Horace Greeley was an American author and statesman, the founder and editor of the New-York Tribune, among the great newspapers of its time. Long active in politics, he served as a congressman from New York, was the unsuccessful candidate of the new Liberal Republican party in the 1872 presidential election against incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant. Greeley was born to a poor family in New Hampshire, he went to New York City in 1831 to seek his fortune. He wrote for or edited several publications and involved himself in Whig Party politics, taking a significant part in William Henry Harrison's successful 1840 presidential campaign; the following year, he founded the Tribune, which became the highest-circulating newspaper in the country through weekly editions sent by mail. Among many other issues, he urged the settlement of the American West, which he saw as a land of opportunity for the young and the unemployed, he popularized the slogan "Go West, young man, grow up with the country." He endlessly promoted utopian reforms such as socialism, agrarianism and temperance, while hiring the best talent he could find.
Greeley's alliance with William H. Seward and Thurlow Weed led to him serving three months in the House of Representatives, where he angered many by investigating Congress in his newspaper. In 1854, he helped may have named the Republican Party. Republican newspapers across the nation reprinted his editorials. During the Civil War, he supported Lincoln, though he urged the president to commit to the end of slavery before he was willing to do so. After Lincoln's assassination, he supported the Radical Republicans in opposition to President Andrew Johnson, he broke with Republican President Ulysses Grant because of corruption and Greeley's sense that Reconstruction policies were no longer needed. Greeley was the new Liberal Republican Party's presidential nominee in 1872, he lost in a landslide despite having the additional support of the Democratic Party. He was devastated by the death of his wife, who died five days before the election, died himself three weeks before the Electoral College had met.
Horace Greeley was born on February 1811, on a farm about five miles from Amherst, New Hampshire. He could not breathe for the first twenty minutes of his life, it is suggested that this deprivation may have caused him to develop Asperger's syndrome—some of his biographers, such as Mitchell Snay, maintain that this condition would account for his eccentric behaviors in life. He was of English descent, his forebears included early settlers of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. Greeley was the son of poor farmers Mary Greeley. Zaccheus was not successful, moved his family several times, as far west as Pennsylvania. Horace attended the local schools, was a brilliant student. Seeing the boy's intelligence, some neighbors offered to pay Horace's way at Phillips Exeter Academy, but the Greeleys were too proud to accept charity. In 1820, Zaccheus's financial reverses caused him to flee New Hampshire with his family lest he be imprisoned for debt, settle in Vermont; as his father struggled to make a living as a hired hand, Horace Greeley read everything he could—the Greeleys had a neighbor who let Horace use his library.
In 1822, Horace was told he was too young. In 1826, at age 15, he was made a printer's apprentice to Amos Bliss, editor of the Northern Spectator, a newspaper in East Poultney, Vermont. There, he learned the mechanics of a printer's job, acquired a reputation as the town encyclopedia, reading his way through the local library; when the paper closed in 1830, the young man went west to join his family, living near Erie, Pennsylvania. He remained there only going from town to town seeking newspaper employment, was hired by the Erie Gazette. Although ambitious for greater things, he remained until 1831 to help support his father. While there, he became a Universalist. In late 1831, Greeley went to New York City to seek his fortune. There were many young printers in New York who had come to the metropolis, he could only find short-term work. In 1832, Greeley worked as an employee of the publication Spirit of the Times, he set up a print shop in that year. In 1833, he tried his hand with Horatio D. Sheppard at editing a daily newspaper, the New York Morning Post, not a success.
Despite this failure and its attendant financial loss, Greeley published the thrice-weekly Constitutionalist, which printed lottery results. On March 22, 1834, he published the first issue of The New-Yorker in partnership with Jonas Winchester, it was less expensive than other literary magazines of the time and published both contemporary ditties and political commentary. Circulation reached 9,000 a sizable number, yet it was ill-managed and fell victim to the economic Panic of 1837, he published the campaign news sheet of the new Whig Party in New York for the 1834 campaign, came to believe in its positions, including free markets with government assistance in developing the nation. Soon after his move to New York City, Greeley met Mary Young Cheney. Both were living at a boarding house run on the diet principles of Sylvester Graham, eschewing meat, coffee and spices, as well as abstaining from the use of tobacco. Greeley was subscribing to Graham's principles at the time, to the end of his life ate meat.
Mary Cheney, a schoolteacher, moved to North Carolina to take a teaching job in 1835. They were married in Warrenton, North Carolina on July 5, 1836, an
1840 United States presidential election
The 1840 United States presidential election was the 14th quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, October 30, to Wednesday, December 2, 1840. In the midst of the Panic of 1837, incumbent President Martin Van Buren of the Democratic Party was defeated by Whig nominee William Henry Harrison; the election marked the first of two Whig victories in presidential elections. In the previous election, the Whigs had been unable to field a single ticket, but in 1839, the Whigs held a national convention for the first time; the 1839 Whig National Convention saw 1836 nominee William Henry Harrison defeat former Secretary of State Henry Clay and General Winfield Scott. Van Buren faced little opposition at the 1840 Democratic National Convention, but controversial Vice President Richard Mentor Johnson was not re-nominated; the Democrats became the first major party since the passage of the Twelfth Amendment to fail to select a vice presidential nominee. Referencing Vice President John Tyler and Harrison's participation in the Battle of Tippecanoe, the Whigs campaigned on the slogan of "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too".
With Van Buren weakened by the poor economic conditions, Harrison won a majority in the popular vote and 234 of the 294 electoral votes. 42.4% of the voting age population voted for Harrison, the highest percentage in the history of the United States up to that time. Van Buren's loss made him the third president to lose re-election; the Whigs did not get to enjoy the benefits of their electoral victory. The 67-year-old Harrison was the oldest U. S. president elected until Ronald Reagan won the 1980 presidential election, Harrison died a little more than a month after his inauguration. Harrison was succeeded by John Tyler. While Tyler had been a staunch supporter of Clay at the convention, he was a former Democrat and a passionate supporter of states' rights; as President Tyler was expelled from the party. Van Buren, the incumbent president, was re-nominated in Baltimore in May 1840; the party refused to re-nominate his sitting vice president, Richard M. Johnson, but could not agree on an alternative, so nominated no one.
This remains the only time since the passage of the 12th Amendment, that a major party failed to do so. In the electoral college, the Democratic vice presidential votes were divided among Johnson, Littleton W. Tazewell, James K. Polk. Three years after Democrat Martin Van Buren was elected President in the election of 1836 over three Whig candidates, the Whigs met in national convention determined to unite behind a single candidate; the convention was chaired by Isaac C. Bates of Massachusetts and James Barbour of Virginia presided over the convention; the party nominated the popular retired general William Henry Harrison of Ohio for President, the most successful of the three Whig presidential candidates from the previous election. Harrison won a close victory on the convention's fifth ballot against party founder Henry Clay and General Winfield Scott. Harrison, though a aristocrat, was perceived as being simple and a commoner; the convention nominated former Senator John Tyler from Virginia for Vice President.
The two would go on to win the 1840 presidential election by defeating Van Buren. Because Harrison was considered a Northerner, the Whigs needed to balance the ticket with a Southerner, they sought a Clay supporter to help unite the party after Clay's loss on the balloting. Tyler was chosen by the convention after several Southern Clay supporters had been approached but refused. Tyler had been the running-mate of Hugh Lawson White and Willie Person Mangum during the four-way Whig campaign at the previous election. After the negative views of Freemasonry among a large segment of the public began to wane in the mid 1830s, the Anti-Masonic Party had begun to disintegrate, its leaders began to move one by one to the Whig party. Party leaders met in September 1837 in Washington, D. C. and agreed to maintain the party. The third Anti-Masonic Party National Convention was held in Philadelphia on November 13-14, 1838. By this time, the party had been entirely supplanted by the Whigs; the delegates unanimously voted to nominate William Henry Harrison for president and Daniel Webster for Vice President.
However, when the Whig National Convention nominated Harrison with John Tyler as his running mate, the Anti-Masonic Party did not make an alternate nomination and ceased to function and was absorbed into the Whigs by 1840. The Liberty Party was announced in November 1839, first gathered in Warsaw, New York, its first national convention took place in Arcade on April 1, 1840. The Liberty Party nominated James G. Birney, a Kentuckian, former slaveholder, prominent abolitionist, for President while Thomas Earle of Pennsylvania was selected as his running mate. In the wake of the Panic of 1837, Van Buren was unpopular, Harrison, following Andrew Jackson's strategy, ran as a war hero and man of the people while presenting Van Buren as a wealthy snob living in luxury at the public expense. Although Harrison was comfortably wealthy and well educated, his "log cabin" image caught fire, sweeping all sections of the country. Harrison avoided campaigning on the issues, with his Whig Party attracting a broad coalition with few common ideals.
