Moray House School of Education
The Moray House School of Education is a school within the College of Humanities and Social Science at the University of Edinburgh. It is based in historic buildings on the Holyrood Campus, located between the Canongate and Holyrood Road; the school offers programmes at all levels of higher education, including teacher training, Community Education, Digital Education, Physical Education and Sports science. It is a centre for educational research; the school has existed in one form or another since the mid-19th century, joining the University of Edinburgh in 1998. The institution known as Moray House was opened as a normal school following the Disruption of 1843. Known as The Free Church of Scotland’s Normal and Sessional School, it was located in Whitefield Chapel, in rooms below the Music Room in Rose Street. In 1848, the school moved to its current location in the Canongate. In 1907, this institution merged with its Church of Scotland equivalent, the Edinburgh Provincial Training Centre was formed.
The new teaching building opened at Moray House in 1931. Moray House College of Education was formed in 1959. In the early 1980s, Callendar Park College of Education, in Falkirk, was merged with Moray House. In 1987, Moray House merged with the Dunfermline College of Physical Education based at Cramond, continued to exist on two separate campuses until 2001. In 1991, the institute was linked with Edinburgh. On 1 August 1998, Moray House Institute of Education merged with the University of Edinburgh becoming its Faculty of Education. Following internal restructuring of the University of Edinburgh in 2002, Moray House is now known as the Moray House School of Education, it is subdivided into three Institutes: Institute for Education and Leadership Institute for Sport, Physical Education and Health Sciences Institute for Education and Society The buildings of Moray House are located on the Holyrood campus adjacent to the Canongate in Edinburgh. During the nineteenth century, part of the original open area to the west of St John's Street and north of the South Back was occupied by breweries.
These made use of the high quality water from the wells in this part of the Canongate. In response to the shortage of teachers in Scotland in the late 1950s and early 1960s, Moray House looked to the possibility of building additional teaching facilities close to the existing estate at Holyrood. In 1961 Moray House purchased the property of the Aitchison Brewery; this included buildings at the ends of Playhouse and Old Playhouse Closes as well offices, a tenement and Maltings. The price paid was £50,000. In the 1970s, three specialist teaching buildings were built from designs by architects Gordon and Dey, they were Chessel's Land and St Mary's Land. The design of these buildings was representative of 1960s modernist architecture and somewhat out of sympathy with the surrounding areas of the Old Town; the bulk of the buildings wereon land occupied by the Edinburgh and Leith Brewery and before that by the Old Edinburgh Playhouse. Chessel's Land was one of three buildings designed by architects Graham and Dey and constructed in the early 1970s.
It was demolished in 2013 to make way for student accommodation. Chessel's Land was designed as a specialist centre for the training of teachers in the Visual Arts, including painting, textiles, sculpture and jewellery. Inside the building were sixteen large studios and a large Exhibition Hall, available for both student and external use. In the original plan for the site the raised patio in front of Chessel's Land was planned to connect with a proposed Library and a Theatre fronting onto Holyrood Road; these buildings in turn were to be connected with the St Leonard's Land building on the opposite side Holyrood Road. In the event these plans were ruled out by the SED in 1978; the Theatre was never built and a new Library was developed in Dalhousie Land. Chessel's Land takes its name from Archibald Chessel, a successful wright to trade and stalwart member of the Tron Kirk who lived in the eighteenth century, he built the nearby Chessel's Court between 1745 and 1748. These were much admired mansion flats built to accommodate persons of standing.
