Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
The Jackson 5
The Jackson 5 known as the Jacksons, were an American pop band composed of members of the Jackson family. The group was founded in 1964 in Gary, Indiana by brothers Jackie and Jermaine, with younger brothers Marlon and Michael Jackson joining soon after, they were among the first black American performers to attain a crossover following, preceded by the Supremes, the Four Tops, the Temptations. The Jackson 5 performed in talent shows and clubs on the Chitlin' Circuit signed with Steeltown Records in 1967 and released two singles. In 1968, they left Steeltown Records and signed with Motown, where they achieved 16 top-40 singles on the Hot 100; the group left Motown for Epic Records in 1975, with the exception of Jermaine, replaced by Randy. At Epic, they released five albums between 1976 and 1981, including the successful albums Destiny and Triumph and the singles "Enjoy Yourself", "Shake Your Body", "Can You Feel It"; the brothers released solo albums, most Michael, whose 1982 album Thriller became the best-selling album in history.
In 1983, Jermaine reunited with the band to perform on the Motown 25: Yesterday, Forever TV special. They released the Victory album the following year, followed by an extensive tour which featured songs from Michael's solo albums. After the Victory tour and Marlon Jackson left the group; the remaining four released the poorly received 2300 Jackson Street album in 1989 before being dropped from their label. In 2001, the Jacksons reunited on Michael's 30th anniversary television special; the four eldest of the brothers embarked on their Unity Tour in 2012 following Michael's death, they planned several major performances for 2017. The Jackson 5 have sold more than 100 million records worldwide, making them one of the best-selling bands of all time, they were inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997 and the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 1999. They were the first group to debut with four consecutive number one hits on the Hot 100 with the songs "I Want You Back", "ABC", "The Love You Save", "I'll Be There".
The five Jackson brothers' interest in music was bolstered by their father Joe Jackson. In 1962, Joe found Tito playing with his guitar after a string broke, he was impressed enough to buy him his own guitar. Tito and Jackie formed their own group, with Michael playing congas and childhood friends Reynaud Jones and Milford Hite playing keyboards and drums. Marlon joined on tambourine in August 1965, when Evelyn LaHaie suggested that the group name themselves the Jackson Five Singing Group. In 1965, the group won a talent show at Theodore Roosevelt High School in Indiana. Jermaine performed several Motown numbers, including the Temptations' "My Girl", Michael performed Robert Parker's "Barefootin'". Johnny Jackson and Ronnie Rancifer replaced Hite and Jones. After several more talent show wins, Joe Jackson booked his sons to perform at several respected music venues of the chitlin' circuit, including Chicago's Regal Theater and Harlem's Apollo Theater, winning the talent competitions on both shows in 1967.
They won the Apollo contest on August 13, 1967, Gladys Knight sent a tape of the boys' demo to Motown Records, hoping to get them to sign, but their tape was rejected and sent back. In November 1967, Joe Jackson signed the group's first contract with Gordon Keith, an owner and producer of Steeltown Records, the Jackson Five recorded and released the singles "Big Boy", sung by Michael, "We Don't Have to Be Over 21". During early 1968, the group performed at strip clubs on Joe's behest to earn extra income, they performed a week-long run of shows at the Regal Theater as the opening act for Bobby Taylor & the Vancouvers, Taylor sent them to Detroit to help with their Motown audition, set for July 23 at Motown's headquarters on Woodward Avenue. The taped audition was sent to Berry Gordy's office in Hollywood, but Gordy turned them down again, since he had Stevie Wonder in his spotlight, he changed his mind and the group signed a contract on March 11. Gordy sent them to Hollywood in July. Starting in August, the Jackson Five performed as the opening act for the Supremes, whose lead singer Diana Ross was planning to leave for a solo career at the end of the year, performing at the Daisy in Los Angeles and at the Miss Black America Pageant in New York.
The group recorded their first single "I Want You Back", written by the Corporation which consisted of Freddie Perren, Deke Richards, Alphonzo Mizell with Gordy as a fourth partner. In October, their first single for Motown was released and the group promoted it while performing at the Hollywood Palace with Ross hosting. In December, the brothers made their first appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show, their debut album Diana Ross Presents the Jackson 5 was released that same month. "I Want You Back" topped the Billboard Hot 100 in January, 1970. The Jackson 5 released two more number-one singles led by the Corporation: "ABC" and "The Love You Save"; the single "I'll Be There" was co-written and produced by Hal Davis and became the band's fourth number-one single, making them the first recording act to have their first four singles reach the top of the Hot 100, all four were as popular in other countries as they were in the United States. The group released a succession of four albums in one year and replaced the Supremes as Motown's best-selling group.
