Edema known as fluid retention or swelling, is the buildup of fluid in the body's tissue. Most the legs or arms are affected. Symptoms may include skin which feels tight, the area may feel heavy, affected joints may be hard to move. Other symptoms depend on the underlying cause. Causes may include venous insufficiency, heart failure, kidney problems, low protein levels, liver problems, deep vein thrombosis, angioedema, certain medications, lymphedema, it may occur due to prolonged sitting or standing and during menstruation or pregnancy. The condition is more concerning if it starts or pain or shortness of breath is present. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. If the underlying mechanism involves sodium retention, decreased salt intake and a diuretic may be used. Elevating the legs and support stockings may be useful for edema of the legs. Older people are more affected; the word is from the Greek οἴδημα oídēma meaning "swelling". An edema will occur in specific organs as part of inflammations, tendonitis or pancreatitis, for instance.
Certain organs develop edema through tissue specific mechanisms. Examples of edema in specific organs: Pedal edema is extracellular fluid accumulation in the legs; this can occur in otherwise healthy people due to hypervolemia or maintaining a standing or seated posture for an extended period of time. It can occur due to diminished venous return of blood to the heart due to congestive heart failure or pulmonary hypertension, it can occur in patients with increased hydrostatic venous pressure or decreased oncotic venous pressure, due to obstruction of lymphatic or venous vessels draining the lower extremity. Certain drugs can cause pedal edema. Cerebral edema is extracellular fluid accumulation in the brain, it can occur in toxic or abnormal metabolic states and conditions such as systemic lupus or reduced oxygen at high altitudes. It causes drowsiness or loss of consciousness, leading to brain death. Pulmonary edema occurs when the pressure in blood vessels in the lung is raised because of obstruction to the removal of blood via the pulmonary veins.
This is due to failure of the left ventricle of the heart. It can occur in altitude sickness or on inhalation of toxic chemicals. Pulmonary edema produces shortness of breath. Pleural effusions may occur when fluid accumulates in the pleural cavity. Edema may be found in the cornea of the eye with glaucoma, severe conjunctivitis or keratitis or after surgery. Sufferers may perceive coloured haloes around bright lights. Edema surrounding the eyes is called periorbital eye puffiness; the periorbital tissues are most noticeably swollen after waking as a result of the gravitational redistribution of fluid in the horizontal position. Common appearances of cutaneous edema are observed with mosquito bites, spider bites, bee stings, skin contact with certain plants such as poison ivy or western poison oak, the latter of which are termed contact dermatitides. Another cutaneous form of edema is myxedema, caused by increased deposition of connective tissue. In myxedema edema is caused by an increased tendency of the tissue to hold water within its extracellular space.
In myxedema this is because of an increase in hydrophilic carbohydrate-rich molecules deposited in the tissue matrix. Edema forms more in dependent areas in the elderly and this is not well understood. Estrogens alter body weight in part through changes in tissue water content. There may be a variety of poorly understood situations in which transfer of water from tissue matrix to lymphatics is impaired because of changes in the hydrophilicity of the tissue or failure of the'wicking' function of terminal lymphatic capillaries. In lymphedema abnormal removal of interstitial fluid is caused by failure of the lymphatic system; this may be due to obstruction from, for example, pressure from a cancer or enlarged lymph nodes, destruction of lymph vessels by radiotherapy, or infiltration of the lymphatics by infection. It is most due to a failure of the pumping action of muscles due to immobility, most strikingly in conditions such as multiple sclerosis, or paraplegia, it has been suggested that the edema that occurs in some people following use of aspirin-like cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors such as ibuprofen or indomethacin may be due to inhibition of lymph heart action.
A rise in hydrostatic pressure occurs in cardiac failure. A fall in osmotic pressure occurs in nephrotic liver failure. Causes of edema which are generalized to the whole body can cause edema in multiple organs and peripherally. For example, severe heart failure can cause pulmonary edema, pleural effusions and peripheral edema; such severe systemic edema is called anasarca. In rare cases, a Parvovirus B19 infection may cause generalized edemas. Although a low plasma oncotic pressure is cited for the edema of nephrotic syndrome, most physicians note that the edema may occur before there is any significant protein in the urine or fall in plasma protein level. Most forms of nephrotic syndrome are due to biochemical and structural changes in the basement membrane of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli, these changes occur, if to a lesser degree, in the vessels of most other tissues of the body, thus the resulting increase in permeability that leads to protein in the urine can explain the edema if all other vessels are more permeable as well.
As well as the mentioned conditions, edemas occur during the late stages of pregnancy in some women. This is more common with those of a history
Belmont Lake is a lake in geographic Belmont Township in the municipality of Havelock-Belmont-Methuen, Peterborough County in Central Ontario, Canada. It is part of the water system. There are 2 watercourses that flow into one exiting; the first river comes from the north from Cordova Lake and is navigable by a small boat from the northwest part of Belmont Lake up the river for 1 km. It has some areas that are rocky; the second inflow which comes from Brackenridge Bay on Round Lake is on the west side at the middle point of the lake. There is a small waterfall flowing into the lake that varies in size depending on water levels at certain times of the year; the Crowe River outflow is on the east side at the middle point of the lake. This river is navigable by small boat for 1 km by navigating some deep and shallow rocky sections; the Crowe River dam is located at the end separating Belmont Lake from Crowe Lake. Belmont Lake has 50 islands. Several of the islands are named; the largest is Big island.
It is 1 km long and 375 meters at its widest point. There are 45 cottages on the island; the island is located in the middle of the lake. Belmont has a long history of cottagers because of its natural beauty, it is located on the southernmost point of the Canadian shield, why most of the islands and surroundings are rocky. Rumour has it that Belmont was suggested to be named Loon Lake because of the numerous loons found and heard on the lake year after year. Belmont has a healthy fish population. Muskie populations which were healthy some years ago have declined due to the non-native Pike species that have made their way into the lake. Other species such as Perch, Bluegill and Pickerel are found in the lake; the old mills known as Ashby Mill and Rockdale are located on the south shore and at the Crowe River outflow respectively. The most southern part of the lake has a large bay called King Bay; the most northern part of the lake has a large bay called Deer Bay. It is 7.5 km from the southern part of the main lake to the north part of the main lake.
It is 3.1 km wide at its widest point from the river inflow on the west to the river outflow on the east. Many of the older cottages are still present on Belmont Lake allowing it to maintain its "cottagey" feel
A full-body scan is a scan of the patient's entire body as part of the diagnosis or treatment of illnesses. If computed tomography scan technology is used, it is known as a full-body CT scan, though many medical imaging technologies can perform full-body scans. Full-body CT scans allow a transparent view of the body. For polytrauma patients, aggressive use of full-body CT scanning improves early diagnosis of injury and improves survival rates, with widespread adoption of the technique seen worldwide. Full-body CT scans are not indicated in patients with minor or single system trauma, should be avoided in such patients. Many possible malignancies are discovered with a full-body scan, but these are always benign; these may not be related to any disease, may be benign growths, scar tissue, or the remnants of previous infections. CT scanning for other reasons sometimes identifies these "incidentalomas". However, the significance of radiation exposure as well as costs associated with these studies must be considered in patients with low energy mechanisms of injury and absent physical examination findings consistent with major trauma.
A full-body scan has the potential to identify disease in early stages, early identification can improve the success of curative efforts. Controversy arises from the use of full-body scans in the screening of patients who have no signs or symptoms suggestive of a disease; as with any test that screens for disease, the risks of full-body CT scans need to be weighed against the benefit of identifying a treatable disease at an early stage. An alternative to a full-body CT scan may be Magnetic resonance imaging scans. MRI scans are more expensive than CT but do not expose the patient to ionizing radiation and are being evaluated for their potential value in screening. Compared to most other diagnostic imaging procedures, CT scans result in high radiation exposure; this exposure may be associated with a small increase in cancer risk. The question is whether that risk is outweighed by the benefits of diagnosis and therapyThe procedure has a low rate of finding disease, it can cause confusion regarding incidentalomas.
