Bramley is a district in west Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. It is part of the City of Leeds Ward of Bramley and Stanningley with a population of 21,334 at the 2011 Census; the area is an old industrial area with much 19th century architecture and 20th century council housing in the east and private suburban housing in the west. Bramley is listed in the 1086 Domesday Book as "Brameleia" and "Bramelie"; the nucleus of the settlement was located at Stocks Hill, it developed in a linear fashion along today's Town Street. The surviving water pump and stone water trough on Stocks Hill remain from Bramley's medieval past; the accompanying blue plaque states "Stocks Bramley. This historic pump and trough are the last reminders of Bramley Village Green, surrounded by medieval cottages and yards; the Green featured the stocks, pillory and an 8ft pillar which commemorated the holding of Leeds Market here during the plague of 1644-45". The area experienced an industrial boom and an associated population increase in the 19th century because of the development of the woollen textile industry in the early part of the century and due to the boot making and engineering industries in its part.
Much of Bramley was redeveloped in the 1960s and 1970s, albeit in an unsympathetic manner that damaged the historic integrity of the area and altered the appearance and the character of the town significantly. The Bramley Shopping Centre replaced the former town centre, was Leeds' second purpose-built town centre after Seacroft town centre. Unlike Seacroft, the Bramley Shopping Centre replaced an existing town centre; the redevelopment replaced substandard houses. From 2008, following a time of deterioration of the shopping centre, new anchor stores such as Farmfoods and Tesco took over existing premises or occupied new ones in the course of a general refit; the redevelopment of Bramley was condemned as one of the least sensitive redevelopment programmes in Yorkshire. In 2008 the Yorkshire Evening Post ran an article describing the redevelopment of a "once-picturesque area", questioning the replacement of an historic Yorkshire town centre. Much of historical Bramley is now protected by the Bramley Town Conservation Area, which focuses on the area around Bramley Park across to Hough Lane.
Bramley lies within the Parliamentary constituency of Leeds West. The Member of Parliament is Labour MP Rachel Reeves. Parks and open areas for outdoor recreation include Bramley Falls Wood, which runs beside the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, Bramley Park, which contains an underground reservoir at its highest point. At Bramley Park a fireworks display and the Bramley Carnival is held most years. Bramley Baths are an example of Edwardian swimming baths. Built in 1904, restored, it has a 25-yard pool, a gymnasium and a Russian steam room; the baths were used for dances during its early years, when the pool was covered with a large dance floor. The baths are the only remaining example of an Edwardian era bath-house in Leeds today and are a Grade II listed structure. Bramley Shopping Centre is a 1960s-style concrete shopping plaza, erected to replace the traditional stone-built village centre. Shops include charity shops, travel agents, pawnbrokers, supermarkets, a post office, Pizza Hut Delivery, a thrift shop, a dental practice and fast food takeaways.
Estates in Bramley that have residents' associations include Moorside and Ganners, Landseer and Newlay and Whitecote. LILAC, an affordable green co-housing project is based in Bramley. Bramley churches include those for Baptist, Roman Catholics, Jehovah's Witnesses, Methodists, two for Anglicans. Bramley railway station is on the Leeds-Bradford Line. Bramley is accessible by bus routes from Leeds city centre, operated by First Leeds. Bramley Juniors Football Club runs with open-age teams; the club developed from one under-9s club in 1994. Bramley rugby league club is the Bramley Buffaloes, the Rugby union club, the Bramley Phoenix Rugby Union Club. Ernie Wise, of Morecambe and Wise fame. Major John Geoffrey Appleyard DSO, MC and Bar Commando and SAS War Hero was born in Bramley in 1916. Robert Haywood Jones paternal grandfather of David Bowie was born in Bramley and is remembered on Bramley War Memorial. Media related to Bramley at Wikimedia Commons Bramley Baptist Church website War Memorial website Trinity Methodist Church, Bramley Bramley Buffaloes Bramley Park The ancient parish of Leeds: historical and genealogical information at GENUKI.
