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Edge (magazine)

Edge is a multi-format video game magazine published by Future plc in the United Kingdom, which publishes 13 issues of the magazine per year. The magazine was launched in October 1993 by Steve Jarratt, a long-time video games journalist who has launched several other magazines for Future; the artwork for the cover of the magazine's 100th issue was specially provided by Shigeru Miyamoto. The 200th issue was released in March 2009 with 200 different covers, each commemorating a single game. Only 200 magazines were printed with each cover, sufficient to more than satisfy Edge's circulation of 28,898. In October 2003, the then-editor of Edge, João Diniz-Sanches, left the magazine along with deputy editor David McCarthy and other staff writers. After the walkout, the editorship of Edge passed back to Tony Mott, editor prior to Diniz-Sanches; the only team member to remain was Margaret Robertson. In May 2007, Robertson stepped down as editor and was replaced by Tony Mott, taking over as editor for the third time.

Between 1995 and 2002, some of the content from the UK edition of Edge was published in the United States as Next Generation. In 2007, Future's US subsidiary, Future US began re-publishing selected recent Edge features on the Next Generation website. In July 2008, the whole site was rebranded under the Edge title, as, the senior of the two brands. In May 2014 it was reported that Future intended to close the websites of Edge and Video Games and their other videogame publications. Edge has been redesigned three times; the first redesign occurred in 1999. The first redesign altered the magazine's dimensions to be wider than the original shape; the latest design changes the magazine's physical dimensions for the second time, introduces a higher quality of paper stock than was used. Each issue includes a "Making-of" article on a particular game including an interview with one of the original developers. Issue 143 introduced the "Time Extend" series of retrospective articles. Like the "making-of" series, each focuses on a single game and, with the benefit of hindsight, gives an in-depth examination of its most interesting or innovative attributes."Codeshop" examines more technical subjects such as 3D modelling programs or physics middleware, while "Studio Profile" and "University Profile" are single-page summaries of particular developers or publishers, game-related courses at higher education institutions.

Although an overall list of contributors is printed in each issue's indicia, the magazine has not used bylines to credit individual writers to specific reviews and articles, instead only referring to the anonymous Edge as a whole. Since 2014, some contributed; the magazine's regular columnists have been credited throughout the magazine's run. The current columnists are Clint Hocking and Tadhg Kelly. In addition, several columnists appear toward the beginning of the magazine to talk about the game industry as a whole, rather than focusing on specific game design topics, they are Trigger Happy author Steven Poole, Leigh Alexander, Brian Howe, whose parody article section "You're Playing It Wrong" began with the new redesign. Previous columnists have included Paul Rose, Toshihiro Nagoshi of Sega's Amusement Vision, author Tim Guest, N'Gai Croal, game developer Jeff Minter. In addition, numerous columns were published anonymously under the pseudonym "RedEye", several Japanese writers contributed to a regular feature called "Something About Japan".

James Hutchinson's comic strip Crashlander was featured in Edge between issues 143 and 193. Edge scores games on a ten-point scale, from a minimum of 1 to a maximum of 10, with five as ostensibly the average rating. For much of the magazine's run, the magazine's review policy stated that the scores broadly correspond to one of the following "sentiments": 1 – disastrous 2 – appalling 3 – flawed 4 – disappointing 5 – average 6 – competent 7 – distinguished 8 – excellent 9 – astounding 10 – revolutionary However, with issue 143 the scoring system was changed to a simple list of "10 = ten, 9 = nine..." and so on, a tongue-in-cheek reference to people who read too much into review scores. It was three years before Edge gave a game a rating of ten out of ten, to date the score has been given to twenty-one games: In contrast, only two titles have received a one-out-of-ten rating, Kabuki Warriors and FlatOut 3: Chaos & Destruction. In a December 2002 retro gaming special, Edge retrospectively awarded ten-out-of-ten ratings to two titles released before the magazine's launch: Elite Exile Edge awarded a 10/10 score in one of the regular retrospective reviews in the magazine's normal run: Super Mario Bros.

