Angola the Republic of Angola, is a west-coast country of south-central Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa, bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Angola has an exclave province, the province of Cabinda that borders the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; the capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda. Although inhabited since the Paleolithic Era, what is now Angola was molded by Portuguese colonisation, it began with, was for centuries limited to, coastal settlements and trading posts established starting in the 16th century. In the 19th century, European settlers and hesitantly began to establish themselves in the interior; the Portuguese colony that became Angola did not have its present borders until the early 20th century because of resistance by groups such as the Cuamato, the Kwanyama and the Mbunda. After a protracted anti-colonial struggle, independence was achieved in 1975 as the Marxist–Leninist People's Republic of Angola, a one-party state supported by the Soviet Union and Cuba.
The civil war between the ruling People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola and the insurgent anti-communist National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, supported by the United States and South Africa, lasted until 2002. The sovereign state has since become a stable unitary, presidential constitutional republic. Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, its economy is among the fastest-growing in the world since the end of the civil war. Angola's economic growth is uneven, with most of the nation's wealth concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the population. Angola is a member state of the United Nations, OPEC, African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Southern African Development Community. A multiethnic country, Angola's 25.8 million people span tribal groups and traditions. Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, in the predominance of the Portuguese language and of the Catholic Church; the name Angola comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de Angola, which appeared as early as Dias de Novais's 1571 charter.
The toponym was derived by the Portuguese from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo. Ndongo in the highlands, between the Kwanza and Lukala Rivers, was nominally a possession of the Kingdom of Kongo, but was seeking greater independence in the 16th century. Modern Angola was populated predominantly by nomadic Khoi and San prior to the first Bantu migrations; the Khoi and San peoples hunter-gatherers. They were displaced by Bantu peoples arriving from the north, most of whom originated in what is today northwestern Nigeria and southern Niger. Bantu speakers introduced the cultivation of bananas and taro, as well as large cattle herds, to Angola's central highlands and the Luanda plain. Hendese Bantu established a number of political entities, it established trade routes with other city-states and civilisations up and down the coast of southwestern and western Africa and with Great Zimbabwe and the Mutapa Empire, although it engaged in little or no transoceanic trade. To its south lay the Kingdom of Ndongo, from which the area of the Portuguese colony was sometimes known as Dongo.
Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão reached the area in 1484. The previous year, the Portuguese had established relations with the Kongo, which stretched at the time from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south; the Portuguese established their primary early trading post at Soyo, now the northernmost city in Angola apart from the Cabinda exclave. Paulo Dias de Novais founded São Paulo de Loanda in 1575 with a hundred families of settlers and four hundred soldiers. Benguela was fortified in 1587 and became a township in 1617; the Portuguese established several other settlements and trading posts along the Angolan coast, principally trading in Angolan slaves for Brazilian plantations. Local slave dealers provided a large number of slaves for the Portuguese Empire in exchange for manufactured goods from Europe; this part of the Atlantic slave trade continued until after Brazil's independence in the 1820s. Despite Portugal's territorial claims in Angola, its control over much of the country's vast interior was minimal.
In the 16th century Portugal gained control of the coast through a series of wars. Life for European colonists was progress slow. John Iliffe notes that "Portuguese records of Angola from the 16th century show that a great famine occurred on average every seventy years. During the Portuguese Restoration War, the Dutch West India Company occupied the principal settlement of Luanda in 1641, using alliances with local peoples to carry out attacks against Portuguese holdings elsewhere. A fleet under Salvador de Sá retook Luanda in 1648. New treaties with the Kongo were signed in 1649.
Ponte de São João
The Ponte de São João or St John's Bridge, designed by engineer Edgar Cardoso is a railway bridge in Portugal. It replaced the functionality of the still standing Gustav Eiffel wrought iron Maria Pia Bridge in 1991. Coordinates: 41°08′20″N 8°35′43″W
Madeira International Airport Cristiano Ronaldo CR7 known as Madeira Airport, or Funchal Airport, is an international airport in the civil parish of Santa Cruz in the Portuguese archipelago and autonomous region of Madeira. The airport is located 13.2 km east-northeast of the regional capital Funchal after which it is sometimes informally named. It hosts flights to European metropolitan destinations due to the importance of Madeira as a leisure destination, is pivotal in the movement of cargo in and out of the archipelago of Madeira, it is the fourth busiest airport in Portugal. The airport is named after Madeiran football player Cristiano Ronaldo; the airport is considered one of the most peculiarly perilous airports in the world due to its location and its spectacular runway construction. It received the Outstanding Structure Award in 2004 by the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering; the History Channel program Most Extreme Airports ranked it as the ninth most dangerous airport in the world, the third most dangerous in Europe.
