Proportional representation characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. If n% of the electorate support a particular political party roughly n% of seats will be won by that party; the essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result - not just a plurality, or a bare majority. The most prevalent forms of proportional representation all require the use of multiple-member voting districts, as it is not possible to fill a single seat in a proportional manner. In fact, the implementations of PR that achieve the highest levels of proportionality tend to include districts with large numbers of seats; the most used families of PR electoral systems are party list PR, the single transferable vote, mixed member proportional representation. With party list PR, political parties define candidate voters vote for a list; the relative vote for each list determines how many candidates from each list are elected. Lists can be "closed" or "open".
Voting districts can be as large as a province or an entire nation. The single transferable vote uses small multiple-member districts, with voters ranking individual candidates in order of preference. During the count, as candidates are elected or eliminated, surplus or discarded votes that would otherwise be wasted are transferred to other candidates according to the preferences. STV enables voters to elect independent candidates. Mixed member proportional representation called the additional member system, is a two-tier mixed electoral system combining a non-proportional plurality/majoritarian election and a compensatory regional or national party list PR election. Voters have two votes, one for their single-member district and one for the party list, the party list vote determining the balance of the parties in the elected body. According to the ACE Electoral Knowledge Network, some form of proportional representation is used for national lower house elections in 94 countries. Party list PR, being used in 85 countries, is the most used.
MMP is used in seven lower houses. STV, despite long being advocated by political scientists, is used in only two: Ireland, since independence in 1922, Malta, since 1921; as with all electoral systems, both accepted and opposing claims are made about the advantages and disadvantages of PR. The case for proportional representation was made by John Stuart Mill in his 1861 essay Considerations on Representative Government: In a representative body deliberating, the minority must of course be overruled, but does it follow that the minority should have no representatives at all?... Is it necessary that the minority should not be heard? Nothing but habit and old association can reconcile any reasonable being to the needless injustice. In a equal democracy, every or any section would be represented, not disproportionately, but proportionately. A majority of the electors would always have a majority of the representatives, but a minority of the electors would always have a minority of the representatives.
Man for man, they would be as represented as the majority. Unless they are, there is not equal government... There is a part whose fair and equal share of influence in the representation is withheld from them, contrary to all just government, above all, contrary to the principle of democracy, which professes equality as its root and foundation. Many academic political theorists agree with Mill, that in a representative democracy the representatives should represent all segments of society. PR tries to resolve the unfairness of majoritarian and plurality voting systems where the largest parties receive an "unfair" "seat bonus" and smaller parties are disadvantaged and have difficulty winning any representation at all; the established parties in UK elections can win formal control of the parliament with as little as 35% of votes. In certain Canadian elections, majority governments have been formed by parties with the support of under 40% of votes cast. If turnout levels in the electorate are less than 60%, such outcomes allow a party to form a majority government by convincing as few as one quarter of the electorate to vote for it.
In the 2005 UK election, for example, the Labour Party under Tony Blair won a comfortable parliamentary majority with the votes of only 21.6% of the total electorate. Such misrepresentation has been criticized as "no longer a question of'fairness' but of elementary rights of citizens". Note intermediate PR systems with a high electoral threshold, or other features that reduce proportionality, are not much fairer: in the Turkish general election, 2002, using an open list system with a 10% threshold, 46% of votes were wasted. Plurality/majoritarian systems can disproportionately benefit regional parties that can win districts where they have a strong following, while other parties with national support but no strongholds, like the Greens, win few or no seats. An example is the Bloc Québécois in Canada that won 52 seats in the 1993 federal election, all in Quebec, on 13.5% of the national vote, while the Progressive Conservatives collapsed to two seats on 16% spread nationally. In the 2015 UK General Election, the Scottish National Party gained 56 seats, all in Sc
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Inverleith is an inner suburb in the north of Edinburgh, Scotland, on the fringes of the central region of the city. Its neighbours include Trinity to the north and the New Town to the south, with Canonmills at the south-east and Stockbridge at the south-west. Like a great many places in and around Lothian and Edinburgh, the name comes from Scottish Gaelic – Inbhir Lìte, meaning "Mouth of Leith", as with Inverness, meaning mouth of the River Ness; some documents refer to the area as "Inner Leith". It is characterised by its wealth of open green space; the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Inverleith Park, in addition to the numerous playing fields owned and used by the independent schools Edinburgh Academy, Fettes College, Stewart's Melville College and George Heriot's. The Royal Botanic Gardens' nursery garden, for growing and cultivating plants, is located here. Within Inverleith, there are few shops and offices, it is entirely a residential and recreational area. Today Inverleith is home to houses being sold in excess of one million pounds sterling.
These include Scotland's most expensive penthouses, selling for £1.5m, a renovated villa, which sold for over two million pounds sterling. The houses are handsome and spacious Victorian or Edwardian villas with two or three floors and quite large gardens; the residents tend to be employed in professions in central Edinburgh. It is convenient for such workers, as it lies a half from the centre. Being on grounds higher than the centre, it commands views of the Edinburgh skyline, including Edinburgh Castle and Arthur's Seat, it has one of the lowest crime rates in the city. Within the area are Fettes College, an independent boarding school where former British prime minister Tony Blair was educated, the state-run Broughton High School. Edinburgh Academy, an independent day school where the previous British Lord Chancellor Lord Falconer was educated, is located nearby in the north of the New Town. Inverleith was for over two centuries owned by the Rocheid family, it changed hands when Mary married Sir Francis Kinloch, 3rd Baronet, of Gilmerton.
Their son Alexander inherited the entire Inverleith estates, changed his surname to become Alexander Rocheid of Inverleith. Alexander and his descendants spent most of their time in Germany, the Inverleith estate was leased. In 1774, Inverleith House was built, to designs by the architect David Henderson. Alexander's son James Rocheid of Inverleith leased Inverleith Mains at the beginning of the 19th century to George Lauder, Comptroller of the City of Edinburgh's Tolls, the great-grandfather of Sir Harry Lauder. In late 1823, George Lauder, described as the tenant farmer of Inverleith Mains, agreed with James Rocheid of Inverleith to a reversion of part of his leasehold lands, 11.5 Scots acres, for the site of the Royal Botanic Garden, located on Leith Walk. Known as "The Botanics", the new site was opened in May 1824, comprising a large and varied set of gardens or parks with a wide range of plants, from around the world, in the open and in greenhouses. There is a Chinese-themed garden, an extensive landscaped rock garden, a large palm house, since its opening in July 2006, an official memorial of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, opened by Queen Elizabeth.
It is maintained as a popular tourist attraction, local leisure amenity, scientific research centre. In 1889 the City acquired South Inverleith Mains Farm from the Rocheid family to create Inverleith Park, adjacent to the Royal Botanic Gardens; this includes allotments and a well maintained pond, popular for use by model boat enthusiasts and well populated with water birds and kingfishers. The park the site of French boule competitions. Cricket, rugby union and football matches are played there as well. There are tennis and volleyball courts maintained by Edinburgh Council and a safe play area for toddlers; the park has hosted the Edinburgh International Science Festival, is used as a viewing area for fireworks set off over central Edinburgh. In early 2018, the Kinloch Anderson Sundial, gifted to the City of Edinburgh in 1890, was restored as the result of an approach from the Friends of Inverleith Park to Kinloch Anderson; the company restored the sundial to mark its 150th anniversary. The park has played host as a shooting location for feature films such as Chariots of Fire and Dark Sense.