In Edge's 10th anniversary issue in 2003, GoldenEye 007 was included as one of the magazine's top ten shooters, along with a note that it was "the only other game" that should have received a ten out of ten rating. The game had been awarded a nine out of ten, with the magazine stating that "a ten was considered, but rejected". Resident Evil 4, whi

La NaciĆ³n (Chile)

La Nación is a Chilean newspaper created in 1917 by Eliodoro Yáñez and presided until 1927 by Carlos Dávila. It was a private company until 1927, when it was expropriated by president Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, since has remained a state property, it is owned by Empresa Periodística La Nación S. A. which in turn is 69% owned by the State of Chile. Is published by the SA La Nacion newspaper company that publishes the Official Journal of the Republic of Chile. Company revenues come from sales of the Official Journal and the printing division of the company, the market share of the newspaper is marginal, due to its low circulation; the newspaper La Nacion was created in 1917 as a way to deliver information and compete with other newspapers of Santiago. According to its founder, Eliodoro Yáñez, should give "priority attention to social problems affecting the population that represents the activity of labor and economic progress."In July 1927, during his dictatorial regime, General Carlos Ibanez del Campo expropriated the newspaper, which became the medium and official government spokesman.

After that, its rightful owner, Eliodoro Yanez, left Chile, remaining in exile until 1931. Back in his country, its efforts to recover the newspaper La Nacion were in vain and died in 1933, without receiving compensation for the expropriation of the incident; until today the Chilean State has not assumed debt to the descendants of Eliodoro Yáñez, as regards the daily La Nación. The newspaper circulated continuously until September 11, 1973, six days after the newspaper was operated by the Armed Forces of Chile and was renamed La Patria, in 1975, El Cronista. Only on June 3, 1980, again called La Nación as such, their numbers continued as normal. During the 1980s, La Nación became the official means the government of Augusto Pinochet, on several occasions including various writings and publications of a propaganda, and imitating the model imposed by the magazine Ercilla, began delivering free books from leading writers. In a fierce defense of the military government, a day to day, in 12 March 1990, the newspaper changed to a center-left line.

5 and March 6, 1991, La Nacion published in full the "Rettig Report", released by President Patricio Aylwin on March 4 that year. During the 1990s, the nation will achieve sales soaring at times when it published the results of the Scholastic Aptitude Test, the SIMCE, or housing subsidies. At present, the results of the University Selection Test are published by El Mercurio, those in SIMCE by La Tercera, the housing subsidy by La Cuarta. In 2009, the presidential candidate Sebastián Piñera, the center-right Coalition for Change, showed their displeasure with the coverage that The Nation was the candidate of the Concertación, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, who had become manifest "firmly convinced that the best thing for Chile is to close the newspaper La Nación", In addition to preventing journalists from entering the newspaper to a massive campaign event held in the Arena Santiago. However, after that, Piñera recanted, stating that "The Nation newspaper will be a pluralistic and will have a similar status and similar to TVN", confirmed after his election by his spokeswoman, Ena von Baer.

The day I took office Piñera, 11 March 2010, was appointed new directors at the Company Journalistic La Nación SA, all close to the Coalition for Change, Daniel Platovsky, who became president of the board, Cristina Bitar, Hernán Larraín Matte and Gonzalo Müller. The company is owned daily Empresa Periodística La Nación, a company formed by shares Class A and B. Class B shares are in the hands of the state; the remaining 31% for Class A shares are owned by the company Colliguay SA composed of three individuals. Official site

Gaddafi loyalism

Gaddafi loyalism refers to sympathetic sentiment towards the overthrown government of Muammar Gaddafi, killed in October 2011. It has been responsible for some of the ongoing violence in Libya, though the degree of its involvement has been disputed in a number of instances. Sympathy for Gaddafi and his fallen government is viewed rather negatively by current Libyan authorities—both the legal government and extralegal militias—and parts of general society in postwar Libya, accusations of it can provoke harsh responses. In May 2012, the democratically elected postwar government passed legislation imposing severe penalties for anyone giving favourable publicity to Gaddafi, his family, their regime or ideas, as well as anything denigrating the new government and its institutions or otherwise judged to be damaging to public morale. Derisively called tahloob by anti-Gaddafi Libyans, suspected loyalists have faced strong persecution following the war. Around 7,000 loyalist soldiers, as well as civilians accused of support for Gaddafi are being held in government prisons.