They continued their success with singles such as "Mama's Pearl", "Never Can Say Goodbye", "Sugar Daddy", giving them a total of seven top-ten singles within a two-year period. The Jackson Five became Motown's main marketing focus and the label ca
The Sun-Sentinel is the main daily newspaper of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, as well as surrounding Broward County and southern Palm Beach County. Owned by Tribune Publishing, it circulates all throughout the three counties that comprise South Florida, it is the largest-circulation newspaper in the area. Nancy Meyer has held the position of publisher and Julie Anderson has held the position of editor-in-chief since February 2018. For many years, the Sun-Sentinel targeted Broward County and provided only limited news coverage in Palm Beach County. However, in the late 1990s, it expanded its coverage to all of South Florida, including Miami-Dade and Palm Beach counties, in the late 1990s. In the former area, The Miami Herald is its primary competition, while in the latter area, The Palm Beach Post is the chief competition; the Sun-Sentinel emphasizes local news, through its Community Local sections. It has a daily circulation of 163,728 and a Sunday circulation of 228,906; the paper was awarded its first Pulitzer Prize in 2013, in the category of Public Service Journalism, for its investigative series about off-duty police officers who engage in regular reckless speeding.
The newspaper has been a finalist for a Pulitzer 13 times, including for its 2005 coverage of Hurricane Wilma and an investigation into the Federal Emergency Management Agency's mismanagement of hurricane aid. It produced a significant contribution to information graphics in the form of News Illustrated, a weekly full-page graphic that has received more than 30 international awards; the photography department has been a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize twice in the Spot News category. It was a finalist in 1982 for its coverage of a Haitian refugee boat disaster, again in 1999 for its powerful coverage of Hurricane Mitch in Central America; the Sun-Sentinel website has news video from two South Florida television stations: West Palm Beach's CBS affiliate WPEC and Miami and Fort Lauderdale CW affiliate WSFL-TV. It publishes a Spanish-language weekly, El Sentinel, as well as various community publications; the Sun-Sentinel traces its history to the 1910 founding of the Fort Lauderdale Weekly Herald, the first known newspaper in the Fort Lauderdale area, the Everglades Breeze, a locally printed paper founded in 1911, which promoted itself as "Florida's great Farm and Fruit Growing paper."
In 1925, the Everglades Breeze was renamed the Sentinel. That same year, two Ohio publishers bought both the Sentinel and the Herald, consolidating the newspapers into a daily publication called the Daily News and Evening Sentinel. In 1926, Horace and Tom Stillwell purchased the paper. However, the devastation wrought by the 1926 Miami hurricane caused circulation to drop and, in 1929, Tom Stillwell sold the paper to the Gore Publishing Company, headed by R. H. Gore, Sr. By 1945, circulation of the Daily News and Evening Sentinel had climbed to 10,000. In 1953, Gore Publishing changed the name of the paper to the Fort Lauderdale News and added a Sunday morning edition. In 1960, when the paper had a circulation of 60,000, Gore Publishing purchased the weekly Pompano Beach Sun and expanded it into a six-day morning paper, the Pompano Sun-Sentinel—thus reviving the "Sentinel" name it had discarded seven years earlier. In 1963, the Tribune Company acquired Gore Publishing. In the 1970s, the morning paper changed its name to the Fort Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel.
In 1982, the two papers merged their editorial staffs. The two papers merged into a single morning paper under the Fort Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel name. In 2000, after expanding its coverage, the paper changed its name to the South Florida Sun-Sentinel. In 2001, the Sun-Sentinel opened a full-time foreign bureau in Cuba. Shared with the Tribune Co. their Havana newsroom was the only permanent presence of any South Florida newspaper at the time. In 2002, the Sun-Sentinel began publishing El Sentinel; the newspaper is distributed free on Saturdays to Hispanic households in Broward and Palm Beach counties and is available in racks in both counties. It is available online at Elsentinel.com. In 2004, the paper won the Payne Award for Ethics in Journalism for its coverage of health and human services in the state. On August 17, 2008, the Sun-Sentinel unveiled a redesigned layout, with larger graphics, more color, a new large "S" logo; this is in tune with another Tribune newspaper, which redesigned its newspaper a few months and created a brand synergy with Tribune sister operation and CW affiliate WSFL-TV, which relocated its operations to the Sun-Sentinel offices in 2008 and adopted a logo matching the capital "S" in the new logo.