They remain as private flats. In 1993 Chessel's Land became the base for the Aesthetic Studies Department, when Drama studios were added. In 1996 Music was transferred from Old Moray House. With St Mary's Land, Chessel's Land was demolished in 2013 in preparation for construction of new student accommodation. Charteris Land is home to Moray House's departments of Educational Studies and part of the department of Curriculum Research & Development. In 1964, draft plans for a ten-storey teaching block were drawn up by the architects, Gordon & Dey, to be built adjacent to the west side of St John Street. However, the Royal Fine Art Commission raised an objection to the planned height of the building; the building of the agreed six storeys wasn't started until December 1966. Subsequent delays arising from industrial disputes meant the facility wasn't handed over until February 1969. Following advice from the Edinburgh City Archivist this teaching block was named Charteris Land; the front of Charteris Land boasts a sculptured wall, which were commissioned from David Miller, a membe
University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university has five main campuses in the city of Edinburgh, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university; the university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the North. The University of Edinburgh is ranked 18th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, it is ranked as the 6th best university in Europe by the U. S. News' Best Global Universities Ranking, 7th best in Europe by the Times Higher Education Ranking; the Research Excellence Framework, a research ranking used by the UK government to determine future research funding, ranked Edinburgh 4th in the UK for research power, 11th overall. It is ranked the 78th most employable university in the world by the 2017 Global Employability University Ranking.
It is a member of both the Russell Group, the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe. It has the third largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and Oxford; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £949.0 million of which £279.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £931.3 million. Alumni of the university include some of the major figures of modern history, including 3 signatories of the American declaration of independence and 9 heads of state; as of March 2019, Edinburgh's alumni, faculty members and researches include 19 Nobel laureates, 3 Turing Award laureates, 1 Fields Medalist, 1 Abel Prize winner, 2 Pulitzer Prize winners, 2 currently-sitting UK Supreme Court Justices, several Olympic gold medallists. It continues to have links to the British Royal Family, having had the Duke of Edinburgh as its Chancellor from 1953 to 2010 and Princess Anne since 2011.
Edinburgh receives 60,000 applications every year, making it the second most popular university in the UK by volume of applications. It has 4th highest average UCAS entry tariff in Scotland, 5th overall in the UK. Founded by the Edinburgh Town Council, the university began life as a college of law using part of a legacy left by a graduate of the University of St Andrews, Bishop Robert Reid of St Magnus Cathedral, Orkney. Through efforts by the Town Council and Ministers of the City the institution broadened in scope and became formally established as a college by a Royal Charter, granted by King James VI of Scotland on 14 April 1582 after the petitioning of the Council; this was unprecedented in newly Presbyterian Scotland, as older universities in Scotland had been established through Papal bulls. Established as the "Tounis College", it opened its doors to students in October 1583. Instruction began under the charge of another St Andrews graduate Robert Rollock, it was the fourth Scottish university in a period when the richer and much more populous England had only two.
It was renamed King James's College in 1617. By the 18th century, the university was a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment. In 1762, Reverend Hugh Blair was appointed by King George III as the first Regius Professor of Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres; this formalised literature as a subject at the university and the foundation of the English Literature department, making Edinburgh the oldest centre of literary education in Britain. Before the building of Old College to plans by Robert Adam implemented after the Napoleonic Wars by the architect William Henry Playfair, the University of Edinburgh existed in a hotchpotch of buildings from its establishment until the early 19th century; the university's first custom-built building was the Old College, now Edinburgh Law School, situated on South Bridge. Its first forte in teaching was anatomy and the developing science of surgery, from which it expanded into many other subjects. From the basement of a nearby house ran the anatomy tunnel corridor.
It went under what was North College Street, under the university buildings until it reached the university's anatomy lecture theatre, delivering bodies for dissection. It was from this tunnel. Towards the end of the 19th century, Old College was becoming overcrowded and Sir Robert Rowand Anderson was commissioned to design new Medical School premises in 1875; the design incorporated a Graduation Hall, but this was seen as too ambitious. A separate building was constructed for the purpose, the McEwan Hall designed by Anderson, after funds were donated by the brewer and politician Sir William McEwan in 1894, it was presented to the University in 1897. New College was opened in 1846 as a Free Church of Scotland college of the United Free Church of Scotland. Since the 1930s it has been the home of the School of Divinity. Prior to the 1929 reunion of the Church of Scotland, candidates for the ministry in the United Free Church studied at New College, whilst candidates for the old Church of Scotland studied in the Divinity Faculty of the University of Edinburgh.