Amnesty International has reported large scale torture and other mistreatment and executions, of those perceived as enemies of the new government. Reports and rumours of organised pro-Gaddafi activity have persisted since the war's end; the Libyan Popular National Movement was organised in exile on 15 February 2012 by former officials in the Gaddafi government. The party, banned from participating in Libyan elections, may have cultivated links with armed pro-Gaddafi groups in Libya. Statements from the party sometimes appear on websites affiliated with the so-called "Green Resistance", a term sometimes used by sympathisers to refer to supposed pro-Gaddafi militant groups. Following Gaddafi's fall, several states, such as Venezuela, refused to accept the National Transitional Council as the legitimate government, opting to continue recognising the former Gaddafi government. In Libya, loyalists either went into hiding to avoid prosecutions. Shortly before his capture, Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam appeared on Syrian pro-Gaddafi television on 22 October in an attempt to rally remaining loyalists claiming "I am in Libya, I am alive and free and willing to fight to the end and take revenge."

Several days of fighting between fighters from Zawiya and fighters from Warshefana erupted in early November after the fighters from Warshefana set up a checkpoint on a highway near Zawiya and began challenging fighters from the city. Other reports stated that the groups were fighting over the Imaya military base, with Zawiya fighters claiming to be fighting Gaddafi loyalists. Zawiya field commander Walid bin Kora claimed that the Warshefana, riding in vehicles with "Brigade of the Martyr Muhammad Gaddafi" written on them and flying Gaddafi's green flag, had attacked his men, he claimed that his men captured pro-Gaddafi "mercenaries" from sub-Saharan Africa. NTC figures, denied that they were Gaddafi loyalists, blaming the clashes instead on a misunderstanding; the fighting resulted in between 14 dead. The National Transitional Council claimed to have resolved the issue over the weekend of the 12 and 13 November following a meeting with elders from Zawiya and Warshefana. On 19 November, Saif al-Islam and four loyalist fighters were captured west of the town of Ubari near Sabha in southern Libya.

A nomad, hired to guide them in their planned escape to Niger secretly told government forces where Saif al-Islam and his two-vehicle convoy would be passing through. Acting on this information, the Zintan brigade arrested them on sight. Saif al-Islam was taken to Zintan by plane and, pending trial, he is kept in detention by the Zintan militia. On 23 November, clashes erupted as a National Transitional Council militia tried to apprehend a suspected loyalist in Bani Walid, one of the last pro-Gaddafi strongholds in the civil war. At least seven people were reported killed, five of them NTC militia. In January 2012, residents of Sirte, Gaddafi's hometown, attacked a military camp associated with the NTC on the outskirts of the city. On 1 April, between 21 and 34 Zuwara militiamen were detained by members of a neighbouring town's militia. Fighters from Ragdalein stated that they captured the men after months of abuses by a Zuwara brigade, including the looting of property. For their part, the Zuwara local council head accused Ragdalein of being a hub of Gaddafi loyalists.

A third version of the events came from the government Interior Ministry which stated that the trouble started when a Zuwara hunting party close to nearby al-Jumail shot and killed a person from that town by mistake. The hunters were arrested but released later. Another Zuwara council head claimed that the men were tortured before being released and stated that Zuwara came under mortar and anti-aircraft fire by militias from both Ragdalein and al-Jumail. On 3 April, reports emerged that the fighting in the Zuwara area was still continuing with at least one Zuwara militiaman killed and five wounded; the losses for militia from Ragdalein and al-Jumail were not known. Clashes were reported at the entrance to Ragdalein. At least 14 were 80 injured. On 4 April, the fighting escalated with the use of tanks and artillery; the reported number of dead was said to had risen to 26, eight from Zuwarah and 18 from the outlying towns, another 142 Zuwarans were wounded. Unconfirmed reports rose up the death toll to 48 killed in the clashes.

BBC News aired a report on the story. The report aired an interview with a wounded man from Zarawa, claiming to have been attacked by what he