Since 2011 to present day, the newspaper made significant updates to meld print media with modern media. These advances include: launching the pure-play entertainment website SouthFlorida.com and starting a video channel called SunSentinel Originals. As a result of their media integration, the newspaper was named one of Editor & Publisher's "10 Newspapers That Do it Right"; the Sun-Sentinel gives annual awards to area businesses and business leaders, including Top Workplaces for People on the Move, Excalibur Award and others. In April 2013, the Sun-Sentinel won its first gold medal Pulitzer Prize for Public Service. In 2014 the Sun-Sentinel was named one of the "10 Newspapers That Do It Right" by Editor & Publisher magazine. Official website Today's Sun-Sentinel front page at the Newseum website
Panama City is the capital and largest city of Panama. It has an urban population of 880,691, with over 1.5 million in its metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of Panama; the city is the political and administrative center of the country, as well as a hub for banking and commerce. The city of Panama was founded on August 1519, by Spanish conquistador Pedro Arias Dávila; the city was the starting point for expeditions. It was a stopover point on one of the most important trade routes in the American continent, leading to the fairs of Nombre de Dios and Portobelo, through which passed most of the gold and silver that Spain took from the Americas. On January 28, 1671, the original city was destroyed by a fire when privateer Henry Morgan sacked and set fire to it; the city was formally reestablished two years on January 21, 1673, on a peninsula located 8 km from the original settlement. The site of the devastated city is still in ruins; the city was founded on August 15, 1519, by Pedro Arias de Ávila known as Pedrarias Dávila.
Within a few years of its founding, the city became a launching point for the exploration and conquest of Peru and a transit point for gold and silver headed back to Spain through the Isthmus. In 1671 Henry Morgan with a band of 1400 men attacked and looted the city, subsequently destroyed by fire; the ruins of the old city still remain and are a popular tourist attraction known as Panamá la Vieja. The city was rebuilt in 1673 in a new location 5 miles southwest of the original city; this location is now known as the Casco Viejo of the city. One year before the start of the California Gold Rush, the Panama Railroad Company was formed, but the railroad did not begin full operation until 1855. Between 1848 and 1869, the year the first transcontinental railroad was completed in the United States, about 375,000 persons crossed the isthmus from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 225,000 in the opposite direction; this traffic increased the prosperity of the city during that period. The construction of the Panama Canal was of great benefit to the economy.
Of particular note are the improvements in health and sanitation brought about by the American presence in the Canal Zone. Dr. William Gorgas, the chief sanitary officer for the canal construction, had a large impact, he hypothesized that diseases were spread by the abundance of mosquitos native to the area, ordered the fumigation of homes and the cleansing of water. This led to yellow fever being eradicated by November 1905, as well malaria rates falling dramatically. However, most of the laborers for the construction of the canal were brought in from the Caribbean, which created unprecedented racial and social tensions in the city. During World War II, construction of military bases and the presence of larger numbers of U. S. military and civilian personnel brought about unprecedented levels of prosperity to the city. Panamanians had limited access, or no access at all, to many areas in the Canal Zone neighboring the Panama city metropolitan area; some of these areas were military bases accessible only to United States personnel.
Some tensions arose between the people of Panama and the U. S. citizens living in the Panama Canal Zone. This erupted in 1964 events, known as Martyrs' Day. In the late 1970s through the 1980s the city of Panama became an international banking center, bringing a lot of undesirable attention as an international money-laundering locale. In 1989 after nearly a year of tension between the United States and Panama, President George H. W. Bush ordered the invasion of Panama to depose General Manuel Noriega, the country's de facto dictator; as a result, a portion of the El Chorrillo neighborhood, which consisted of old wood-framed buildings dating back to the 1900s, was destroyed by fire. In 1999, the United States transferred control of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama, which remains in control today; the city of Panama is still a banking center, although with visible controls in the flow of cash. Shipping is handled through port facilities in the area of Balboa operated by the Hutchison Whampoa Company of Hong Kong and through several ports on the Caribbean side of the isthmus.
Balboa, located within the greater Panama metropolitan area, was part of the Panama Canal Zone, the administration of the former Panama Canal Zone was headquartered there. Panamá is located between tropical rain forest in the northern part of Panama; the Parque Natural Metropolitano, stretching from Panama City along the Panama Canal, has unique bird species and other animals, such as tapir and caimans. At the Pacific entrance of the canal is the Centro de Exhibiciones Marinas, a research center for those interested in tropical marine life and ecology, managed by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Tropical forests around Panama are vital for the functioning of the Panama Canal, providing it with the water required for its operation. Due to the canal's importance to the Panamanian economy, tropical forests around the canal have been kept in an pristine state. Along the western side of the canal is the Parque Nacional Soberanía, which includes the Summit botanical gardens and a zoo; the best known trail in this national park is Pipeline Road, popular among birdwatchers.