The Whig strategy overall was to win the election by avoiding discussion of difficult national issues such as slavery or the national bank and concentrate instead on exploiting dissatisfaction over the failed policies of the Van Buren administration with colorful campaigning techniques. Harrison
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison Sr. was a United States military officer and politician who served as the ninth president of the United States in 1841. He died of paratyphoid fever 31 days into his term, he became the first president to die in office. His death sparked a brief constitutional crisis regarding succession to the presidency, as the Constitution was unclear as to whether Vice President John Tyler should assume the office of President or execute the duties of the vacant office. Tyler claimed a constitutional mandate to carry out the full powers and duties of the presidency and took the presidential oath of office, setting an important precedent for an orderly transfer of presidential power when a president leaves office. Harrison was a son of Founding Father Benjamin Harrison V and the paternal grandfather of Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd president, he was the last president born as a British subject in the Thirteen Colonies before the start of the Revolutionary War in 1775. During his early military career, he participated in the 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers, an American military victory that ended the Northwest Indian War.
He led a military force against Tecumseh's Confederacy at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, where he earned the nickname "Old Tippecanoe". He was promoted to major general in the Army in the War of 1812, in 1813 led American infantry and cavalry at the Battle of the Thames in Upper Canada. Harrison began his political career in 1798, when he was appointed Secretary of the Northwest Territory in 1798, in 1799 he was elected as the territory's delegate in the House of Representatives. Two years President John Adams named him governor of the newly established Indiana Territory, a post he held until 1812. After the War of 1812, he moved to Ohio where he was elected to represent the state's 1st district in the House in 1816. In 1824, the state legislature elected him to the United States Senate. Afterward, he returned to private life in Ohio until he was nominated as the Whig Party candidate for president in the 1836 election. Four years the party nominated him again with John Tyler as his running mate, the Whig campaign slogan was "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too".
They defeated Van Buren in the 1840 election. Harrison was 68 years, 23 days old at the time of his inauguration, the oldest person to have assumed office until Ronald Reagan in 1981 at 69 years, 349 days, Donald Trump in 2017 at 70 years, 220 days. Due to his brief tenure and historians forgo listing him in historical presidential rankings. However, historian William W. Freehling calls him "the most dominant figure in the evolution of the Northwest territories into the Upper Midwest today". Harrison was the seventh and youngest child of Benjamin Harrison V and Elizabeth Harrison, born on February 9, 1773 at Berkeley Plantation, the Harrison family home along the James River in Charles City County, Virginia, he was a member of a prominent political family of English descent whose ancestors had been in Virginia since the 1630s and the last American president born as a British subject. His father was a Virginia planter who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and who signed the Declaration of Independence.
His father served in the Virginia legislature and as the fifth governor of Virginia in the years during and after the American Revolutionary War. Harrison's older brother Carter Bassett Harrison represented Virginia in the House of Representatives. Harrison was tutored at home until age 14 when he entered Hampden–Sydney College, a Presbyterian college in Virginia, he studied there for three years, receiving a classical education which included Latin, French and debate. His Episcopalian father removed him from the college for religious reasons, he attended a boys' academy in Southampton County, Virginia before being transferred to Philadelphia in 1790, he boarded with Robert Morris and entered the University of Pennsylvania in April 1791, where he studied medicine under Doctor Benjamin Rush and William Shippen Sr. His father died in the spring of 1791, shortly, he was only 18 and Morris became his guardian. Governor Henry Lee III of Virginia was a friend of Harrison's father, persuaded Harrison to join the military.
