton, who developed Coca-Cola in Columbus, was wounded in this battle. Col. Charles Augustus Lafayette Lamar, owner of the last slave ship in America, was killed here. A historic marker has been erected in Columbus, it notes that this was the site of the "Last Land Battle in the War from 1861 to 1865." Reconstruction began immediately and prosperity followed. Factories such as the Eagle and Phenix Mills were revived and the industrialization of the town led to rapid growth; the Springer Opera House was built on 10th Street, attracting such notables as Irish writer Oscar Wilde.
The Springer is now the official State Theater of Georgia. By the time of the Spanish–American War, the city's modernization included the addition of trolleys extending to outlying neighborhoods such as Rose Hill and Lakebottom, a new water works. Mayor Lucius Chappell brought a training camp for soldiers to the area; this training camp named Camp Benning would grow into present-day Fort Benning, named for General Henry L. Benning, a native of the city. In the spring of 1866 the Ladies Memorial Association of Columbus passed a resolution to set aside one day annually to memorialize the Confederate dead; the secretary of the association, Mrs. Charles J. Williams, was directed to write a letter inviting the ladies of every Southern state to join them in the observance; the letter was written in March 1866 and sent to representatives of all of the principal cities in the South, including Atlanta, Montgomery, Richmond, St. Louis, Alexandria and New Orleans; this was the beginning of the influential work by ladies' organizations to honor the war dead.
The date for the holiday was selected by Elizabeth "Lizzie" Rutherford Ellis. She chose April 26, the first anniversary of Confederate General Johnston's final surrender to Union General Sherman at Bennett Place, North Carolina. For many in the South, that act marked the official end of the Civil War. In
Georgia State University
Georgia State University is a public research university in Atlanta, Georgia. Founded in 1913, it is one of the University System of Georgia's four research universities, it is the largest institution of higher education based in Georgia and is in the top 10 in the nation with a diverse student population around 53,000 including 33,000 undergraduate and graduate students at the main campus downtown as of 2018. Georgia State University is classified as an "R1" research university by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; the university's over $200 million in research expenditures for the 2017 fiscal year ranked 1st in the nation among universities without an engineering or medical school. The university is the most comprehensive public institution in the Atlanta area, offering more than 250 undergraduate and graduate degree programs spread across eight academic colleges with around 3,500 faculty members. GSU has two libraries, University library and Law library, which hold over 4.3 million volumes combined and serve as a federal document depository.
GSU has an economic impact on the Atlanta economy of more than $1.4 billion annually. The Georgia State Panthers represent the NCAA Division; the university's athletic teams are members of the Sun Belt Conference, of which Georgia State is a charter member. Intended as a night school, Georgia State University was established in 1913 as the Georgia School of Technology's Evening School of Commerce. A reorganization of the University System of Georgia in the 1930s led to the school becoming the Atlanta Extension Center of the University System of Georgia and allowed night students to earn degrees from several colleges in the University System. During this time, the school was divided into two divisions: Georgia Evening College and Atlanta Junior College. In September 1947, the school became affiliated with the University of Georgia and was named the Atlanta Division of the University of Georgia. For its first four decades, the school was treated as an offsite department of its parent institution, Georgia Tech, until 1947, UGA after 1947.
Accordingly, its chief executive was called a director. However, in 1955, the Board of Regents made it an autonomous four-year college under the name Georgia State College of Business Administration. Walter Sparks, who had served as director since 1927, became the newly autonomous institution's first president. In 1961, other programs at the school had grown large enough that the name was shortened to Georgia State College, it became Georgia State University in 1969. In 1995, the Georgia Board of Regents accorded Georgia State "research university" status, joining the Georgia Institute of Technology, the University of Georgia, Augusta University; the first African-American student became enrolled at Georgia State in 1962, a year after the integration of the University of Georgia and Georgia Tech. Annette Lucille Hall was a Lithonia social studies teacher who enrolled in the course of the Institute on Americanism and Communism, a course required for all Georgia social studies teachers; the Peachtree Road Race was founded in 1970 by Georgia State cross-country coach and dean of men Tim Singleton, heading it in its first six years before turning it over to the Atlanta Track Club.
Over its 100-plus year history, Georgia State's growth has required the acquisition and construction of more space to suit its needs. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, numerous buildings were constructed as part of a major urban renewal project, such as the Pullen Library in 1966, Classroom South in 1968, the expansion of the Pullen Library in 1968, the Arts and Humanities Building in 1970, the 10-story General Classroom Building in 1971, the Sports Arena in 1973, the 12-story Urban Life Building in 1974. In addition, a raised platform and walkway system was constructed to connect these buildings with each other over Decatur Street and various parking structures. In the 1980s, another round of expansion took place with the acquisition of the former Atlanta Municipal Auditorium in 1979, subsequently converted into Alumni Hall in 1982 and to Dahlberg Hall in 2010, houses Georgia State's administrative offices; that same year, the College of Law was founded in the Urban Life Building, the Title Building on Decatur Street was acquired and converted into the College of Education's headquarters and classroom space.