During the 1930s the two institutions came together. By the end of the 1950s, there were around 7,000 students matriculating annually. An Edinburgh Students' Representative Council was founded in 1884 by student Robert Fitzroy Bell. In 1889, the SRC voted to be housed in Teviot Row House; the Edinburgh University Sports Union, founded in 1866. The Edinburgh
Edinburgh Law School
Edinburgh Law School, founded in 1707, is a school within the University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom dedicated to research and teaching in law. It is located in the original site of the University. Two of the twelve sitting Supreme Court of the United Kingdom justices are graduates of Edinburgh. In 2014, the Research Excellence Framework commissioned by the UK government, ranked the University of Edinburgh 1st in Scotland and 4th in the UK; the 2019 league table rankings from The Guardian placed Edinburgh at twenty-fifth in the UK. The 2019 Complete University Guide league rankings placed Edinburgh at 10th in the UK; the 2018 The Times league rankings placed Edinburgh at 11th in the UK. In 1707, the year of the unification of the Kingdoms of Scotland and England into the Kingdom of Great Britain, Queen Anne established the Chair of Public Law and the Law of Nature and Nations in the University of Edinburgh, to which Charles Erskine was appointed. By 1722 the University had four Professors of Law, classes—in Civil Law, Scots Law and History—were given in their respective homes or offices.
Numbers grew with the expansion of the legal profession in the 19th century, by 1830 there were over 200 students attending the Scots Law class alone. Scholarship amongst the academics at Edinburgh continued to grow in reputation, with the work of Muirhead and Rankine achieving international renown; the Faculty of Law had moved to Old College, built in 1789, in 1862 the new degree of LL. B. was introduced, following the Universities Act 1858. The degree was only open to graduates those who had studied for the M. A. at a Scottish University or the B. A. at Oxford or Cambridge. Students of the LL. B. had to attend courses and be examined in Civil Law, Public law, Constitutional law and History, Medical Jurisprudence. In 1909 Eveline MacLaren and Josephine Gordon Stuart became Scotland's first two female law graduates when they each obtained an LL. B degree from Edinburgh. By 1966, the LL. B. had become a full-time undergraduate course, although many would continue to study for an Arts degree beforehand.
In 1981, Edinburgh first offered the Diploma in Legal Practice, for LL. B. Students wishing to enter the legal profession. Today, the School of Law is associated both with traditional Scots law and with innovation across a wide range of subjects; the School retains a reputation for scholarship in topics such as Roman Law but is known as a centre for research in topics such as European law, commercial law, intellectual property and information technology law, labour law, European private law, medical law and ethics, international law, comparative law, human rights law. In 2007 the School celebrated its Tercentenary year, marked by a series of events and of lectures by world-renowned legal experts. Throughout its history the School of Law has accommodated some of the leading legal scholars in Europe. James Muirhead's work on Roman Law garnered international praise, Professor Erskine's Principles became a standard text in Scots Law, as did those of Professor George Joseph Bell. In the 20th-century, the eminent legal theorist Professor Sir Neil MacCormick wrote his seminal texts on legal philosophy as Regius Professor at Edinburgh.
Current members of Edinburgh Law School include current Regius Professor Neil Walker. Students of the School of Law are represented by the Law Students' Council; the University of Edinburgh Law Society, known as LawSoc, provides a programme of social events. In addition, there is a Postgraduate Students' Research Committee for doctoral level students, as well as a Graduate Law Students' Society; the University Mooting Society is active, with two internal competitions and several external competitions running during each academic session, giving students the opportunity to develop the skills of oral legal argument. For graduate-level students there are a number of subject-specific discussion groups which meet on a regular basis. Since 2008, the students have published the Edinburgh Student Law Review; the Centre for Law and Society The Centre for Legal History "SCRIPT" The Edinburgh Centre for Private Law The Europa Institute The Scottish Centre for International Law The Joseph Bell Centre for Forensic Statistics and Legal Reasoning, joint research collaboration with Glasgow Caledonian University The Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime The Centre for Commercial Law, Chaired by The Rt Hon. Lord Reed Notable alumni of Edinburgh Law School include: Douglas Alexander MP, former Secretary of State for International Development Michael Ancram QC, Marquess of Lothian, former MP and Chairman of the Conservative Party Henry Brougham, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, co-founder of the University College London Joanna Cherry, current Scottish National Party MP for Edinburgh South-West James Clyde, Baron Clyde, Lord of Appeal in Ordinary George Combe, founder of the Edinburgh Phrenological Society William Cullen, Baron Culle
Lecturer is an academic rank within many universities, though the meaning of the term varies somewhat from country to country. It denotes an academic expert, hired to teach on a full- or part-time basis, they may conduct research. In the UK, the term lecturer covers several academic ranks; the key distinction is between temporary/fixed-term lectureships. A permanent lecturer in UK universities holds an open-ended position that covers teaching and administrative responsibilities. Permanent lectureships are tenure-track or tenured positions that are equivalent to an assistant or associate professorship in North America. After a number of years, a lecturer may be promoted based on his or her research record to become a senior lecturer; this position is below professor. Research lecturers are the equivalent in rank of lecturers and senior lecturers, but reflect a research-intensive orientation. Research lecturers are common in fields such as medicine and biological and physical sciences. In contrast, fixed-term or temporary lecturers are appointed for specific short-term teaching needs.
These positions are non-renewable and are common post-doctoral appointments. In North American terms, a fixed-term lecturer can hold an equivalent rank to assistant professor without tenure. Longer contracts denote greater seniority or higher rank. Teaching fellows may sometimes be referred to as lecturers—for example, Exeter named some of that group as education and scholarship lecturers to recognise the contribution of teaching, elevate the titles of teaching fellows to lecturers; some universities refer to graduate students or others, who undertake ad-hoc teaching for a department sessional lecturers. Like adjunct professors and sessional lecturers in North America, these non-permanent teaching staff are very poorly paid; these varying uses of the term lecturer cause confusion for non-UK academics. As a proportion of UK academic staff, the proportion of permanent lectureships has fallen considerably; this is one reason why permanent lectureships are secured only after several years of post-doctoral experience.
Data from the Higher Education Statistics Agency show that in 2013-14, 36 per cent of full- and part-time academic staff were on fixed-term contracts, down from 45 per cent a decade earlier. Over the same period, the proportion of academic staff on permanent contracts rose from 55 per cent to 64 per cent. Others were on contracts classed as “atypical”.' In the UK, promotion to a senior lectureship reflected prowess in teaching or administration rather than research, the position was much less to lead direct to promotion to professor. In contrast, promotion to senior lecturer nowadays is based on research achievements, is an integral part of the promotion path to a full chair. Promotion to reader is sometimes still necessary before promotion to a full chair. Senior lecturers and readers are sometimes paid on the same salary scale, although readers are recognized as more senior. Readers in pre-1992 universities are considered at least the equivalent, in terms of status, of professors in post-1992 universities.
Many academics consider it more prestigious to have been a reader in a pre-1992 university than a professor in a post-1992 university. Many open-ended lecturers in the UK have a doctorate and have postdoctoral research experience. In all fields, a doctorate is a prerequisite, although this was not the case; some academic positions could have been held on the basis of research merit alone, without a higher degree. The new universities have a different ranking naming scheme from the older universities. Many pre-1992 universities use the grades: Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Professor. Meanwhile, post-1992 grades are normally: Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Principal Lecturer or Reader, Professor. Much confusion surrounds the differing use of the "Senior Lecturer" title. A Senior Lecturer in a post-1992 university is equivalent to a Lecturer in a pre-1992 university, whereas a Senior Lecturer in a pre-1992 university is most equivalent to a Principal Lecturer in a post-1992 university. According to the Times Higher Education, the University of Warwick decided in 2006 "to break away from hundreds of years of academic tradition, renaming lecturers'assistant professors', senior lecturers and readers'associate professors' while still calling professors'professors'.