He was commissioned as an ensign in the Army in the 1st Infantry Regiment within 24 hours of meeting Lee. He was assigned to Fort Washington, Cincinnati in the Northwest Territory where the army was engaged in the ongoing Northwest Indian War. Harrison was promoted to lieutenant after Major General "Mad Anthony" Wayne took command of the western army in 1792 following a disastrous defeat under Arthur St. Clair. In 1793, he learned how to command an army on the American frontier. Harrison was a signatory of the Treaty of Greenville as witness to Wayne, the principal negotiator for the U. S. Under the terms of the treaty, a coalition of Indians ceded a portion of their lands to the federal government, opening ⅔ of Ohio to settlement. Following his mother's death in 1793, Harrison inherited a portion of his family's Virginia estate
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Sewickley Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania
Sewickley Township is a township in Westmoreland County, United States. The population was 5,996 at the 2010 census; the Bells Mills Covered Bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 26.8 square miles, of which, 26.6 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. Sewickley Township has five land borders, including North Huntingdon Township to the north, Hempfield Township to the east and southeast, Madison borough to the east-southeast, South Huntingdon Township to the south, Sutersville borough to the southwest. Across the Youghiogheny River in Allegheny County to the west, Sewickley Township runs adjacent with Elizabeth Township; the CDP, Herminie resides within the township. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,996 people, 2,524 households, 1,722 families residing in the township; the population density was 225.4 people per square mile. There were 2,766 housing units at an average density of 104.0/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the township was 98.46% White, 0.37% African American, 0.31% Asian, 0.11% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.66% of the population. There were 2,524 households out of which 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.88. In the township the population was spread out with 19.9% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 20 to 24, 22.6% from 25 to 44, 32.2% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 98.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males. The median income for a household in the township was $32,677, the median income for a family was $45,847.
Males had a median income of $30,685 versus $20,263 for females. The per capita income for the township was $15,846. About 10.2% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.4% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over. New Sewickley Township, Beaver County, Pennsylvania North Sewickley Township, Beaver County, Pennsylvania
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 to 1877 in American history. It was a significant chapter in the history of American civil rights; the term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the American Civil War. Reconstruction ended the remnants of Confederate secession and ended slavery, making the newly-free slaves citizens with civil rights ostensibly guaranteed by three new Constitutional amendments. Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought. Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson both took moderate positions designed to bring the South back into the Union as as possible, while Radical Republicans in Congress sought stronger measures to upgrade the rights of African Americans, including the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, while curtailing the rights of former Confederates, such as through the provisions of the Wade–Davis Bill.
Johnson, a former Tennessee Senator, former slave owner, the most prominent Southerner to oppose the Confederacy, followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates. Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this. Johnson's interpretations of Lincoln's policies prevailed until the Congressional elections of 1866; those elections followed outbreaks of violence against blacks in the former rebel states, including the Memphis riots of 1866 and the New Orleans riot that same year. The subsequent 1866 election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the 14th Amendment, take control of Reconstruction policy, remove former Confederates from power, enfranchise the freedmen. A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U. S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau; the Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, set up schools and churches for them.
Thousands of Northerners came south as missionaries, teachers and politicians. Hostile whites began referring to these politicians as "carpetbaggers". In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature; the first bill extended the life of the bureau established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens with equality before the law. After Johnson vetoed the bills, Congress overrode his vetos, making the Civil Rights Act the first major bill in the history of the United States to become law through an override of a presidential veto; the Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges. The action failed by one vote in the Senate; the new national Reconstruction laws – in particular laws requiring suffrage for freedmen – incensed white supremacists in the South, giving rise to the Ku Klux Klan.
During 1867-69 the Klan murdered Republicans and outspoken freedmen in the South, including Arkansas Congressman James M. Hinds. Elected in 1868, Republican President Ulysses S. Grant supported Congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress. Grant used the Enforcement Acts to combat the Ku Klux Klan, wiped out, although a new incarnation of the Klan would again come to national prominence in the 1920s. President Grant was unable to resolve the escalating tensions inside the Republican Party between the Northerners on the one hand, those Republicans hailing from the South on the other. Meanwhile, "redeemers", self-styled conservatives in close cooperation with a faction of the Democratic Party opposed Reconstruction, they alleged widespread corruption by the "carpetbaggers", excessive state spending, ruinous taxes. Meanwhile, public support for Reconstruction policies, requiring continued supervision of the South, faded in the North after the Democrats, who opposed Reconstruction, regained control of the House of Representatives in 1874.
In 1877, as part of a Congressional bargain to elect Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president following the disputed 1876 presidential election, U. S. Army troops were withdrawn from the three states; this marked the end of Reconstruction. Historian Eric Foner argues: What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure. In different states Reconstruction ended at different times. In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the South as starting in 1863 rather than 1865; the usual ending for Reconstruction has always been 1877. Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the