British National Party
The British National Party is a far-right, fascist political party in the United Kingdom. It is headquartered in Wigton and its current leader is Adam Walker. A minor party, it has no elected representatives at any level of UK government. Founded in 1982, the party reached its greatest level of success in the 2000s, when it had over fifty seats in local government, one seat on the London Assembly, two Members of the European Parliament. Taking its name from that of a defunct 1960s far-right party, the BNP was created by John Tyndall and other former members of the fascist National Front. During the 1980s and 1990s, the BNP placed little emphasis on contesting elections, in which it did poorly. Instead, it focused on street marches and rallies, creating the Combat 18 paramilitary—its name a coded reference to Nazi German leader Adolf Hitler—to protect its events from anti-fascist protesters. A growing'moderniser' faction was frustrated by Tyndall's leadership, ousted him in 1999; the new leader Nick Griffin sought to broaden the BNP's electoral base by presenting a more moderate image, targeting concerns about rising immigration rates, emphasising localised community campaigns.
This resulted in increased electoral growth throughout the 2000s, to the extent that it became the most electorally successful far-right party in British history. Concerns regarding financial mismanagement resulted in Griffin being ousted in 2014. By this point the BNP's membership and vote share had declined groups like Britain First and National Action had splintered off, the English Defence League had supplanted it as the UK's foremost far-right group. Ideologically positioned on the extreme-right or far-right of British politics, the BNP has been characterised as fascist or neo-fascist by political scientists. Under Tyndall's leadership, it was more regarded as neo-Nazi; the party is ethnic nationalist, it espouses the view that only white people should be citizens of the United Kingdom. It calls for an end to non-white migration into the UK and for non-white Britons to be stripped of citizenship and removed from the country, it called for the compulsory expulsion of non-whites, although since 1999 has advocated voluntary removals with financial incentives.
It promotes biological racism and the white genocide conspiracy theory, calling for global racial separatism and condemning interracial relationships. Under Tyndall, the BNP emphasised anti-semitism and Holocaust denial, promoting the conspiracy theory that Jews seek to dominate the world through both communism and international capitalism. Under Griffin, the party's focus switched from anti-semitism towards Islamophobia, it promotes economic protectionism, a transformation away from liberal democracy, while its social policies oppose feminism, LGBT rights, societal permissiveness. Operating around a centralised structure that gave its chair near total control, the BNP built links with far-right parties across Europe and created various sub-groups, including a record label and trade union; the BNP attracted most support from within White British working-class communities in northern and eastern England among middle-aged and elderly men. Polls suggested that most Britons favoured a ban on the party, it faced much opposition from anti-fascists, religious organisations, the mainstream media, most politicians, BNP members were banned from various professions.
The British National Party was founded by the extreme-right political activist John Tyndall. Tyndall had been involved in neo-Nazi groups since the late 1950s before leading the far-right National Front throughout most of the 1970s. Following an argument with senior party member Martin Webster, he resigned from the NF in 1980. In June 1980 Tyndall established the New National Front. At the recommendation of Ray Hill—who was secretly an anti-fascist spy seeking to sow disharmony among Britain's far-right—Tyndall decided to unite an array of extreme-right groups as a single party. To this end, Tyndall established a Committee for Nationalist Unity in January 1982. In March 1982, the CNU held a conference at the Charing Cross Hotel in London, at which 50 far-right activists agreed to the formation of the BNP; the BNP was formally launched on 7 April 1982 at a press conference in Victoria. Led by Tyndall, most of its early members came from the NNF, although others were defectors from the NF, British Movement, British Democratic Party, Nationalist Party.
Tyndall remarked that there was "scarcely any difference in ideology or policy save in the minutest detail", most of the BNP's leading activists had been senior NF figures. Under Tyndall's leadership the party was neo-Nazi in orientation and engaged in nostalgia for Nazi Germany, it adopted the NF's tactic of holding street marches and rallies, believing that these boosted morale and attracted new recruits. Their first march took place in London on St. George's Day 1982; these marches involved clashes with anti-fascist protesters and resulted in multiple arrests, helping to cement the BNP's association with political violence and older fascist groups in the public eye. As a result, BNP organisers began to favour indoor rallies, although street marches continued to be held throughout the mid-to-late 1980s. In its early years, the BNP's involvement in elections was "irregular and intermittent", for its first two decades it faced consistent electoral failure, it suffered from low finances and few personnel, its leadership was aware that its electoral viability was weakened by the anti-immigration rhetoric of Conservative Party Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.