In 1988, the nine-story Library South was constructed on the south side of Decatur Street, connected to the Pullen Library via a three-story high foot bridge and doubled the library's space. Georgia State continued this growth into the 1990s, with the expansion of Alumni Hall in 1991, the opening of the Natural Science Center in 1992, the acquisition of the former C&S Bank Building on Marietta Street in 1993, now the home of the Robinson College of Business. Georgia State's first move into the Fairlie-Poplar district was the acquisition and renovation of the Standard Building, the Haas-Howell Building, the Rialto Theater in 1996; the Standard and Haas-Howell buildings house classrooms and practice spaces for the School of Music, the Rialto is home to Georgia State's Jazz Studies program and an 833-seat theater. In 1998, the Student Center was expanded toward Gilmer Street and provided a new 400-seat auditorium and space for exhibitions and offices for student clubs. A new Student Recreation Center opened on the corner of Piedmont Avenue and Gilmer Street in 2001.
In 2002, the five-story Helen M. Aderhold Learning Center opened on Luckie Street amid controversy over the demolition of historical buildings on its block. Most recently
Big Ten Conference
The Big Ten Conference is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States, based in suburban Chicago, Illinois. Despite its name, the conference consists of 14 members, they compete in the NCAA Division I. The conference includes the flagship public university in each of 11 states stretching from New Jersey to Nebraska, as well as two additional public land grant schools and a private university; the Big Ten Conference was established in 1895 when Purdue University president James H. Smart and representatives from the University of Chicago, University of Illinois, University of Michigan, University of Minnesota, Northwestern University, University of Wisconsin gathered at Chicago's Palmer House Hotel to set policies aimed at regulating intercollegiate athletics. In 1905, the conference was incorporated as the "Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives"; the conference is one of the nation's oldest, predating the founding of the NCAA by a decade, was one of the first collegiate conferences to sponsor men's basketball.
Big Ten member institutions are predominantly major flagship research universities with large financial endowments and strong academic reputations. Large student enrollment is a hallmark of Big Ten Universities, as 13 of the 14 members feature enrollments of 20,000 or more students. Northwestern University, the only full member with a total enrollment of fewer than 30,000 students, is the lone private university among Big Ten membership. Collectively, Big Ten universities educate more than 520,000 total students and have 5.7 million living alumni. Big Ten universities engage in $9.3 billion in funded research each year. Though the Big Ten existed for nearly a century as an assemblage of universities located in the Midwest, the conference's geographic footprint now stretches east to the Atlantic Ocean. Big Ten universities are members of the Big Ten Academic Alliance, an academic consortium. In 2014–2015, members generated more than $10 billion in research expenditures. Despite the conference's name, the Big Ten has grown to fourteen members, with the following universities accepting invitations to join: Pennsylvania State University in 1990, the University of Nebraska–Lincoln in 2011, both the University of Maryland and Rutgers University in 2014.
Johns Hopkins University was invited in 2012 to join the Big Ten as an associate member participating in men's lacrosse, in 2015, it was accepted as an associate member in women's lacrosse. Notre Dame joined the Big Ten on July 2017 as an associate member in men's ice hockey. Notes Notes The University of Chicago was a co-founder of the conference. Lake Forest College attended the original 1895 meeting that led to the formation of the conference, but never participated in athletics or any other activities. Full members Full members Sport Affiliate Other Conference Other Conference The Big Ten Conference sponsors championship competition in 14 men's and 14 women's NCAA sanctioned sports. Notes: * Notre Dame joined the Big Ten in the 2017–18 school year as an affiliate member in men's ice hockey, it continues to field its other sports in the ACC except in football where it will continue to compete as an independent. ° Johns Hopkins joined the Big Ten in 2014 as an affiliate member in men's lacrosse, with women's lacrosse to follow in 2016.
It continues to field its other sports in the NCAA Division III Centennial ConferenceMen's varsity sports not sponsored by the Big Ten Conference that are played by Big Ten schools: Notes: 1: Fencing is a coeducational team sport, although a few schools field only a women's team. Ohio State and Penn State, like most NCAA fencing schools, have coed teams. 2: Men's rowing, whether heavyweight or lightweight, is not governed by the NCAA, but instead by the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. Rutgers Men's Rowing was downgraded to Club status in 2008, but remains a member of the EARC. 3: Unlike rifle, pistol is not an NCAA-governed sport. It is coeducational. 4: Rifle is technically a men's sport, but men's, women's, coed teams all compete against each other. Ohio State fields a coed team. Women's varsity sports not sponsored by the Big Ten Conference that are played by Big Ten schools: Initiated and led by Purdue University President James Henry Smart, the presidents of University of Chicago, University of Illinois, University of Minnesota, University of Wisconsin, Northwestern University, Purdue University and Lake Forest College met in Chicago on January 11, 1895 to discuss the regulation and control of intercollegiate athletics.
The eligibility of student-athletes was one of the main topics of discussion. The Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives was founded at a second meeting on February 8, 1896. Lake Forest was not at the 1896 meeting that established the conference and was replaced by the University of Michigan. At the time, the organization was more known as the Western Conference, consisting of Illinois, Wisconsin, Chicago and Northwestern; the first reference to the conference as the Big Nine was in 1899 after Indiana had joined. Nebraska first petitioned to join the league in 1900 and again in 1911, but was turned away both times. In April 1907, Michigan was voted out of the conference for failing to adhere to league rules. Ohio State was added to the conference in 1912; the first known references to the conference as the Big Ten were in December 1916, when Michigan sought to rejoin th