Pilots must undergo additional training to land at the airport. Madeira Airport was opened on 24 July 1972, with two 1,600 m runways; the first flight to land was a TAP Air Portugal Lockheed Constellation with 80 passengers on board. In 1972, the popularity of visiting the island of Madeira increased, so the runway had to be extended to allow modern and larger aircraft to land. Considered the Kai Tak of Europe because of its singular approach to runway 05, the decision was made to extend the existing runway, instead of building a new one; the runway was extended to 1,800 metres, with the inauguration of the extension occurring on 1 February 1986 by the President of the Portuguese Republic António Ramalho Eanes. In the meantime, a brand new terminal was built at the airport in 1973. However, as demand for tourism continued to grow, the runway had to be extended further; the newly extended runway - now 2781 metres in length - and terminal were inaugurated on 6 October 2002, to mark the occasion, an Air Atlanta Icelandic Boeing 747-200, registration TF-ABA, landed at the airport.
Although this was a rare event, some TAP Air Portugal flights make scheduled stops at Madeira with Airbus A330-200 widebody aircraft on the Lisbon-Caracas-Lisbon route. In 2016, it was announced that the airport would be renamed Madeira International Airport Cristiano Ronaldo in honour of Madeira native football player Cristiano Ronaldo; the unveiling of the rebranded terminal took place on 29 March 2017, with a bust of him being presented. Neither the bust nor the name change were unanimous far from a consensus, as the former was ridiculed by Saturday Night Live's character Cecilia Giminez portrayed by comedian and actress Kate McKinnon, with the latter being subject to much debate and controversy locally by politicians and citizens who started a petition against the move. A year sports website Bleacher Report commissioned sculptor Emanuel Santos to create another bust; however this bust was never used, instead a new one was made by a Spanish sculptor, shown to the public on 15 June 2018. The airport was once infamous for its short runway which, surrounded by high mountains and the ocean, made it a tricky landing for the most experienced of pilots.
Between 1982 and 1986, Madeira's runway was extended by 200 m to a total of 1,800 m, four gates were opened. The original runway was only 1,600 m long, but was extended by 200 m 8 years after the TAP Air Portugal Flight 425 crash of 1977. In 2000, the runway was again extended this time to 2,781 m; as landfill was not a realistic option, the extension was built on a platform over the ocean, supported by 180 columns, each about 70 m tall. The extension of Madeira Airport was conducted by the Brazilian construction company Andrade Gutierrez, is recognized worldwide as one of the most difficult to achieve due to the type of terrain and orography, its innovative solution allowed Funchal to receive the Outstanding Structure Award in 2004 by the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, which aims at recognizing the most remarkable, creative or otherwise stimulating structure completed within the last few years. The airport has a single terminal which opened in 1973; the terminal has 16 boarding gates and 7 baggage belts.
There are no air-bridges so passengers either walk the short distance to the terminal or are taken by shuttle bus. The terminal itself is underground. In 2016, Madeira Airport was modernised and renovated by its operator, ANA Aeroportos de Portugal, as part of an €11 million investment; the renovated terminal area, opened in June 2016, by the President of the Autonomous Regional Government of Madeira, Miguel Albuquerque, ameliorated the existing'operational facilities' and facilitated the creation of a brand new shopping area - all in all, doubling the capacity of the airport as a single entity. According to VINCI Airports, the airport will now "have the capacity to deal with up to 1,400 passengers per hour", the airport's overall new layout has been designed to enable to accommodation of new stores for national and international brands alike; the passenger screening area, under the command of Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras, increased from 650m² to 1,500m² accommodating an increase of the number of security screening lines, while the passenger holding and verification area increased from 300m^2 to 650m^2.
The new adopted layout has overall simplified passe
Portuguese Mozambique or Portuguese East Africa are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory. Portuguese Mozambique constituted a string of Portuguese colonies and a single Portuguese overseas province along the south-east African coast, which now forms the Republic of Mozambique. Portuguese trading settlements and colonies, were formed along the coast from 1498, when Vasco da Gama first reached the Mozambican coast. Lourenço Marques explored the area, now Maputo Bay in 1544, he settled permanently in present-day Mozambique, where he spent most of his life, his work was followed by other Portuguese explorers and traders. Some of these colonies were handed over in the late 19th century for rule by chartered companies such as the Mozambique Company, which had the concession of the lands corresponding to the present-day provinces of Manica and Sofala, the Niassa Company, which had controlled the lands of the modern provinces of Cabo Delgado and Niassa.
In 1951 the colonies were combined into a single overseas province under the name Moçambique as an integral part of Portugal. Most of the original colonies have given their names to the modern provinces of Mozambique. Mozambique, according to official policy, was not a colony at all but rather a part of the "pluricontinental and multiracial nation" of Portugal. Portugal claimed, as it did in all its colonies, to Europeanise the local population and assimilate them into Portuguese culture. Lisbon wanted to retain the colonies as trading partners and markets for its goods. However, paid forced labour, to which all Africans were liable if they failed to pay head tax, was not abolished until the early 1960s. During its history as a Portuguese colony, the present-day territory of Mozambique had the following formal designations: 1501–1569: Captaincy of Sofala 1570–1676: Captaincy of Mozambique and Sofala 1676–1836: Captaincy-General of Mozambique and Rivers of Sofala 1836–1891: Province of Mozambique 1891–1893: State of Eastern Africa 1893–1926: Province of Mozambique 1926–1951: Colony of Mozambique 1951–1972: Province of Mozambique 1972–1975: State of Mozambique Until the 20th century the land and peoples of Mozambique were affected by the Europeans who came to its shores and entered its major rivers.
As the Muslim traders Swahili, were displaced from their coastal centres and routes to the interior by the Portuguese, migrations of Bantu peoples continued and tribal federations formed and reformed as the relative power of local chiefs changed. For four centuries the Portuguese presence was meagre. Coastal and river trading posts were built and built again. Governors sought personal profits to take back to Portugal, colonists were not attracted to the distant area with its unattractive climate. In Portugal, Mozambique was considered to be a vital part of a world empire. Periodic recognition of the relative insignificance of the revenues it could produce was tempered by the mystique which developed regarding the mission of the Portuguese to bring their civilization to the African territory, it was believed that through missionary activity and other direct contact between Africans and Europeans, the Africans could be taught to appreciate and participate in Portuguese culture. In the last decade of the 19th century and the first part of the 20th century, integration of Mozambique into the structure of the Portuguese nation was begun.
After all of the area of the present province had been recognized by other European powers as belonging to Portugal, pacification of the tribes of the interior was completed and the traditional holders of political power were subordinated to the Portuguese. Civil administration was established throughout the area, the building of an infrastructure was begun, agreements regarding the transit trade of Mozambique's land-locked neighbours to the west were made. Portugal never had a racist policy or sanctioned discrimination based on race, its concept of what it called a "multiracial society" envisaged complete racial integration, including intermarriage, as well as cultural adaptation. The determined position of the Portuguese as conquerors and governors of the Africans, resulted in barriers to the formation of this ideal; the fact that most Africans were not "cultivated" in the Portuguese sense, that many participated in what were considered by the Portuguese to be pagan beliefs and uncivilized behaviour, tended to create a low opinion of Africans as a group.
The uneducated Portuguese immigrant peasants in urban areas were in direct competition with Africans for jobs and demonstrated jealousies and prejudices with racial overtones. The society was divided into two peripherally interrelated sectors; the urban-based modern sector, comprising altogether between 2 and 2.5 percent of the population, consisting of Europeans but including a few thousand Europeanised Africans and Chinese, was dominant in the economic and social realms. Communication between this sector and the large majority of rural Africans was limited. Communication between members of the ten dif
Bragança is a city and municipality in north-eastern Portugal, capital of the district of Bragança, in the Terras de Trás-os-Montes subregion of Portugal. The population in 2011 was 35,341, in an area of 1173.57 km². Archeological evidence permits a determination of human settlement in this region to the Paleolithic. During the Neolithic there was a growth of productive human settlements which concentrated on planting and domestication of animals, with a nascent religion. There are many vestiges of these ancient communities, including ceramics, agricultural implements, weights and modest jewelry, all carved from rock. Many of these artefacts were found in funerary mounds, such as the tumulus of Donai. There are many signs of megalithic constructions dotted throughout the region, it is believed that the larger prehistoric communities developed in Terra Fria in the final part of the Bronze Age. During this period, the Celtic or Castro culture of fortified urban structures resulted in walled settlements, situated in elevated areas, with a panoramic view for defense.
These communities survived on subsistence agriculture. Roman colonization, which occurred late in the Roman era, resulted in the establishment of private property and movement away from the forests, in addition to organizational changes resulting administrative and cultural evolution. Remnants of the Luso-Roman castro societies are evident in Castro of Sacóias and the Castro of Avelãs. In these excavations, modern archaeologists have discovered funerary remains and implements; the Castro of Avelãs was an important centre on the military road to Astorga, although there are many examples of the Roman presence. The area was dominated by two ethnic communities: the Zoelae, with their seat in Castro de Avelãs, a Lusitanian civitas under the stewardship of the Baniense in the southern part of the district. A Latin map, Atlas de Gotha by Justus Perthes, mentioned three settlements within this region: Aquae Flaviae and Zoelae without mentioning any reference to a name similar to Bragança. During Roman colonization, it was part of Gallaecia and dependent administratively on Astorga, on the Atlantic axis of a Roman highway from Meseta, that controlled the gold and silver trade.
The references to a settlement with the name similar to Bragança occurred in the acts of Council Lugo regarding the Vergancia. A similar reference by Wamba referred to Bregancia, where two Christian martyrs were born. Records of the proto-Germanic Suebic and Visigothic kingdoms are few an indication of advancement in rural agrarian and pastoral communities during their occupation and settlement. Toponymic references such as Gimonde and Samil are some of the remains from this period. Although some placenames remained, the influence of the Islamic civilization to the northern regions and Douro was small. There is but one passing reference to a Pelagius Count of Bragança during the Council of Oviedo. Owing to the Reconquista, this region was integrated into the Kingdom of Asturias, the economy, ecclesiastical organization, architecture and language was influenced by the Asturo-Leonese. During the 11th and 12th century, in the books of genealogy, the Bragançãos family of Castro d'Avelãs dominated Bragança, its abbot Mendo Alãm, who married Princess Ardzrouri of Armenia (who passed through the region on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, originated the hereditary line.
Legend holds that Fernão Mendes kidnapped married, daughter of Afonso Henriques and Teresa, obtaining with his dead the important defense of the region. Fernão Mendes and Sancha would find the ruins of the ancient village and rebuilt from the ground in the Realenga das Terras da Bragança. Fernão Mendes was referred to as the Brave for his gallantry during the Battle of Ourique, yet the region of Bragança would become a property of the Crown as no heir would develop from their union. The Bragançãos contributed to the foundation of the settlement, its importance would remain integral to the defense of the country, owing to the geopolitical position in the northwest frontier with the Spanish Kingdoms of León and Castile. By the seventh generation, around 1258, the Bragançãos lose their hereditary title, Afonso III transfer the title to Nuno Martins a descendent of the line; the origin of the city of Bragança dates from the 10th or 11th century, developed from a Romanized castro, although archaeological evidence is still under-discovered.
The strategic importance of Bragança, to military control of access, resulted from its localization and was reinforced by administrative institutions established by the King. Sancho signed a foral in June 1187, renovated by King Afonso III, in May 1253, by Manuel I on 11 November 1514; the foral demonstrated the importance of the city, the first in the Trás-os-Montes to receive the title of town. In his proclamation, Afonso III specified that the municipality of Bragança pertained to the Church of Braganza, not the crown, that its represents should motivate the settlement of all unpopulated lands; this conflicted with the Military O
The Cuanza River known as the Coanza, the Quanza, the Kwanza, is a river in Angola. It empties into the Atlantic Ocean just south of the national capital Luanda; the river is navigable for about 150 miles from its mouth, located 60 kilometers south of Luanda. Its tributaries included the Lucala; the river's navigable lower course was the original route of Portugal invasion into northern Angola. The Capanda Dam in Malanje Province was finished in 2004, providing hydroelectric power to the region and assisting its irrigation; the Cambambe Hydroelectric Power Station lies on the river, with the Lauca Dam under construction. The Barra do Kwanza, the mouth of the river, is being developed for tourism, including a golf course; the Church of Nossa Senhora da Victoria stands near the banks of the Cuanza River in Massanganu, Province of Kwanza-Norte, Angola. Rich biodiversity has been found in the Angolan river, according to research reported on the Science and Development Network website. Angola's first biodiversity tally of the Kwanza River has so far found 50 fish species.
Researchers from the National Fishing Research Institute and the South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity say genetic testing may reveal new species. Sport fishing includes tarpon. Angola's currency, the kwanza, is named after the river; the river is the namesake of the provinces of Cuanza Norte and Cuanza Sul. Quissama National Park, to the south of the river "Coanza",'Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, p. 81. Map of the Cuanza River basin at Water Resources eAtlas
Porto is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The city proper has a population of 287,591 and the metropolitan area of Porto, which extends beyond the administrative limits of the city, has a population of 2.3 million in an area of 2,395 km2, making it the second-largest urban area in Portugal. It is recognized as a gamma-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group, the only Portuguese city besides Lisbon to be recognised as a global city. Located along the Douro River estuary in northern Portugal, Porto is one of the oldest European centres, its historical core was proclaimed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996; the western part of its urban area extends to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. Its settlement dates back many centuries, its combined Celtic-Latin name, Portus Cale, has been referred to as the origin of the name "Portugal", based on transliteration and oral evolution from Latin. In Portuguese, the name of the city includes a definite article: o Porto.
Its English name, evolved from a misinterpretation of the Portuguese pronunciation. Port wine, one of Portugal's most famous exports, is named after Porto, since the metropolitan area, in particular the cellars of Vila Nova de Gaia, were responsible for the packaging and export of fortified wine. In 2014 and 2017, Porto was elected The Best European Destination by the Best European Destinations Agency. Porto is on the Portuguese Way path of the Camino de Santiago; the history of Porto dates back to around 300 BC with Proto-Celtic and Celtic people being the first known inhabitants. Ruins of that period have been discovered in several areas. During the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula, the city developed as an important commercial port in the trade between Olissipona and Bracara Augusta. Porto was important during the Suebian and Visigothic times, a centre for the expansion of Christianity during that period. Porto fell under the control of the Moors during the invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 711.
In 868, Vímara Peres, an Asturian count from Gallaecia, a vassal of the King of Asturias, Léon and Galicia, Alfonso III, was sent to reconquer and secure the lands back into Christian hands. This included the area from the Minho to the Douro River: the settlement of Portus Cale and the area, known as Vila Nova de Gaia. Portus Cale referred to as Portucale, was the origin for the modern name of Portugal. In 868, Count Vímara Peres established the County of Portugal, or known as Condado Portucalense after reconquering the region north of Douro. In 1387, Porto was the site of the marriage of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt; the Portuguese-English alliance is the world's oldest recorded military alliance. In the 14th and the 15th centuries, Porto's shipyards contributed to the development of Portuguese shipbuilding. From the port of Porto, in 1415, Prince Henry the Navigator embarked on the conquest of the Moorish port of Ceuta, in northern Morocco; this expedition by the king and his fleet, which counted among others, Prince Henry, was followed by navigation and exploration along the western coast of Africa, initiating the Portuguese Age of Discovery.
The nickname given to the people of Porto began in those days. Wine, produced in the Douro valley, was in the 13th century transported to Porto in barcos rabelos. In 1703, the Methuen Treaty established the trade relations between England. In 1717, a first English trading post was established in Porto; the production of port wine gradually passed into the hands of a few English firms. To counter this English dominance, Prime Minister Marquis of Pombal established a Portuguese firm receiving the monopoly of the wines from the Douro valley, he demarcated the region for production of port. The small winegrowers revolted against his strict policies on Shrove Tuesday, burning down the buildings of this firm; the revolt was called Revolta dos Borrachos. Between 1732 and 1763, Italian architect Nicolau Nasoni designed a baroque church with a tower that became its architectural and visual icon: the Torre dos Clérigos. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the city became an important industrial centre and had its size and population increase.
The invasion of the Napoleonic troops in Portugal under Marshal Soult brought war to the city of Porto. On 29 March 1809, as the population fled from the advancing French troops and tried to cross the river Douro over the Ponte das Barcas, the bridge collapsed under the weight; this event is still remembered by a plate at the Ponte D. Luis I; the French army was rooted out of Porto by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when his Anglo-Portuguese Army crossed the Douro River from the Mosteiro da Serra do Pilar in a brilliant daylight coup de main, using wine barges to transport the troops, so outflanking the Fr