The radical move will horrify those who believe the "professor" title should be reserved for an academic elite." Nottingham has a mixture of the standard UK system, the system at Warwick, with both lecturers and assistant professors. At Reading, job advertisements and academic staff web pages use the title associate professor, but the ordinances of the university make no reference to these titles, they address only procedures for conferring the traditional UK academic ranks. Since the Conservatives' 1988 Education Reform Act, the ironclad tenure that used to exist in the UK has given way to a less secure form of tenure. Technically, university vice-chancellors can make individual faculty members redundant for poor performance or institute departmental redundancies, but in practice, this is rare; the most noted use of this policy happened in 2012 at Queen Mary University of London where lecturer
Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine
The Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine is a stem cell research centre at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, dedicated to the study and development of new regenerative treatments for human diseases. The £54 million facility is part of a total £600 million joint investment in stem cell biology and medicine by the Scottish Government and the University of Edinburgh. Designed by Sheppard Robson, the SCRM is part of the BioQuarter cluster at Little France; the 9000 m2 building, which can house up to 250 scientists, is home to biologists and clinical academics from the MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, applied scientists working with the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service and Roslin Cells. It contains laboratory and support space, a company incubator unit, a clinical translation unit which enables the production of cells at Good Manufacturing Practice grade. Conditions being researched at the SCRM include heart and liver disease; the Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine was opened by the Princess Royal on 28 May 2012.
On 25 August 2014, the centre grew a thymus, from scratch inside an animal. Edinburgh Science Triangle Scottish Enterprise Translational research SCRM Homepage
An imprimatur is, in the proper sense, a declaration authorizing publication of a book. The term is applied loosely to any mark of approval or endorsement. In the Catholic Church an imprimatur is an official declaration by a Church authority that a book or other printed work may be published. Approval is given in accordance with canons 822 to 832 of the Code of Canon Law, which do not require the use of the word "imprimatur"; the grant of imprimatur is preceded by a favourable declaration by a person who has the knowledge and prudence necessary for passing a judgement about the absence from the publication of anything that would "harm correct faith or good morals." In canon law such a person is known sometimes as a censor librorum. In this context, the word "censor" does not have the negative sense of prohibiting, but instead refers to the person's function of evaluating—whether positively or negatively—the doctrinal content of the publication; the episcopal conference may draw up a list of persons who can suitably act as censors or can set up a commission that can be consulted, but each ordinary may make his own choice of person to act as censor.
An imprimatur is not an endorsement by the bishop of the contents of a book, not of the religious opinions expressed in it, being a declaration about what is not in the book. In the published work, the imprimatur is sometimes accompanied by a declaration of the following tenor: The nihil obstat and imprimatur are declarations that a book or pamphlet is free of doctrinal or moral error. No implication is contained therein that those who have granted the nihil obstat or imprimatur agree with the contents, opinions or statements expressed; the person empowered to issue the imprimatur is the local ordinary of the author or of the place of publication. If he refuses to grant an imprimatur for a work that has received a favourable nihil obstat from the censor, he must inform the author of his reasons for doing so; this enables the author, if he wishes, to make changes so as to overcome the ordinary's difficulty in granting approval. If further examination shows that a work is not free of doctrinal or moral error, the imprimatur granted for its publication can be withdrawn.
This happened three times in the 1980s, when the Holy See judged that complaints made to it about religion textbooks for schools were well founded and ordered the bishop to revoke his approval. The imprimatur granted for a publication is not valid for editions of the same work or for translations into another language. For these, new imprimaturs are required; the permission of the local ordinary is required for the publication of prayer books and other catechetical texts and for school textbooks on Scripture, canon law, church history, or religious or moral subjects. It is recommended, but without obligation, that books on the last-mentioned subjects not intended to be used as school textbooks and all books dealing with religious or moral subjects be submitted to the local ordinary for judgement; the imprimatur dates from the dawn of printing, is first seen in the printing and publishing centres of Germany and Venice. In 2011, Bishop Kevin C. Rhoades was the first bishop to grant an imprimatur to an iPhone application.