Caguas, Puerto Rico
Caguas, founded in 1775, is a city and municipality of Puerto Rico located in the Central Mountain Range of Puerto Rico, south of San Juan and Trujillo Alto, west of Gurabo and San Lorenzo, east of Aguas Buenas and Cayey. Caguas is located 40 miles from Ponce, it is known as La Ciudad Criolla and La Cuna de los Trovadores. Its name originates from the Taíno cacique Caguax. Caguas is both a principal city of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area and the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. Caguas was founded on January 1, 1775, as San Sebastián del Piñal de Caguax, with the name shortened and modernized to its current form. Caguax was a local Taíno chief and early convert to Christianity. Caguas' construction was finished in 1779, in 1820 it was declared a valley and in 1894 it became a city; when after the Treaty of Paris, the U. S. conducted its first census of Puerto Rico, the population of Caguas was 19,857. In 2002, Caguas was the site of the 2002 USAF Hercules air disaster.
Caguas is located in the largest valley in Puerto Rico, the "Valle de Caguas" which it shares with Gurabo and part of Aguas Buenas. It is located 30 minutes from the coastline both on the east and the north, is divided from the Gurabo portion of the valley by the river of the same name, it is east of Aguas Buenas and Cidra, north of Cayey, south of San Juan, west of Gurabo and Trujillo Alto. It shares borders with Guayama and Patillas via a five-point border, with Cayey and San Lorenzo. At this point there are two tall antennas which provide signal to Puerto Rico's principal TV stations such as WKAQ-TV and WAPA-TV. No road passes at this point, it can be approached nearby through Puerto Rico Highway 184. Being a valley, Caguas has the distinction of being flat except near the borders with all the mentioned municipalities except Gurabo. Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017 triggered numerous landslides in Caguas with the significant amount of rain that fell; the Río Grande de Loíza divides this municipality from Gurabo.
Other Rivers: Río Turabo, Río Caguitas, Río Cañaboncito, Río Bairoa and Río Cañas. The climate is classified as a Tropical monsoon climate, meaning the daily mean temperature from month to month is never less than 64.4 °F, there is a distinct wet and dry season. Rainfall is common in relative abundance throughout most of the year, although there is less rain than in the eastern coastal valleys; the land, however, is deep. Like all municipalities of Puerto Rico, Caguas is subdivided into barrios: Botanical and Cultural Gardens Caguas Historical Museum Caguas Cathedral Coquí Villa Hacienda Catalina Ruins Hacienda Cofresí Hacienda Country Club Jardín Botánico y Cultural William Miranda Marín La Casa de Ajedrez Tobacco Museum Catedral Dulce Nombre de Jesus. Rosario Cantado a los Reyes – 4 January Three Kings Festival – 5 January Criolla Beatriz – February Criolla Borinquen Fair – March Criolla Cañabón Fair – April Felipe "La Voz" Rodríguez' Birthday – 8 May Al Fresco – Every last Friday of each month Cross Festival – 23–31 May Typical Criole Festival – 1–2 June Latin American Musical The Criollos de Caguas baseball team is considered one of the greatest of all-time in all of Latin America, having won 18 national Puerto Rico titles and 5 Caribbean World Series titles The team is a member of the Liga de Béisbol Profesional de Puerto Rico.
Three of the first five Puerto Ricans that played Major League Baseball in the U. S. mainland, at one point in their careers played for the Criollos de Caguas. The Criollos de Caguas basketball team, founded in 1968 by Dr. Héctor "Tato" Dávila and Lcdo. Libertario Pérez Rodríguez, was a basketball team that did not enjoy as much success as their baseball counterparts. However, in the early 2000s, they showed a lot of progress by reaching the national playoffs various times; the team was a member of the BSN. In 2006, the team won its first BSN national basketball championship, defeating Flor Melendez and his Santurce Crabbers in five games. Caguas is home to the Bairoa Gym, one of the most important boxing gyms in all Puerto Rico and a place where many visiting champions have trained at; the Criollas de Caguas women's volleyball team has won 9 national Puerto Rico titles and has made it to the finals more than 15 times. The team is a member of the Liga de Voleibol Superior Femenino; the Criollos de Caguas FC soccer team is considered one of the most successful clubs in the island winning multiple tournaments and cups in Puerto Rican soccer including the National League Title in 2015.