It is uncertain how to treat some of them, or if treatment is necessary. The test cannot detect colors, unlike for example a colonoscopy; these procedures are expensive. High cost: At a cost of US$600 to $3000, full-body scans are expensive, are covered by insurance. However, in December 2007, the IRS stated that full-body scans qualify as deductible medical expenses, without a doctor's referral; this will lead employer-sponsored, flexible-spending plans to make the cost of the scans eligible for reimbursement. In the episode "Role Model" of the TV show House the lead character Dr. Gregory House refers to full-body scans as "useless" because, in his words, "you could scan every one of us and find fifty doo-dads that look like cancer"; this issue was revisited in a episode, "The Social Contract", where a full-body scan was used to identify a tumor and diagnose Doege-Potter syndrome. In "Black Hole", House orders a full-body scan over the objections of his team, followed by a different scan on a pineal gland.
In the Scrubs episode "My Fault", Dr. Kelso decides to offer full-body scans at Sacred Heart Hospital, despite the objections of Dr. Cox; this offer is taken by Harvey Corman, an "admittedly frugal hypochondriac". Full body scanner Medical imaging Backscatter X-ray Millimeter wave scanner
Midori Honda is a former Japanese football player and manager. She played for Japan national team. Honda was born in Shizuoka on November 16, 1964, she played for her local club Shimizudaihachi SC. She won Empress's Cup for 4 years in a row. In 1985, she moved to Yomiuri Nippon SC Ladies Beleza; the club won L. League for 3 years in a row, she was selected Best Eleven in 1990 season. In June 1981, when Honda was 16 years old, she was selected Japan national team for 1981 AFC Championship. At this competition, on June 7, she debuted against Chinese Taipei; this match is Japan team first match in International A Match. She played at 1986, 1989, 1991 AFC Championship and 1990 Asian Games, she was a member of Japan national team for 1991 World Cup. This competition was her last game for Japan, she played 43 games for Japan until 1991. In 2001, Honda became manager for new club Okayama Yunogo Belle, she instructed Aya Miyama, Miho Fukumoto and so on. End of 2010 season, she resigned. In 2013, she became manager for AC Nagano Parceiro.
Midori Honda – FIFA competition record Midori Honda at Soccerway Midori Honda at WorldFootball.net Profile
IOSO is a multiobjective, multidimensional nonlinear optimization technology. IOSO Technology is based on the response surface methodology approach. At each IOSO iteration the internally constructed response surface model for the objective is being optimized within the current search region; this step is followed by a direct call to the actual mathematical model of the system for the candidate optimal point obtained from optimizing internal response surface model. During IOSO operation, the information about the system behavior is stored for the points in the neighborhood of the extremum, so that the response surface model becomes more accurate for this search area; the following steps are internally taken while proceeding from one IOSO iteration to another: the modification of the experiment plan. IOSO is based on the technology being developed for more than 20 years by Sigma Technology which grew out of IOSO Technology Center in 2001. Sigma Technology is headed by prof. Egorov I. N. CEO. IOSO is the name of the group of multidisciplinary design optimization software that runs on Microsoft Windows as well as on Unix/Linux OS and was developed by Sigma Technology.
It is used to improve the performance of complex systems and technological processes and to develop new materials based on a search for their optimal parameters. IOSO is integrated with any computer aided engineering tool. IOSO group of software consists of: IOSO NM: Multi-objective optimization; the search for optimal values for object or system characteristics is carried out by means of optimal change to design, geometrical or other parameters of the object. It is necessary to select or co-ordinate management parameters for the system while it is in operation in order to achieve a certain effect during the operation of the system or to reduce the impact of some factors on the system; when the design process involves the use of any mathematical models of real-life objects, whether commercial or corporate, there is the problem of co-ordinating the experiment findings and model computation results. All models imply a set of unknown constants. Searching for the optimal values thereof makes it possible to co-ordinate the experiment findings and model computation results.
Practical application of the numerical optimization results is difficult because any complex technical system is a stochastic system and the characteristics of this system have probabilistic nature. We would like to emphasize that, speaking about the stochastic properties of a technical system within the frame of optimization tasks, we imply that the important parameters of any system are stochastically spread, it occurs during the production stage despite of the up-to-date level of modern technology. Random deviations of the system parameters lead to a random change in system efficiency. An efficiency extreme value, obtained during the optimization problem while solving in traditional approach, is a maximum attainable value and can be considered as just conventional optimum from the point of view of its practical realization. Thus, one can consider two different types of optimization criteria. One of them is an ideal efficiency which can be achieved under the conditions of precise practical replication of the system parameters under consideration.
Other optimization criteria are of probabilistic nature. For example: mathematical expectation of the efficiency. More, these criteria may contradict to each other. Thus, in this case we have a multiobjective optimization problem. IOSO concept of robust design optimization and robust optimal control allows to determine the optimal practical solution that could be implemented with the high probability for the given technology level of the production plants. Many modern probabilistic approaches either employ the estimation of probabilistic efficiency criteria only at the stage of the analysis of obtaining deterministic solution, or use simplified assessments of probabilistic criteria during optimization process; the distinctive feature of our approach is that during robust design optimization we solve the optimization problem involving direct stochastic formulation, where the estimation of probabilistic criteria is accomplished at each iteration. This procedure reliably produces robust optimal solution.
High efficiency of the robust design optimization is provided by the capabilities of IOSO algorithms to solve stochastic optimization problems with large level of noise. I. N. Egorov. Indirect Optimization Method on the Basis of Self-Organization. ICOTA'98, Australia, July 1...3, 1998 Conference Proceedings, vol.2, pp. 683–690 Brian H. Dennis, Igor N. Egorov, Helmut Sobieczky, George S. Dulikravich, Shinobu Yoshimura. PARALLEL THERMOELASTICITY OPTIMIZATION OF 3-D SERPENTINE COOLING PASSAGES IN TUR
Several Americans have served as the head coach of a foreign national soccer team. Americans coaching foreign national teams is seen as an important step in improving the perceptions of American soccer. During the 1900s, Americans coaching; the first American to coach a foreign national soccer team was Mark Scott Thompson, appointed El Salavador's first head coach in 1930. Alkis Panagoulias led the U. S. team in the 1980s including the 1984 Summer Olympics, before soccer had become established in the U. S. in between stints with the Greece national team. When Panagoulias led Greece to the 1994 World Cup, he was the only American and Greek head coach in the tournament. Since the 1990s and the establishment of Major League Soccer, Americans coaching foreign national teams has become more frequent. Bill Moravek was the first American-born head coach of a foreign national team. Alkis Panagoulias, Steve Sampson and Bob Bradley all led the United States national team before becoming head coach of a foreign national team.
S. national team assistant coach before taking over the Iran national side. Fernando Clavijo embarked his coaching career with Haiti in 2003 to 2004, having been assistant to Bora Milutinović in Nigeria at 1998. Egypt's hiring of Bradley in 2011 was seen as a milestone in the growth of American soccer — an American coach taking over a team with a history of success. Bradley's hiring was seen as an important step that would help other American coaches land oversees coaching jobs. Bradley was the first American head coach of a Major League Soccer team to become the head coach of a foreign national side. Two American coaches faced each other in the 2003 Gold Cup when the Steve Sampson coached Costa Rica faced the United States, coached by Sampson's successor Bruce Arena. Ian Mork had the distinction of coaching Belize against his native United States in the 2013 Gold Cup. Another occasion where two national sides played where both teams were coached by Americans was the 3–0 victory by Thomas Dooley's Philippines over Jack Stefanowski's Nepal in a 2014 friendly match.
Jack Stefanowski was not a well-known American coach until he took the reins of the Nepal national team, where his highlight was leading Nepal to victory over rival India in the South Asian Football Federation championships. Stefanowski's assistant to Nepal at the time, Richard Orlowski, would go on to be the head coach of Belize from 2016 to 2018, made it the first team two American managers coached one national team after Ian Mork. Orlowski made his short spell with Anguilla; the recent American coached a foreign national team is Thomas Dooley, former captain of the U. S. national team, hired by the Philippines in 2014 and released in 2018. Dooley is the first person who has played for the U. S. national team to coach a foreign national team. Under Dooley, the Philippines managed to qualify for the 2019 AFC Asian Cup, the first major football tournament for the Philippines, but his contract was not extended after the success. List of Major League Soccer coaches