Rev James Black William Charles Daniel Ellis Cosmo Innes Horatio McCulloch James Pillans Robert Louis Stevenson In 1897 land at Inverleith was purchased by the Scottish Rugby Union. Thus the organisation became the first of the "Home Unions" to own its own ground; the first visitors were Ireland, on 18 February 1899 when the score was Scotland 3 — Ireland 9. International rugby was played at Inverleith until 1925 when it was transferred to Murrayfield Stadium; the parts of the land at Inverleith are now owned by Stewart's Melville College and The Edinburgh Academy. They are used as playing fields for cricket/athletics in the summer; the park is home to Edinburgh Northern RFC, with home matches taking place on the pitch closest to East Fettes Avenue. The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, by Harold R Fletcher and William H Brown, HMSO, Edinburgh, 1970, ISBN 0-11-490425-1 Bartholomew's Chronological map of Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
Sighthill is a suburb in the west of Edinburgh, Scotland. Edinburgh College and Edinburgh Napier University's Sighthill Campuses are based here. There is a medical centre, a library and a fire station, as well as some small shops; the Calder Road, one of the city's main arteries, runs by Sighthill, the Edinburgh-Glasgow & Stirling railway line is nearby. The area is bordered by Broomhouse to the east, South Gyle to the north and the Calders to the west and Wester Hailes to the south, it is sometimes included in the Wester Hailes area. For nearly 50 years, the West Edinburgh skyline was dominated by 4 high rise residential tower blocks; the 10-story block Broomview House was demolished on Sunday 21 September 2008 by Safedem Ltd. The flats came down at 11:15am in a controlled explosion where a longstanding former resident pushed the ceremonial button to implode the building; the remaining three blocks were demolished on Sunday 25 September 2011 at 11:15am. All of the remaining low-rise council-built properties have been demolished to make way for new lower level social housing.
Sighthill has been used as a location for television productions. The most notable production to be filmed in Sighthill was the 1998 BBC Scotland television drama Looking After Jo Jo which featured Robert Carlyle in the title role and was filmed in and around North Sighthill and Niddrie. Other notable film and television productions to be filmed in Sighthill include Quite Ugly One Morning starring James Nesbitt and an adaptation of the Christopher Brookmyre novel and Trouble Sleeping - a tale of a Palestinian refugee struggling to survive in the UK. More the flats in Sighthill have been used as backdrop for the film Outcast a Celtic supernatural thriller once again starring James Nesbitt and released in 2010. Lothian Buses provides 12 buses to the area: 3 Wester Hailes - Sighthill - Gorgie - Haymarket - Princes Street - Newington - Gilmerton - Dalkeith/Mayfield 18 Gyle Centre - Sighthill - Wester Hailes - Colinton - Oxgangs - Fairmilehead - Gracemount - Gilmerton - Royal Infirmary - Niddrie - Fort Kinnaird 20 Ratho - Gyle Centre - Hermiston Gait - Sighthill - Wester Hailes - Kingsknowe - Longstone - Slateford 21 Wester Hailes - Sighthill - Corstorphine - Clermiston - Ferry Road - Leith - Lochend - Portobello - Niddrie - Royal Infirmary 25 Riccarton - Sighthill - Gorgie - Haymarket - Princes Street - Leith - Lochend - Restalrig 34 Riccarton - Sighthill - Longstone - Slateford - Fountainpark - Lothian Road - Princes Street - Lochend - Leith - Ocean Terminal 36 Gyle Centre - Sighthill - Longstone - Glenlockheart - Morningside - West End - Cannonmills - Bonnington - Leith - Ocean Terminal 63 Riccarton - Sighthill - Gyle Centre - Ratho Station - Newbridge - Kirkliston - South Queensferry 109 Longstone - Sighthill - Ratho - East Calder - Livingston - Deans South This service only runs between 3:30AM till 6:30AM during the week, it is the only Lothian service to run West LothianAirlink 300 Edinburgh Airport - Ingliston - Gyle Centre - Sighthill - Slateford - Fountainpark - Bristo Square - Holyrood - Easter Road - Leith - Ocean Terminal N25 Riccarton - Hermiston P&R - Sighthill - Gorgie - Haymarket - Waterloo Place N34 Riccarton - Hermiston P&R - Sighthill - Longstone - Slateford - Fountainpark - Lothian Road - Waterloo Place Jamie Walker, footballer.
Scott McLaren, soldier from 4th Battalion the Royal Regiment of Scotland, killed by the Taliban in July 2011. Sighthill Stadium Stevenson College Broomview House being demolished Contractor's demolition website, specific to Sighthill
Fountainbridge is an area of Edinburgh, Scotland, a short distance west of the city centre, adjoining Tollcross and West Port to the east, Polwarth to the west and south and Haymarket to the north and Gorgie and North Merchiston to the west. The main streets through the area are Fountainbridge and Dundee Street; the Union Canal which continued a short distance north-eastwards to Port Hopetoun at Lothian Road now terminates at the Lochrin Basin. The canal to the south and the route of the former Caledonian Railway to the north continue to define the area. Originating as a new suburb created on the Dalry estate after 1696, the name "Fountainbridge" appears on John Laurie's A plan of the County of Mid-Lothian of 1763. According to the Edinburgh Evening Courant newspaper in 1774 the name derived from the Foullbridge Well of "singularly sweet water", south of the road and east of a burn and bridge 20 yards east of Gilmore Park. An earlier reference to the "lands of "Foulbriggs" exists from 1512. "Foul", pronounced "fool" in Scots and encountered in the names of fords, signified "muddy", "briggs" may have indicated the presence of another bridge further west on the Lanark Road.
West Fountainbridge was named in 1869 and its western extension Dundee Street in 1885. From the early 19th century until the late 20th century Fountainbridge was home to two of the city's major industries and a mixture of working-class tenement housing, which in part degenerated into some of the worst of the city's slums between the 1930s and the 1960s. Before being elected Prime Minister in 1964 the Labour Party leader Harold Wilson toured the area and promised major redevelopment under a Labour government, though this did not take place for another generation. In 1856 a wealthy US entrepreneur, Henry Lee Norris, established the North British Rubber Company in the buildings of the former Castle Silk Mill alongside the Union Canal; the company's Castle Mill premises covered 20 acres of land in the area and employed thousands of workers over five generations in manufacturing a variety of products from galoshes and rubber Wellington boots to solid rubber wheels for Thomson steam traction engines, pneumatic tyres and hot-water bottles.
The company's design for trench boots, chosen by the War Office during the Great War, led to a lucrative government contract which saw the firm supplying up to 2750 pairs a day, reaching a total of 1.2 million pairs by the end of the war. Similar contracts resulted in the production of 1/4 of a million pairs of gymshoes, 47,000 pairs of heavy snow boots for the French Army, 16,000 tyres and 2.5 million feet of hosepipe. The Second World War brought another boom with the production of millions of civilian gas masks and barrage-balloon fabric. In 1958, the company produced Britain's first traffic cones for the M6 motorway; the United States Rubber Company took control of the company. The United States Rubber Company was renamed Uniroyal in 1961 and North British took on this name when taken-over in 1966. In that year, Uniroyal relocated the tyre manufacture to Newbridge outside Edinburgh. In 1957 Castle Mills began the production of Royalite thermoplastic sheeting. In 1967 Royalite production was moved to a new factory adjacent to the tyre plant at Newbridge.
The manufacture of PowerGrip drive belts was relocated to the former Arrol-Johnston factory at Heathhall, Dumfries around 1970. All that remained at Castle Mills was the hose factory which continued until its closure in late 1973. Another company which established itself in Fountainbridge in 1856 was McEwan's Brewery; the site on the north side of Fountainbridge and Dundee Street was chosen because of its proximity to both the Union Canal and the new line of the Caledonian Railway. Within five years, the firm's annual turnover was £40,000 and it went on to become one of the market leaders in the Scottish brewing industry over the next century. In 1973, as a result of a £13 million investment, a new Fountain Brewery was opened on the south side of Fountainbridge on the former site of the North British Rubber Company's premises. Redevelopment of the area began with the construction of the Fountain Park leisure centre on former brewery ground on the north side of Dundee Street in 1998; this multi-purpose complex includes ten-pin bowling.
Closure of the Fountainbridge brewery was announced in 2004 with the entire 22 acre site decommissioned and demolished between and 2006 and 2011 as part of a wider redevelopment and regeneration programme which had begun with Edinburgh Quay at the Lochrin Basin on the canal in 2004. In 2012, construction of new student accommodation for Edinburgh Napier University began on the south side of Fountainbridge opposite Fountain Park. Four concrete frame buildings contain 777 bedrooms in clusters of 6-8 bedrooms, each with a communal kitchen and dining area. Sean Connery grew up here, his former production company was known as Fountainbridge Films. He shut down the company after a series of disputes with a business partner. Bartholomew's Chronological map of Edinburgh
2005 United Kingdom general election
The 2005 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 5 May 2005, to elect 646 members to the House of Commons. The Labour Party led by Tony Blair won its third consecutive victory, with Blair becoming the only Labour leader beside Harold Wilson to form three majority governments. However, its majority now stood at 66 seats compared to the 160-seat majority it had held; as of 2019, it remains the last general election victory for the Labour Party. The Labour campaign emphasised a strong economy. Despite this, Labour retained its leads over the Conservatives in opinion polls on economic competence and leadership, Conservative leaders Iain Duncan Smith and Michael Howard struggled to capitalise on Blair's unpopularity, with the party trailing Labour in the polls throughout the 2001-5 Parliament; the Conservatives campaigned on policies, such as immigration limits, improving poorly-managed hospitals and reducing high crime rates, all under the slogan "Are you thinking what we're thinking?".
The Liberal Democrats, led by Charles Kennedy, were opposed to the Iraq War, given that there had been no second UN resolution, collected votes from disenchanted Labour voters. Tony Blair was returned as Prime Minister, with Labour having 355 MPs, but with a popular vote of 35.2%. In terms of votes, it was only narrowly ahead of the Conservatives, but still had a comfortable lead in terms of seats; the Conservatives returned 198 MPs, with 32 more seats than they had won at the previous general election, won the popular vote in England, while still ending up with 91 fewer MPs in England than Labour. The Liberal Democrats saw their popular vote increase by 3.7% and won the most seats of any third party since 1923, with 62 MPs. Anti-war activist and former Labour MP George Galloway was elected as the MP for Bethnal Green and Bow under the Respect – The Unity Coalition banner. In Northern Ireland, the Ulster Unionist Party, the more moderate of the main unionist parties, which had dominated Northern Irish politics since the 1920s, was reduced from six MPs to one, with party leader David Trimble himself being unseated.
The more hardline Democratic Unionist Party became the largest Northern Irish party, with nine MPs elected. Following the election, Conservative leader Michael Howard resigned and was succeeded by future Prime Minister David Cameron. Blair resigned as both Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party in June 2007, was replaced by then-Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown; the election results were broadcast live on the BBC, presented by Peter Snow, David Dimbleby, Jeremy Paxman and Andrew Marr. The governing Labour Party, led by Tony Blair, was looking to secure a third consecutive term in office and to retain a large majority; the Conservative Party was seeking to regain seats lost to both Labour and the Liberal Democrats since the 1992 general election, move from being the Official Opposition into government. The Liberal Democrats hoped to make gains from both main parties, but the Conservative Party, with a "decapitation" strategy targeting members of the Shadow Cabinet; the Lib Dems had wished to become the governing party, or to make enough gains to become the Official Opposition.
In Northern Ireland the Democratic Unionist Party sought to make further gains from the Ulster Unionist Party in unionist politics, Sinn Féin hoped to overtake the Social Democratic and Labour Party in nationalist politics.. The pro-independence Scottish National Party and Plaid Cymru stood candidates in every constituency in Scotland and Wales respectively. Many seats were contested by other parties, including several parties without incumbents in the House of Commons. Parties that were not represented at Westminster, but had seats in the devolved assemblies and/or the European Parliament, included the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland, the UK Independence Party, the Green Party of England and Wales, the Scottish Green Party, the Scottish Socialist Party; the Health Concern party stood again. A full list of parties which declared their intention to run can be found on the list of parties contesting the 2005 general election. All parties campaigned using such tools as party manifestos, party political broadcasts and touring the country in what are referred to as battle buses.
Local elections in parts of England and in Northern Ireland were held on the same day. The polls were open for fifteen hours, from 07:00 to 22:00 BST; the election came just over three weeks after the dissolution of Parliament on 11 April by Queen Elizabeth II, at the request of the Prime Minister, Tony Blair. Following the death of Pope John Paul II on 2 April, it was announced that the calling of the election would be delayed until 5 April. Thanks to eight years of sustained economic growth Labour could point to a strong economy, with greater investment in public services such as education and health; this was overshadowed, however, by the issue of the controversial 2003 invasion of Iraq, which met widespread public criticism at the time, would dog Blair throughout the campaign. The Chancellor, G