In September 2005, city mayor William Miranda Marin levied the first municipal tax in Puerto Rico via city ordinance. Area merchants now charge a one cent tax for every dollar spent at all retail businesses; the tax has become known around the island as the "Willie Tax." It resulted in an estimated $500,000 monthly income for the city. However, the municipal tax was increased to 1.5% after the establishment of the 5.5% state tax for a total of 7% and the tax was declared illegal by the Puerto Rico's Supreme Court. During 2006, Miranda Marin began calling Caguas "El Nuevo Pais de Caguas". During the early part of the 20th century, Caguas hosted one of Puerto Rico's most important sugar manufacturers, which gave employment to t
Panama the Republic of Panama, is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half the country's 4 million people. Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Spanish colonists arrived in the 16th century, it broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined the Republic of Gran Colombia, a union of Nueva Granada and Venezuela. After Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada became the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the construction of the Panama Canal to be completed by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914; the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties led to the transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama on December 31, 1999. Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce and tourism are major and growing sectors.
It is regarded as a high-income country. In 2015 Panama ranked 60th in the world in terms of the Human Development Index. In 2018, Panama was ranked seventh-most competitive economy in Latin America, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index. Covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panama's jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them found nowhere else on the planet. Panama is a founding member of the United Nations and other international organizations such as OAS, LAIA, G77, WHO and NAM; the definite origin of the name Panama is unknown. There are several theories. One postulates that the country was named after a found species of tree. Another that the first settlers arrived in Panama in August, when butterflies abound, that the name means "many butterflies" in one or several of indigenous Amerindian languages that were spoken in the territory prior to Spanish colonization. Most scientifically corroborated theory, that by Panamanian linguists, states that the word is a hispanicization of Kuna language word "bannaba" which means "distant" or "far away".
A relayed legend in Panama is that there was a fishing village that bore the name "Panamá", which purportedly meant "an abundance of fish", when the Spanish colonizers first landed in the area. The exact location of the village is unspecified; the legend is corroborated by Captain Antonio Tello de Guzmán's diary entries, who reports landing at an unnamed village while exploring the Pacific coast of Panama in 1515. In 1517, Don Gaspar de Espinosa, a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post in the same location Guzmán described. In 1519, Pedrarias Dávila decided to establish the Spanish Empire's Pacific port at the site; the new settlement replaced Santa María La Antigua del Darién, which had lost its function within the Crown's global plan after the Spanish exploitation of the riches in the Pacific began. The official definition and origin of the name as promoted by Panama's Ministry of Education is the "abundance of fish and butterflies"; this is the usual description given in social studies textbooks.
At the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the known inhabitants of Panama included the Cuevas and the Coclé tribes. These people have nearly disappeared; the Isthmus of Panama was formed about three million years ago when the land bridge between North and South America became complete, plants and animals crossed it in both directions. The existence of the isthmus affected the dispersal of people and technology throughout the American continent from the appearance of the first hunters and collectors to the era of villages and cities; the earliest discovered artifacts of indigenous peoples in Panama include Paleo-Indian projectile points. Central Panama was home to some of the first pottery-making in the Americas, for example the cultures at Monagrillo, which date back to 2500–1700 BC; these evolved into significant populations best known through their spectacular burials at the Monagrillo archaeological site, their beautiful Gran Coclé style polychrome pottery. The monumental monolithic sculptures at the Barriles site are important traces of these ancient isthmian cultures.
Before Europeans arrived Panama was settled by Chibchan and Cueva peoples. The largest group were the Cueva; the size of the indigenous population of the isthmus at the time of European colonization is uncertain. Estimates range as high as two million people, but more recent studies place that number closer to 200,000. Archaeological finds and testimonials by early European explorers describe diverse native isthmian groups exhibiting cultural variety and suggesting people developed by regular regional routes of commerce; when Panama was colonized, the indigenous peoples fled into nearby islands. Scholars believe that infectious disease was the primary cause of the population decline of American natives; the indigenous peoples had no acquired immunity to diseases, chronic in Eurasian populations for centuries. Rodrigo de Bastidas sailed westward from Venezuela in 1501 in search of gold, became the first European to explore the isthmus of Panama. A year Christopher Columbus visited the isthmus, established a short-lived settlement in the Darien.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa's tortuous
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced