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Ulmus 'Toledo'

The elm cultivar Ulmus'Toledo' was raised from seed collected in 1999 from a tree believed to be Ulmus minor growing in the eponymous city, by researchers at the Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes, Universidad Politėcnica de Madrid.'Toledo' was found to have a high resistance to Dutch Elm Disease, on a par with, if not greater than, the hybrid cultivar'Sapporo Autumn Gold'. In the Madrid study, the appearance of the tree was rated 2.9 / 5.'Toledo' grew at a comparatively fast rate of 89 cm per annum in the trials at Puerta de Hierro, Madrid. The erect branches are devoid of corky tissue; the leaves, on 6 mm petioles, are ovate acuminate at the apex, the average length and width 47 × 27 mm, the margins doubly serrate. Foliar density relative to'Sapporo Autumn Gold' is described as'high'

Matthijs Vermeulen

Matthijs Vermeulen, was a Dutch composer and music journalist. Matthijs Vermeulen was born in Helmond. After primary school he wanted to follow in the footsteps of his father, a blacksmith. During a serious illness his inclination towards the spiritual gained the upper hand. Inspired by a Catholic environment, he decided to become a priest. However, at the seminary, where he learned about the principles of counterpoint of the sixteenth-century polyphonic masters, his true calling – music – came to light. On his eighteenth he left school. In the spring of 1907 he moved to the country's musical capital. There he approached Daniël de Lange, the director of the conservatory, who recognized his talent and gave him free lessons for two years. In 1909 Vermeulen began to write for the Catholic daily newspaper De Tijd, where he soon distinguished himself by a personal, resolute tone which stood out in stark contrast to the long-winded music journalism of the day; the quality of his reviews struck Alphons Diepenbrock.

He warmly recommended Vermeulen with the progressive weekly De Amsterdammer. There Vermeulen revealed himself as an advocate of the music of Claude Debussy, Gustav Mahler and Alphons Diepenbrock, whom he used to call his "maître spirituel". In the years 1912-1914 Vermeulen composed his actual opus 1, the First Symphony, which he called Symphonia carminum. In this work, expressing the joys of summer and youth, he employed the technique he would remain loyal to for the rest of his life: polymelodicism; the four songs which Vermeulen wrote in 1917 display, each in its own special manner, the composer's preoccupation with war. In the reviews for'De Telegraaf', a daily newspaper he worked for since 1915 as head of the Art and Literature department, he showed just how much in his view politics and culture were inseparable. Vermeulen's polemic against the unidirectional German orientation of Dutch musical life got him into trouble. After having presented his First Symphony to Willem Mengelberg, whom he much admired, he was disdainfully rejected after a one-year period of keen anticipation.

Vermeulen's orchestral work did not stand a chance in Amsterdam. The first performance, given by the Arnhem Orchestral Society in March 1919, took place under abominable circumstances and was a traumatic experience. Yet, Vermeulen started to work on his Second Symphony, Prélude à la nouvelle journée, shortly after that, a year he gave up journalism in order to dedicate himself to composing, while financially backed by some friends. After a last, fruitless appeal to Mengelberg, Vermeulen moved to France with his family in 1921 in the hope of finding a more favorable climate for his music. There he completed work on his Third Symphony Thrène et Péan, composed the String Trio and the Violin Sonata. However, Vermeulen's symphonic works did not find their way into the French concert halls either. From sheer necessity Vermeulen returned to journalism. In 1926 he became the Paris correspondent for the Soerabaiasch Handelsblad, a daily paper in the Dutch East Indies. For fourteen years he wrote two weekly extensive articles on every possible topic.

The commission, in 1930, to compose the incidental music to the play De Vliegende Hollander by Martinus Nijhoff was encouraging. Nine years he received a new impetus with the first performance of his Third Symphony by the Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Eduard van Beinum; the long-awaited confrontation with the resounding notes confirmed the effectiveness of his concepts. In the years 1940-1944 he composed his Fourth and Fifth Symphonies, bearing the titles of Les victoires and Les lendemains chantants, which symbolize Vermeulen's faith in the good outcome of World War II. During the fall of 1944 Vermeulen had to take severe blows. In a short space of time he lost his wife and his most cherished son, killed while serving in the French liberation army; the diary Het enige hart gives a moving account of his mourning process. Seeking the meaning of this loss, Vermeulen drew up a philosophical construction, which he further developed in his book Het avontuur van den geest. In 1946 Vermeulen married Thea Diepenbrock, daughter of his former mentor, went to work again for the weekly De Groene Amsterdammer, in the Netherlands.

His articles on music rank among the most compelling in that area. In 1949 his Fourth and Fifth Symphonies were performed. Politics and society kept on occupying Vermeulen passionately, he found the stifling atmosphere of the cold war depressing. Fearing a nuclear confrontation he spoke out against the arms race in several periodicals. During the first large-scale peace demonstration of 1955 he said: "The atomic bomb is an anti-life, anti-God, anti-man weapon." The performance of the Second Symphony during the 1956 Holland Festival instigated a new period of creativity. Vermeulen moved to rural Laren with his wife and child, where he composed the Sixth Symphony Les minutes heureuses, followed by various songs and the String Quartet, his last work, the Seventh Symphony, carrying the title Dithyrambes pour les temps à venir, reveals unflagging optimism. The composer died after a wasting disease, on 26 July 1967. Vermeulen's dissatisfaction with the artistic policies of the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra and its leader Willem Mengelberg came to a head in November 1918.

After a performance of the Seventh Symphony of Cornelis Dopper, conducted by the composer, Vermeulen stood up and shouted Long live Sousa! from the stands of