English laws of 1586, 1637, 1662 required an official licence for printing books. The 1662 act required books, according to their subject, to receive the authorization, known as the imprimatur, of the Lord Chancellor, the Earl Marshall, a principal Secretary of State, the Archbishop of Canterbury, or the Bishop of London; this law expired in 1695. In commercial printing the term is used, in line with the meaning of the Latin word, for final approval by a customer or his agent after review of a test printing, for carrying out the printing job; as a metaphor, the word "imprimatur" is used loosely of any form of approval or endorsement by an official body or a person of importance, as in the newspaper headline, "Protection of sources now has courts' imprimatur", but much more vaguely, incorrectly, as in "Children, the final imprimatur to family life, are being borrowed, created by artificial insemination." Haskama, approval, הַסְכָּמָה is a rabbinic approval of a religious book concerning Judaism.
It is written by a prominent rabbi in his own name, not in the name of a religious organization or hierarchy. It is in the form of a letter on stationery, includes not only "approbation, recommendation, or endorsement" of the work, but a blessing for the success of the author in this and other accomplishments; as a result, at times a Haskama given to the author is printed, verbatim, in works from the same authorAn additional value for haskama letters, long ago, was to serve as a form of copyright, to protect the author or the printer from any unauthorized reproduction. Digital imprimatur is a hypothetical system of internet censorship. Imprimatur is the name of a 2002 thriller novel by Rita Monaldi and Francesco Sorti, with the castrato singer Atto Melani as a central character. In painting, the distinct term "imprimatura" is use of an underlying coat of paint. In the Doctor Who Doctor Who Virgin New Adventures book series, the Rassilonian Imprimatur is the equivalent of a university degree, given to Time Lords upon the conclusion of their education.
The pound sterling known as the pound and less referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have currencies called the pound. Sterling is the third most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those two currencies and the Chinese yuan, it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights. Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves; the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man produce their own local issues of sterling which are considered equivalent to UK sterling in their respective regions. The pound sterling is used in Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England. The full official name pound sterling, is used in formal contexts and when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is used; the currency name is sometimes abbreviated to just sterling in the wholesale financial markets, but not when referring to specific amounts. The abbreviations "ster." and "stg." are sometimes used. The term "British pound" is sometimes incorrectly used in less formal contexts, it is not an official name of the currency; the exchange rate of the pound sterling against the US dollar is referred to as "cable" in the wholesale foreign exchange markets. The origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the GBP/USD exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex traders of GBP/USD are sometimes referred to as "cable dealers". GBP/USD is now the only currency pair with its own name in the foreign exchange markets, after IEP/USD, known as "wire" in the forward FX markets, no longer exists after the Irish Pound was replaced by the euro in 1999.
There is apparent convergence of opinion regarding the origin of the term "pound sterling", toward its derivation from the name of a small Norman silver coin, away from its association with Easterlings or other etymologies. Hence, the Oxford English Dictionary state that the "most plausible" etymology is derivation from the Old English steorra for "star" with the added diminutive suffix "-ling", to mean "little star" and to refer to a silver penny of the English Normans; as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived: However, the perceived narrow window of the issuance of this coin, the fact that coin designs changed in the period in question, led Philip Grierson to reject this in favour of a more complex theory. Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings".
In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle. Because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the "Easterlings", contracted to "'sterling". For further discussion of the etymology of "sterling", see sterling silver; the currency sign for the pound is £, written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. This symbol derives from medieval Latin documents; the ISO 4217 currency code is GBP, formed from "GB", the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the United Kingdom, the first letter of "pound". It does not stand for "Great Britain Pound" or "Great British Pound"; the abbreviation "UKP" is used but this is non-standard because the ISO 3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes: GGP, JEP and IMP. Stocks are traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices.
A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, singular and plural, except in the common phrase "quids in!". The term may have come via Italian immigrants from "scudo", the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.