New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah and Arizona. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi, it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate; the economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, retail trade. As of 2016–2017, its total gross domestic product was $95 billion with a GDP per capita of $45,465. New Mexico's status as a tax haven yields low to moderate personal income taxes on residents and military personnel, gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries; because of this, its film industry contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy.
Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U. S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U. S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. During the 1940s, Project Y of the Manhattan Project developed and built the country's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity. Inhabited by Native Americans for many thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico. After Mexican independence in 1824, New Mexico became a Mexican territory with considerable autonomy; this autonomy was threatened, however, by the centralizing tendencies of the Mexican government from the 1830s onward, with rising tensions leading to the Revolt of 1837.
At the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U. S. New Mexico Territory, it was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. Its history has given New Mexico the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion. New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities of Puebloan peoples, three different federally recognized Apache tribes. In prehistoric times, the area was home to Ancestral Puebloans and the modern extant Comanche and Utes inhabited the state; the largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico and Mexican Americans. The flag of New Mexico features the state's Spanish origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe.
These indigenous, Mexican and American frontier roots are reflected in the eponymous New Mexican cuisine and the New Mexico music genre. New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Though the name “Mexico” itself derives from Nahuatl, in that language it referred to the heartland of the Empire of the Mexicas in the Valley of Mexico far from the area of New Mexico, Spanish explorers used the term “Mexico” to name the region of New Mexico in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande "San Felipe del Nuevo México"; the Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica cultures there similar to those of the Aztec Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas, they were not wealthy, but the name persisted. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" was applied to various configurations of the U.
S. territory, to a Mexican state, to a province of New Spain, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions. With a total area of 121,699 square miles, the state is the fifth-largest state of the US, larger than British Isles. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, 2.2 miles west of 103°W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that; the western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel; the 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. New Mexico has no natural water sources
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Chaves County, New Mexico
Chaves County is a county in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 65,645, its county seat is Roswell. Chaves County was named for Colonel Jose Francisco Chaves, a military leader here during the U. S. Civil War and in Navajo campaigns. Created by Territorial Legislature, February 25, 1889, out of land from the county of Lincoln. Chaves County comprises NM Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,075 square miles, of which 6,065 square miles is land and 9.8 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in New Mexico by area. De Baca County - north Roosevelt County - northeast Lea County - east Eddy County - south Otero County - southwest Lincoln County - west Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge Lincoln National Forest As of the 2000 census, there were 61,382 people, 22,561 households, 16,085 families residing in the county; the population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 25,647 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 71.95% White, 1.97% Black or African American, 1.13% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 21.25% from other races, 3.12% from two or more races. 43.83% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 22,561 households out of which 35.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.70% were married couples living together, 13.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.17. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.10% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 14.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,513, the median income for a family was $32,532.
Males had a median income of $26,896 versus $21,205 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,990. About 17.60% of families and 21.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.10% of those under age 18 and 13.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 65,645 people, 23,691 households, 16,646 families residing in the county; the population density was 10.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 26,697 housing units at an average density of 4.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 70.9% white, 2.0% black or African American, 1.2% American Indian, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 21.9% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 52.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 10.1% were German, 9.3% were Irish, 8.5% were English, 4.6% were American. Of the 23,691 households, 37.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.7% were non-families, 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.22. The median age was 34.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,524 and the median income for a family was $43,464. Males had a median income of $37,573 versus $26,250 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,504. About 15.9% of families and 21.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.1% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over. Chaves County is a Republican stronghold. No Democratic presidential candidate has won Chaves County since Lyndon Johnson's landslide victory of 1964. In that election, Johnson took Chaves County by only 1.3 percent. Roswell Dexter Hagerman Lake Arthur Midway Dunken Elk Elkins Greenfield Mesa National Register of Historic Places listings in Chaves County, New Mexico
Artesia, New Mexico
Artesia is a city in Eddy County, New Mexico, United States, centered at the intersection of U. S. Route 82 and U. S. Route 285; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 17,801. The town assumed its present name after the discovery of an artesian aquifer in the area; the city was incorporated in 1905. It is home to one of the two Strangite meeting places in the world. Artesia was a candidate for ESPN's Titletown USA feature. Artesia is located in northern Eddy County at 32°50′34″N 104°24′44″W, at an elevation of 3,380 feet. US 82 leads east 64 miles to Lovington and west 110 miles to Alamogordo, while US 285 leads north 40 miles to Roswell and south 36 miles to Carlsbad, the Eddy County seat. According to the United States Census Bureau, Artesia has a total area of 9.9 square miles, of which 0.02 square miles, or 0.21%, is covered by water. The Pecos River is about 4 miles east of Artesia; as of the census of 2000, 10,692 people, 4,080 households, 2,896 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,341.3 people per square mile.
The 4,593 housing units averaged 576.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 72.25% White, 1.54% Native American, 1.44% African American, 0.20% Asian, 0.15% Pacific Islander, 21.56% from other races, 2.86% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 44.98% of the population. Of the 4,080 households, 36.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.0% were not families. About 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was distributed as 30.3% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $29,529, for a family was $34,598. Males had a median income of $30,085 versus $19,566 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,911. About 15.7% of families and 20.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.8% of those under age 18 and 20.0% of those age 65 or over. The principal economic activities which support Artesia are the oil and gas industry and dairy. Prominent local oil and gas businesses include Wilbanks Trucking Services, EOG Resources, Mack Energy Corporation, Marbob Energy Corp. In the fall of 2010, Concho Resources acquired most of Marbob Energy Corp's assets for nearly $1.6 billion. HollyFrontier Corporation operates the Navajo Refinery, the largest refinery in New Mexico, at the corner of 1st and Main Street. Artesia is home to the former Abo Elementary School, identified by One Nation Underground as the first and most only public school, underground and equipped to function as a fallout shelter.
The school, completed in 1962, had a concrete slab roof. It contained a large storage facility with room for supplies for 2000 people in the event of nuclear warfare; the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999 and is located at 1802 W Centre Ave. The city has one of the few residential training sites of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers for the United States Border Patrol, BIA Police, the US Air Marshals; the center is located on the former campus of the College of Artesia, which operated from 1966 to 1971. Artesia has a high-voltage direct current back-to-back station which connects the eastern and western electric grids in Eddy County; this tie, built by General Electric in 1983, can transfer a maximum power of 200 megawatts. The used voltage is 82 kV; the Artesia Restaurant and Hotel is prominently featured as a location in the film The Man Who Fell to Earth starring David Bowie. Edgar Mitchell, Apollo 14 astronaut, identifies Artesia as his "hometown".
Former American football player Landry Jones attended Artesia High School, where he led the football team to two consecutive Class 4A state championships Artesia was the site of the Artesia Detention Center, responsible for individuals entering the US illegally and going through proper dockets that are in compliance with current US immigration laws. This location had incidents of humanitarian issues, for example a US citizen child was detained and legal issues due to its remoteness and the extent of this immigration issue, it was closed in December 2014. Artesia is served by the Artesia Public School District with these schools: Artesia High School Artesia Junior High School Artesia Intermediate School Central Elementary School Hermosa Elementary School Roselawn Elementary School Yeso Elementary School Yucca Elementary School Grand Heights Early Child Ctr; the Artesia Bulldogs play in 5A football division and have won 29 state titles, 25 since 1957. Head Coach and Athletic Director Cooper Henderson a former player, has led the Bulldogs to 14 titles.
Mack C. Chase and natural gas tycoon Steve Jones, professional golfer Alexa Havins, Daytime Emmy Award-winning television actress, known for role a