In the 1983 general election the BNP stood 54 candidates, although it only campaigned in f
Stanningley is a district of Pudsey, West Yorkshire, England. It is situated 5 miles west of Leeds city centre on the A647 road, the original main road from Leeds to Bradford; the appropriate Leeds Metropolitan Ward is Stanningley. Town Street and a section of Stanningley Road to the east are home to most of the district’s shops and eateries. Amenities include a dry cleaners, newsagent and car garage. There are 10 public houses in Stanningley, including The Jug & Barrel, Waggon & Horses and The Great Northern. A section of the A647 road Stanningley Road and Stanningley By-Pass became the UK's first High Occupancy Vehicle Lane in 1998, it was made permanent after proving successful. This part of the route between Leeds and Bradford experienced high levels of traffic congestion and there were few public transport priority measures; the council wanted to install a bus lane, but found that bus service frequencies were too low to justify it. The project was part of an EU research project called Increasing CAR Occupancy.
Its objectives were to increase car occupancy by encouraging car sharing and to demonstrate the feasibility of providing a lane for shared use by buses, other high occupancy vehicles and cycles. Stanningley is the home of the unique Bootie Folding Cycle, it was made by a local engineering firm, F & T Kitchin & Co, at their Vickersdale works as a sideline to their main business. Production of the Bootie bicycle began in 1965 and continued with only minor refinements until early 1973. Owlcotes Shopping Centre, in Stanningley, contains a Marks & Spencer store. Stanningley is the home of Stanningley SARLC, which has provided numerous players to the professional ranks; these including England captain Jamie Peacock, Jamie Jones-Buchanan, Ryan Atkins, Ash Gibson, Garreth Carvell, Michael Banks, Steve Nicholson, Mark Wilson and Roy Dickinson. The club provides facilities for 20 teams for male and females of all ages; the 1st team play in the National Conference League. The club provides a home for Leeds Rhinos academies.
Bootie Folding Cycle "Bootie Folding Cycle" Information on Bootie Folding Cycle with rebuild photos "Why I can't find my family in Stanningley?" Problems with finding archive information about Stanningley Calverley.info The ancient parish of Leeds: historical and genealogical information at GENUKI. The ancient parish of Calverley: historical and genealogical information at GENUKI
Far-right politics in the United Kingdom
Far-right politics in the United Kingdom have existed since at least the 1930s, with the formation of Nazi and anti-semitic movements. It went on to acquire more explicitly racial connotations, being dominated in the 1960s and 1970s by self-proclaimed white nationalist organisations that oppose non-white and Muslim immigration, such as the National Front, the British Movement and British National Party, or the British Union of Fascists. Since the 1980s, the term has been used to describe those who express the wish to preserve what they perceive to be British culture, those who campaign against the presence of non-indigenous ethnic minorities and what they perceive to be an excessive number of asylum seekers; the NF and the BNP have been opposed to non-white immigration. They have encouraged the repatriation of ethnic minorities: the NF favours compulsory repatriation, while the BNP favours voluntary repatriation; the BNP have had a number of local councillors in some inner-city areas of east London, towns in Yorkshire and Lancashire, such as Burnley and Keighley.
East London has been the bedrock of far-right support in the UK since the 1930s, whereas BNP success in the north of England is a newer phenomenon. The only other part of the country to provide any significant level of support for such views is the West Midlands; the British far right rose out of the fascist movement. In 1932, Oswald Mosley founded the British Union of Fascists, banned during World War II. Founded in 1954 by A. K. Chesterton, the League of Empire Loyalists became the main British far right group at the time, it was a pressure group rather than a political party, did not contest elections. Most of its members were part of the Conservative Party, they were known for politically embarrassing stunts at party conferences, it has been argued that the majority of this group were more'Colonel Blimpish' traditionalists, rather than fascists. However, its more extreme elements wanted to make the group more political; this led to a number of splinter groups forming, including the White Defence League and the National Labour Party.
These both stood in local elections in 1958, merged in 1960 to form the British National Party. With the decline of the British Empire becoming inevitable, British far-right parties turned their attention to internal matters; the 1950s had seen an increase in immigration to the UK from its former colonies India, the Caribbean and Uganda. Led by John Bean and Andrew Fountaine, the BNP opposed the admittance of these people to the UK. A number of its rallies, such as one in 1962 in Trafalgar Square, ended in race riots. After a few early successes, the party got into difficulties and was destroyed by internal arguments. In 1967 it joined forces with John Tyndall and the remnants of Chesterton's League of Empire Loyalists to form the National Front; the Conservative Monday Club, a far-right group within the Conservative Party, was formed in 1961. Its stated aim was "to safeguard the liberty of the subject and integrity of the family in accordance with the customs and character of the British people".
They expressed general opposition to post-colonial states and immigration, as well as support for hard-line loyalism in Northern Ireland. The NF grew to be the biggest British far right party in the UK, it polled 44% in a local election in Deptford and finished third in three by-elections, although these results were atypical of the country as a whole. The party supported extreme loyalism in Northern Ireland, attracted Conservative Party members who had become disillusioned after Harold Macmillan had recognised the right to independence of the African colonies, had criticised Apartheid in South Africa. During the 1970s, the NF's rallies became a regular feature of British politics. Election results remained strong in a few working class urban areas, with a number of local council seats won, but the party never came anywhere near winning representation in parliament; the smaller far right groups maintained anti-immigration policies, but there was a move towards a more inclusionist vision of the UK, a focus on opposing the European Union.
The NF began to support non-white radicals such as Louis Farrakhan. This led to the splintering of the various groups, with radical political soldiers such as a young Nick Griffin forming the Third Way group, traditionalists creating the Flag Group. Membership of the Monday Club meanwhile, who gave strong support to Apartheid in South Africa and to Ian Smith's illegal declaration of independence in Rhodesia, fell to under 600 by 1987. John Tyndall formed the New National Front in 1980, changed its name to the British National Party in 1982. They, alongside the Conservative Monday Club, campaigned against the increasing integration of the UK into the European Union. However, Tyndall's reputation of a'brutal, street fighting background' and his admiration for Hitler and the Nazis prevented the party from gaining any respectability, they developed a policy of eschewing the traditional far right methods of extra-parliamentary movements, concentrated instead on the ballot box. Nick Griffin replaced Tyndall as BNP leader in 1999 and introduced several policies to make the party more electable.
Repatriation of ethnic minorities was made voluntary and several other policies were moderated. The National Front continued to decline, whilst the BNP grew in popularity. Around the turn of the 21st century, the BNP won a number of councillor seats, they continued their anti-immigration policy, a damaging BBC documentary led to Griffin being charged with incitement to racial hatred. The 2006 local elections brought the BNP the most successful results of
John Tyndall (politician)
John Hutchyns Tyndall was a British fascist political activist. A leading member of various small neo-Nazi groups during the late 1950s and 1960s, he was chairman of the National Front from 1972 to 1974 and again from 1975 to 1980, chairman of the British National Party from 1982 to 1999, he unsuccessfully stood for election to the House of Commons and European Parliament on several occasions. Born in Devon and educated in Kent, Tyndall undertook national service prior to embracing the extreme-right. In the mid-1950s, he joined the League of Empire Loyalists and came under the influence of its leader, Arthur Chesterton. Finding the LEL too moderate, in 1957 he and John Bean founded the National Labour Party, an explicitly "National Socialist" group. In 1960, the NLP merged with Colin Jordan's White Defence League to found the first British National Party. Within the BNP, Tyndall and Jordan established a paramilitary wing called Spearhead, which angered Bean and other party members, they expelled Tyndall and Jordan, who went on to establish the National Socialist Movement and the international World Union of National Socialists.
In 1962, they were convicted and imprisoned for their paramilitary activities. After a split with Jordan, Tyndall formed his Greater Britain Movement in 1964. Although never changing his basic beliefs, by the mid-1960s, Tyndall was replacing his overt references to Nazism with appeals to British nationalism. In 1967, Tyndall joined Chesterton's newly founded National Front and became its leader in 1972, overseeing growing membership and electoral growth, his leadership was threatened by various factions within the party which led to him losing his position as leader in 1974. He resumed this position in 1975, although the latter part of the 1970s saw the party's prospects decline. Following an argument with long-term comrade Martin Webster, Tyndall resigned from the party in 1980 and formed his short-lived New National Front. In 1982, he merged the NNF into his own newly formed British National Party. Under Tyndall, the BNP established itself as the UK's most prominent extreme-right group during the 1980s, although electoral success eluded it.
Tyndall's refusal to moderate the BNP's policies or image caused anger among a growing array of "modernisers" in the party, who ousted him in favour of Nick Griffin in 1999. In 2005, Tyndall was charged with incitement to racial hatred for comments made at a BNP meeting, he died two days. Tyndall promoted a racial nationalist belief in a distinct white "British race", arguing that this race was threatened by a Jewish conspiracy to encourage non-white migration into Britain, he called for the establishment of an authoritarian state which would deport all non-whites from the country, engage in a eugenics project, re-establish the British Empire through the military conquest of parts of Africa. He never gained any mainstream political respectability in the United Kingdom although he proved popular among sectors of the British far-right. John Tyndall was born at Stork Nest, Topsham Road in Exeter, Devon, on 14 July 1934, his mother was née Parker. Through the Tyndall family line he was related to both the early English translator of the Bible, William Tyndale, the physicist John Tyndall.
His paternal family were British Unionists living in County Waterford, who had a long line of service in the Royal Irish Constabulary. His grandfather had been a district inspector in the Constabulary and had fought against the Irish Republican Army in the Irish War of Independence, his father had moved to England, working as a Metropolitan Police officer, as a warden of St George's House, a YMCA hostel in Southwark. Tyndall stated that despite his father having been raised in a British Unionist family, the latter had adopted internationalist views, he claimed that his mother exhibited "a kind of basic British patriotism" and that it was she who shaped his early political views. His upbringing was stable and materially secure. Tyndall studied at Beckenham and Penge Grammar School in west Kent, where he attained three O-levels, a "moderate" result. At the school, his achievements had been sporting rather than academic, for he enjoyed playing cricket and association football and developed a passion for fitness.
Tyndall did his national service in West Germany from 1952 to 1954. A member of the Royal Horse Artillery, he achieved the rank of lance-bombardier. On completion, he turned his attention to political issues. Interested in socialism, he attended a world youth festival held in the Soviet Union in 1957, he began to regard left-wing politics as being infused with "anti-British attitudes", moving swiftly to the political right. He had a devotion to the preservation of the British Empire and a hostility to what he regarded as the growing permissiveness of British society, stating that "the smell everywhere was one of decadence". During that decade he read Mein Kampf, the autobiography and political manifesto of the late Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, growing sympathetic to Hitler's own political beliefs and Nazism. Tyndall approved in particular of "the descriptions of the workings of certain Jewish forces in Germany, which seemed uncannily similar to what I had observed of the same kinds of forces in Britain."
He concluded that Britain's decision to go to war against Nazi Germany was the result of a conspiracy headed by Jews, a conspiracy which he thought had masterminded non-white immigration into Britain after the war. Around 1957–58, Tyndall decided to commit himself full-time to his political cause, which he was able to do as his j
Nicholas John Griffin is a British politician who represented North West England as a Member of the European Parliament from 2009 to 2014. He served as chairman and president of the far-right British National Party from 1999 to 2014, when he was expelled from the party. Born in Barnet, Griffin was educated at Woodbridge School in Suffolk, he joined the National Front at the age of 14 and, following his graduation from the University of Cambridge, became a political worker for the party. In 1980 he became a member of its governing body, wrote articles for several right-wing magazines, he was the National Front's candidate for the seat of Croydon North West in 1981 and 1983, but left the party in 1989. In 1995 he in 1999 became its leader, he stood as the party's candidate in several elections and became a member of the European Parliament for North West England in the 2009 European elections. In 1998, Griffin was convicted of distributing material to incite racial hatred, for which he received a suspended prison sentence.
In 2006 he was acquitted of separate charges of inciting racial hatred. Griffin has been criticised for many of his comments on political, social and religious matters, but after becoming leader of the BNP he sought to distance himself from some of his held positions, which include Holocaust denial. In recent years, events where Griffin has been invited to participate in public debates or political discussions have proven controversial and resulted in protests and cancellations; the son of former Conservative councillor Edgar Griffin and his wife Jean, Nicholas John Griffin was born on 1 March 1959 in Barnet and moved to Southwold in Suffolk aged eight. He was educated at Woodbridge School before winning a sixth–form scholarship to the independent Saint Felix School in Southwold, one of only two boys in the all-girls school. Griffin read Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf when he was 14, "found all but one chapter boring", he joined the National Front in 1974, while he was still 14, though he had to pretend he was 15, at the age of 16 is reported to have stayed at the home of National Front organiser Martin Webster.
In a four-page leaflet written in 1999, Webster claimed to have had a homosexual relationship with Griffin the BNP's publicity director. Griffin has denied any such relationship. From 1977, Griffin studied history law, at Downing College, Cambridge, his affiliation with the National Front was revealed during a Cambridge Union debate, his photograph was published in a student newspaper. He founded the Young National Front Student organisation, he graduated with a second-class honours degree in law, a boxing blue, having taken up the sport following a brawl in Lewisham with a member of an anti-fascist party. He boxed three times against Oxford in the annual Varsity match, losing once. In an interview with The Independent, he said, he is a fan of Ricky Hatton and Joe Calzaghe, an admirer of Amir Khan. Following his graduation, Griffin became a political worker at the National Front headquarters; as a teenager he had accompanied his father to a National Front meeting, by 1978, he was a national organiser for the party.
He helped set up the White Noise Music Club in 1979, several years worked with white power skinhead band, Skrewdriver. In 1980, he became a member of the party's governing body, the National Directorate, in the same year launched Nationalism Today with the aid of Joe Pearce editor of the NF youth paper Bulldog; as a National Front member, Griffin contested the seat of Croydon North West twice, in the 1981 by-election and 1983 general election, securing 1.2% and 0.9% of the vote. Membership of the National Front declined following the election of the Conservatives under Margaret Thatcher; as a result, the party became more radicalised, a dissatisfied Griffin, along with fellow NF activists Derek Holland and Patrick Harrington, began to embrace the ideals of Italian fascist Roberto Fiore, who had arrived in the UK in 1980. By 1983, the group had broken away to form the NF Political Soldier faction, which advocated a revival of country "values" and a return to feudalism with the establishment of nationalist communes.
Writing for Bulldog in 1985, Griffin praised the black separatist Louis Farrakhan, but his comments were unpopular with some members of the party. He attempted to form alliances with Libya's Muammar al-Gaddafi and Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini, praised the efforts of Welsh nationalist movement Meibion Glyndŵr. Following a disagreement with Harrington, objections over the direction the party was heading, in 1989, Griffin left the National Front. Along with Holland and Fiore, he helped form the International Third Position, a development of the Political Soldier movement, but left the organisation in 1990. In the same year, he lost his left eye when a discarded shotgun cartridge exploded in a pile of burning wood, since when he has worn a glass eye; the accident left him unable to work, owing to other financial problems he subsequently petitioned for bankruptcy. For several years thereafter, he abstained from politics and was supported financially by his parents, he stewarded a public Holocaust denial meeting hosted by David Irving.
Griffin re-entered politics in 1993 and, in 1995, at the behest of John Tyndall, joined the British National Party. He became editor of two right-wing magazines owned by Tyndall and The Rune. Referring to the election of the BNP's firs
Yorkshire, formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Due to its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have been subject to periodic reform. Throughout these changes, Yorkshire has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region; the name is familiar and well understood across the United Kingdom and is in common use in the media and the military, features in the titles of current areas of civil administration such as North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire and East Riding of Yorkshire. Within the borders of the historic county of Yorkshire are vast stretches of unspoiled countryside; this can be found in the Yorkshire Dales and North York Moors and with the open aspect of some of the major cities. Yorkshire has been named "God's Own County" or "God's Own Country"; the emblem of Yorkshire is the White Rose of the English royal House of York, the most used flag representative of Yorkshire is the White Rose on a blue background, which after nearly fifty years of use, was recognised by the Flag Institute on 29 July 2008.
Yorkshire Day, held annually on 1 August, is a celebration of the general culture of Yorkshire, ranging from its history to its own dialect. Yorkshire is covered by different Government Office Regions. Most of the county falls within Yorkshire and the Humber while the extreme northern part of the county, such as Middlesbrough, Redcar and Startforth, falls within North East England. Small areas in the west of the county are covered by the North West England region. Yorkshire or the County of York was so named as it is the shire of York's Shire. "York" comes from the Viking name for Jórvík. "Shire" is from scir meaning care or official charge. The "shire" suffix is locally pronounced /-ʃə/ "shuh", or /-ʃiə/, a homophone of "sheer". Early inhabitants of Yorkshire were Celts, who formed two separate tribes, the Brigantes and the Parisi; the Brigantes controlled territory which became all of the North Riding of Yorkshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England.
That they had the Yorkshire area as their heartland is evident in that Isurium Brigantum was the capital town of their civitas under Roman rule. Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county; the Parisi, who controlled the area that would become the East Riding of Yorkshire, might have been related to the Parisii of Lutetia Parisiorum, Gaul. Their capital was at Petuaria, close to the Humber Estuary. Although the Roman conquest of Britain began in 43 AD, the Brigantes remained in control of their kingdom as a client state of Rome for an extended period, reigned over by the Brigantian monarchs Cartimandua and her husband Venutius; this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain. Queen Cartimandua left her husband Venutius for his armour bearer, setting off a chain of events which changed control of the region. Cartimandua, due to her good relationship with the Romans, was able to keep control of the kingdom.
At the second attempt, Venutius seized the kingdom, but the Romans, under general Petillius Cerialis, conquered the Brigantes in 71 AD. The fortified city of Eboracum was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint capital of all Roman Britain; the emperor Septimius Severus ruled the Roman Empire from Eboracum for the two years before his death. Another emperor, Constantius Chlorus, died in Eboracum during a visit in 306 AD; this saw his son Constantine the Great, who became renowned for his contributions to Christianity, proclaimed emperor in the city. In the early 5th century, the Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops. By this stage, the Western Empire was in intermittent decline. After the Romans left, small Celtic kingdoms arose in the region, including the Kingdom of Ebrauc around York and the Kingdom of Elmet to the west. Elmet remained independent from the Germanic Northumbrian Angles until some time in the early 7th century, when King Edwin of Northumbria expelled its last king and annexed the region.
At its greatest extent, Northumbria stretched from the Irish Sea to the North Sea and from Edinburgh down to Hallamshire in the south. Scandinavian York or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings. Norse monarchy controlled varying amounts of Northumbria from 875 to 954, however the area was invaded and conquered for short periods by England between 927 and 954 before being annexed into England in 954, it was associated with the much longer-lived Kingdom of Dublin throughout this period. An army of Danish Vikings, the Great Heathen Army as its enemies referred to it, invaded Northumbrian territory in 866 AD; the Danes conquered and assumed what is now York and renamed it Jórvík, making it the capital city of a new Danish kingdom under the same name. The area which this kingdom covered included most of Southern Northumbria equivalent to the borders of Yorkshire extending further West.
The Danes went on to conque